Glossary of GSA Geophysics

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Created by engelbrekt

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Earthquake propagation speed
3-4 km/s
Temperature gradient in Earth
20-30 degree/km
Length of earthquake fault break
Active volcano: meters
Large quake: 100s kms
Boxing day 2004: 1300 km

Earthquake stress drops
1 to 10 MPa
Sumatra earthquake seismic moment
In 300-500 s period same as all in previous decade combined
Sumatra 2004
1300 km length
200 km width
5.1 m fault displacement

Mexico City 1985
10 000 dead
50 000 injured
250 000 homeless

New Zealand subduction
Southern part of slab subducting slowly, northern part rapidly so deeper earthquakes
1896 Sanriku Japan
Thrust: tsunami 38 m, 26 000 dead
Normal M8.6: Tsunami 23 m, 3100 dead
2011 Honshu Japan
Mainshock M 9.1
Two aftershocks M 7.9
Rodriguez TJ, Indian ocean
Owen Fracture Zone and Carlsberg Ridge, NW Indian Ocean
Rivera Plate near Gulf of CA
Off Japan
Eurasian, Pacific and Philippine Plates
Ryukyu, Japan and Izu-Ogasawara Trenches

Area of Fresnel Zone at MOHO
34 km2
Seismic reflection vertical resolution
Sediments: 20 m layers
Basement: 80 m layers
Seismic velocity water
1.5 km/s
Seismic velocity unconsolidated sediments
2.0 km/s
Seismic velocity mantle
8.0 km/s
Seismic velocity continental crust
6.5 km/s
Sedimentary rock reflection coefficient
MOHO definition
Seismic p-wave velocity above 7.6 km/s
Volcanic margin
Hatton Bank margin, west of Rockall, part of Tertiary Igneous Province from N Atlantic rifting
Non-volcanic margin
Goban Spur off northern France
Faroe Islands
Coal seams in lavas
Rockall continental margin
Extrusive lava flows forming seaward dipping reflectors
Deccan plateau basalts
65 Ma
Offshore volcanism along west Indian continental margin
Mascarene Basin fossil spreading center
Active ridge in Arabian Sea
Reunion Plume

120 Ma
Walvis hotspot
Rio Grande Rise and Walvis Ridge

Afar region flood basalts
Thermal anomaly with 1000 km radius
The Karoo flood basalts
170 Ma
Gondwana breakup in mid-Jurassic
Africa-Antarctica split

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