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Glossary of GYN CHAPTER 1

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IN ADULTS, THE PELVIC SKELETON IS COMPOSED OF WHAT?
1.) THE SACRUM AND COCCYX-FORM THE POSTERIOR WALL.
2.) 2 INNOMINATE BONES(OS COXAL)- FORM ANTERIOR AND LATERAL WALLS.

*THE INNOMINATE BONES CONSIST OF THE FUSED ILIUM, ISCHIUM AND PUBIS.


WHAT ARE THE 3 MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF THE FEMALE PELVIS?
1.) PROVIDE A WEIGHT BEARING BRIDGE BTWN THE SPINAL COLUMN AND THE BONES OF THE LOWER EXTREMITIES.
2.) DIRECTS A PATHWAY OF THE FETAL HEAD DURING CHILDBIRTH.
3.) PROTECTS THE ORGANS OF REPRODUCTION.

WHAT DIVIDES THE PELVIC CAVITY INTO 2 REGIONS?
THE LINEA TERMINALIS.

*IT IS AND IMAGINARY LINE EXTENDING FROM SACRAL PROMONTORY TO THE SYMPHYSIS PUBIS.

WHAT 2 REGIONA ARE IS THE PELVIS DIVIDED INTO?
1.) FALSE PELVIS AKA GREATER PELVIS

2.) TRUE PELVIS AKA LESSER PELVIS

WHERE IS THE FALSE PELVIS LOCATED AND WHAT ARE ITS BOUNDARIES?
ITS LOCATED ABOVE THE LINEA TERMINALIS.

IT'S BOUNDARIES ARE THE
1.) ABD WALL,
2.) BASE OF THE SACRUM AND
3.) ILIAC WINGS




WHERE IS THE TRUE PELIS LOCATED AND WHAT ARE ITS BOUNDARIES?
ITS LOCATED BELOW THE LINEA TERMINALIS.

IT'S BOUNDARIES ARE THE
1.)PUBIS
2.)PUBIC RAMI
3.)SACRUM
4.)COCCYX
5.)ILIUM
6.)ISCHIUM AND
7.)PELVIC DIAPHRAGM

*IN NON GRAVID PATIENTS W/O PELVIC MASSES THE UTERUS, OVARIES, AND ADNEXA ARE IN THE TRUE PELVIS.










WHAT ARE T5HE PELVIC LIGAMENTS CLASSIFIED AS?
1.)OSSEOUS- THOSE WHICH CONNECT THE PELVIC BONES TOGETHER &

2.)SUSPENSORY- THOSE WHICH SUPPORT THE UTERUS AND OVARIES.

NAME 4 OSSEOUS LIGAMENTS:
1.)SACROILIAC LIGAMENT
2.)SACROSCIATIC LIGAMENT
3.)SACROCOCCYGEAL LIGAMENT
4.)PUBIC LIGAMENT


WHAT DOES THE SACROILIAC LIGAMENT BIND?
IT BINDS THE SACRUM AND ILIAC BONES
WHAT DOES THE SACROCOCCYGEAL LIGAMENT BIND?
IT BINDS THE SACRUM AND THE COCCYX.
WHAT DOES THE SACROSCIATIC LIGAMENT BIND?
IT BINDS THE 1.) SACRUM, 2.) ILIAC, & 3.) THE COCCYX.
WHAT DOES THE PUBIC LIGAMENT BIND?
IT BINDS THE 2 PUBIC RAMI.
WHAT ARE THE 7 SUSPENSORY(SUPPORT) LIGAMENTS?
CBSROMI
1.)CARDINAL LIG.(LATERAL CERVICAL)
2.)BROAD LIG.
3.)SACROUTERINE LIG.
4.)ROUND LIG.
5.)OVARIAN LIG.
6.)MESOVARIUM LIG.
7.)INFUNDIBULOPELVIC LIG.






DESCRIBE THE FUNCTION OF THE CARDINAL(LATERAL CERVICAL) LIGAMENT.
ARISES SUPERIORLY AND LATERALLY FROM THE UTERUS & INFERIORLY FROM THE VAGINA TO PROVIDE SUPPORT FOR THE UTERUS.
DESCRIBE THE BROAD LIGAMENTS FUNCTION:
EXTEND FROM THE LATERAL ASPECTS OF THE UTERUS & ATTACH TO THE LATERAL PELVIC SIDE WALL.
DESCRIBE THE FUNCTION OF THE SACRO-UTERINE LIGAMENT:
EXTENDS POSTEROLATERALLY FROM THE SUPRAVAGINAL CERVIX, ENCIRCLES THE RECTUM AND INSERTS INTO THE FASCIA OVER THE SACRUM.
DESCRIBE THE FUNCTION OF THE ROUND LIGAMENT:
ARE SITUATED ANTERIOR & INFERIOR TO THE BROAD LIGAMENTS & FALLOPIAN & ATTACH THE UTERINE CORNU TO THE ANTERIOR PELVIC WALL.
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE OVARIAN LIGAMENT?
ATTACH THE INFERIOR OVARY TO THE UTERINE CORNU, POSTERIOR TO THE FALLOPIAN TUBE ON EACH SIDE.
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE MESOVARIUM LIGAMENT?
ATTACH THE OVARY TO THE POSTERIOR LAYER OF THE BROAD LIGAMENT ON EACH SIDE.
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE INFUNDIBULOPELVIC(SUSPESORY) LIGAMENT?
ATTACH THE LATERAL OVERY TO POSTEROLATERAL PELVIC WALL & TRANSMIT THE OVARIAN VESSELS & NERVES.
NAME THE 8 PELVIC MUSCLES:
1.)RECTUS ABDOMINUS M.
2.)PSOAS MAJOR M.
3.)ILIACUS M.
4.)OBTURATOR INTERNIS M.
5.)PIRIFORMIS M.
6.)PELVIC DIAPHRAGM M.
7.)COCCYGEUS M.
8.)LEVATOR ANI M. GROUP-
1.)ILIOCOCCYGEOUS M.,
2.)PUBOCOCCYGEUS M.,
3.)PUBORECTALIS M.









DESCRIBE THE FUNCTION OF THE RECTUS ABDOMINUS MUSCLE:
FORMS MUCH OF THE ANTERIOR BODY WALL & EXTENDS FROM XIPHOID TO PUBIC SYMPHYSIS.

**ALSO RESPONSIBLE FOR THE REFRACTION/"GHOSTING" ARTIFACT OCCASIONALLY SEEN WHILE IMAGING THE MIDLINE PELVIS IN A TRANS PLANE.

DESCRIBE THE FUNSTION OF THE PSOAS MAJOR MUSCLE:
ORIGINATES FROM THE LOWER THORACIC & LUMBAR VERTEBRE & COURSES LATERALLY AND ANTERIORLY THROUGH ABD, BELOW THE LEVEL OF THE ILIAC CREST. ETC...
DESCRIBE THE URINARY BLADDER:
IT IS A HOLLOW MUSCULO-MEMBREANOUS ORGAN LOCATED BTWN THE SYMPASIS PUBIS AND THE VAGINA.
WHERE DO THE URETERS INSERT?
@ THE INFERIOR POSTERIOR PORTION OF THE BLADDER.
WHAT IS THE SUPERIOR CONCAVITY OF THE BLADDER CALLED?
THE DOME
WHAT ARE THE 3 LAYERS OF TISSUE THAT THE BLADDER WALL IS COMPOSED OF?
1.)OUTTER EPITHELIAL LAYER
2.)THE MIDDLE MUSCULAR LAYER
3.)THE INNER MUCOSAL LAYER

THE EMPTY BLADDER HAS MUCOSAL FOLDS KNOWN AS?
RUGAE
THE URETHRA WHICH ALLOWS FOR EXCREATION OF URINE ARISES FROM?
THE INFERIOR MIDDLE PORTION OF THE BLADDER.
AT THE URETHRA'S POINT OF EXIT, IT IS SURROUNDED BY A THICKENED REGION OF BLADDER WALL REFERRED TO AS THE?
INTERNAL URETHRAL SPHINCTER
ABOUT HOW LONG IS THE VAGINAL CANAL?
7-10CM
THE VAGINA IS A CANAL OF SMOOTH MUSCLE EXTENDING FROM THE?
EXTERNAL VAGINAL INTROITUS TO THE UTERINE CERVIX
THE UPPER PORTION OF THE VAGINA SURROUNDS THE CERVIX CREATING GUTTERS KNOWN AS?
THE VAGINAL FORNICES
NAME THE VAGINAL FORNICIES.
1.)ANTERIOR FORNIX
2.)POSTERIOR FORNIX
3.)2 LATERAL FORNICES

DESCRIBE THE UTERUS
IT IS A PEAR SHAPED HOLLOW ORGAN LOCATED BTWN THE BLADDER AND RECTUM.
DESCRIBE AND NAME THE PORTIONS OF THE UTERUS.
1.)FUNDUS(DOME)-UPPER EXPANDED PORTION BTWN THE FALLOPIAN TUBES.
2.)BODY(CORPUS)-MAIN PORTION OF THE UTERUS.
3.)ISTHMUS-AREA BTWN THE BODY AND CERVIX. IT'S THE MOST FLEXIBLE PORTION OF UTERUS.
4.)CERVIX-CYLINDRICAL PROJECTIN INTO VAGINA ACTS AS A SPHINCTER DURING PREGNANCY.


WHAT ARE THE LAYERS OF THE UTERUS?
1.)PERIMETRIUM
2.)MYOMETRIUM
3.)ENDOMETRIUM

WHAT IS THE PERIMETRIUM?
IT IS THE OUTER SEROSAL LAYER WHICH IS PART OF THE VISCERAL PERITONEUM.
WHAT IS THE MYOMETRIUM?
THE MIDDLE MUSCULAR LAYER WHICH IS COMPOSED OF 3 LAYERS OF SMOOTH MUSCLE WHICH CONTRACT DURING PARTURITION.
WHAT IS THE ENDOMETRIUM?
THE INNER MUCOUS LAYER WHICH CONSISTS OF THE SUPERFICIAL FUNCTIONAL LAYER & DEPPER PERMANENT BASAL LAYER.

*THICKNESS OF EACH SIDE VARIES FROM 1MM IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWING MENSUS UP TO 8MM JUST PRIOR TO THE BEGINNIG OF MENSUS.

NAME THE 4 UTERINE POSITIONAL VARIATIONS:
1.)ANTEVERSION
2.)RETROVERSION
WHAT IS ANTEVERSION?
FORWARD PLACEMENT OF THE UTERUS @ THE CERVIX FORMING A 90 DEGREE ANGLE WITH THE VAGINA.
WHAT IS RETROFLEXION?
TILTING BACKWARD OF THE UTERUS @ THE CERVIX ORIENTED MORE LINEARLY IN REALTIONSHIP WITH THE VAGINA.
WHAT IS ANTEFLEXION?
BENDING FORWARD OF THE UTERUS @ THE BODY.

THE OVARIES ARE SOLID PAIRED ORGANS OVOID IN SHAPE AND SUSPENDED WITHIN THE?
PELVIC PERITONEAL SAC, POSTERIOR TO THE BROAD LIGAMENT.

OVARIAN LOCATION IS VARIABLE.

THE OVARIAN PARYNCHYMA IS DIVIDED INTO AN OUTER FUNCTINAL LAYER CALLED:
THE CORTEX. IT CONSTITUTES A BULK OF THE OVARIAN SUBSTANCE & CONTAINS A LARGE # OF PRIMORDIAL & DEVELOPING FOLLICLES & THE INNER MEDULLA.
WHAT IS THE INNER OVERY CALLED?
THE MEDULLA.

IT CONTAINS BLOOD VESSELS AND NERVES AND IS SITUATED ON THE SUSPENSORY LIGAMENT OF THE OVARY AND THE FIMBRIAE OF THE FALLOPIAN TUBE ATTACH TO THE SUPERIOR SURFACE OF EACH OVARY.

ABOUT WHAT SIZE SHOULD THE OVARIES BE PREMENOPAUSAL?
3.5X2.0X1.5CM
ABOUT WHAT SIZE SHOULD THE OVARIES BE POSTMENOPAUSAL?
2.0X1.0X0.5CM

BUT VARIES WITH #OF YRS SINCE MENOPAUSE.

WHAT IS THE EQUATION FOR OVARIAN VOLUME?
LENGTH X WIDTH X AP X 0.523
WHAT ARE FALLOPIAN TUBES (AKA OVIUCTS)?
PAIRED MUSCULOMEMBRANOUS TUBES EXTENDING LATERALLY FROM UTERINE CORNU.
ABOUT HOW LONG ARE FALLOPIAN TUBES?
7-14 CM IN LENGTH
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE FALLOPIAN TUBE?
TO TRANSPORT THE FERTILIZED OVUM TO UTERUS BY MEANS OF PERISTALTIC CONTRACTIONS.
NAME 5 REGIONS OF THE FALLOPIAN TUBE.
1.)INTERSTITIAL/INTRAMURAL
2.)ISTHMUS
3.)AMUPLLA
4.)INFUNDIBULUM


NAME THE 5 REGIONS OF THE FALLOPIAN TUBES:
1.)INTERMURAL/INTERSTITIAL
2.)ISTHMUS
3.)AMPULLA
4.)INFUNDIBULUM
5.)FIMBRIAE



DESCRIBE THE INTERSTITIAL/INTERMURAL REGION OF HE FALLOPIAN TUBE:
NARROW & RELATIVELY STRAIGHT; LOCATED WITHHING THE UTERINE WALL. (CORNU)
DESCRIBE THE ISTHMUS OF THE FALLOPIAN TUBE:
IT'S THE MEDIAL PORTION CLOSEST TO THE UTERUS.
DESCRIBE THE AMPULLA OF THE FALLOPIAN TUBE:
LONGEST PORTION; THIN WALLED; DISTENDABLE; NORMALLY SITE OF FERTILIZATION.
DESCRIBE THE INFUNDIBULUM OF THE FALLOPIAN TUBE:
OUTER TRUMPET SHAPED END.
DESCRIBE THE FEMBRAE OF THE FALLOPIAN TUBE:
NUMEROUS FINGER LIKE PRJECTIONS WHICH MAINTAIN A CLOSE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE TUBE AND OVARY.
NAME THE 3 PERITONEAL RECESSES:
1.)SPACE OF RETZIUS(AKA RETROPUBIC OR PREVESICAL) BETWEEN BLADDER AND PUBIC BONE.
2.)VESICOUTERINE SPACE (ANTERIOR CUL-DE-SAC)
3.)RECTOUTERINE SPACE(POSTERIOR CUL-DE-SAC)

THE POSTERIOR CUL-DE-SAC IS ALSO CALLED:
THE POUCH OF DOUGLAS
BLOOD SUPPLY TO THE PELVIC VISCERA IS PROVIDED BY?
THE MAJOR BRANCHES OF THE DISTAL ABDOMINAL AORTA.

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