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Glossary of Funk Test 1

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effects of "Little Ice Age"
2 degree drop in worldwide temp.
lose crops -> starvation -> no energy to work.
disease kills livestock -> no wool, no food -> no occupation for weavers -> no merchants.

Hanseatic League
Northern Europe alliances among merchant guilds and trade cities
year Bubonic plague started
1347
How did the plague begin?
It is a disease among rats, fleas on rats caught the disease, black rats are burrowers and would get off of ships and find houses to burrow in, fleas would fall on the people and infect them
steps/symptoms of plague
1. swollen neck, armpit, groin. sweat. lose bodily fluids.
2. black dots move under skin.
3. death.

blamed for bubonic plague
Jews, vampires,witches
flagellants
went from town to town to whip themselves to make God happy, believed plague was a punishment from Him
How did the bubonic plague end?
thatched roofs were replaced because they were all burned down so it could not spread as easily, rat wars (gray rats from the forest attacked burrower black rats)
Why did the bubonic plague end feudalism?
killed off knights and priests, people began to question religion
approx. years of the Middle Ages
1000 - 1300
dates of the Hundred Years War
1337 - 1453 (lasted 116 years)
Salic Law
in France, no female or her issue can inherit the throne
cause of the Hundred Years War
Edward II is the ruler of England, marries Princess Isabella. Isabella is the daughter of the French king, Charles IV. Charles dies and leaves no issue. Isabella wants her son Edward III to rule, but Philip VI was the closest living relative eligible. war.
How did the war effect the economy?
wool trade suffered, which is very critical to the economy
Battle of Crecy
battle in the 100 Years War, first time longbow was used, gave England a huge advantage
Agincourt
Henry V marries French king's daugher
Why was Joan of Arc found guilty?
Found guilty of heresy and being a witch because she heard voices, dressed as a man undisguised, and fought and was successful.
impact of 100 Years War
ended Middle Ages, made knights unimportant, rise in nationalism, longbow and cannons, French land destroyed, wool
Babylonian captivity
King Philip IV of France does not want to pay Pope Clement V taxes, convinces him to go on "vacation" and builds him a palace in Avignon. He is there for 67 years. moves papacy to France. Roman economy suffers as a result.
Great Schism
Romans elect Italian Pope Gregory XI as retaliation for Babylonian captivity. He and Clement VII are both the Pope. People are upset because they are paying for Popes' extravagant lifestyles.
Concillian
council created to settle the Great Schism. John Wycliff and Jan Hus. 3rd Pope is elected from Pisa.
Council of Constance
bribes the 3 Popes to step down and elects Martin V
effects of Great Schism
takes power out of the Church and makes it look silly, hurts economics
Jacqueri
peasant revolts in France, nobels kill them
Richard II
king of England during peasant revolts, gathers them all together and kills them off
guild
group of people w/ same profession (artists, blacksmiths, weavers)
prostitution
occupation, legal, accepted, regulated by government, parents sold children into it, better for unmarried men than rape
The Divine Comedy
Dante Alighieri. comedy = written in Italian (vernacular). Follow's a soul's trip between heaven, hell, and purgatory. Link between Middle Ages and Renaissance.
Canterbury Tales
Geoffery Chaucer. collection of short stories, mix between Renaissance and Middle Ages. Middle Ages - religious pilgrimage. Renaissance - bawdy, English (vernacular), makes fun of church/society
John Wycliff
believed bible should be in English so everyone can read it and Pope can't make things up
Renaissance dates
approx. 1330-1550
why did the Renaissance start in Italy?
ancient writings/architecture, lots of money to buy art from trade, traded ideas, Italy never had feudalism, Venice was strong defensive city
Charles VIII
invaded and destroyed Florence, took Lorenzo de Medici out of power
Bonfire of Vanities
led by Savanarola, a monk, blamed the people of Florence for the invasion and persuaded them to burn art, jewelery, clothing.
popolo
common people/city-dwellers that revolt
signori
military leaders/mercenaries to control popolos
secularism
world is important, it's okay to make society better.
humanism
studying Greek and Roman culture to become a better person in society.
rhetoric
the ability to speak persuasively.
conserver of classics
recopy classic texts by hand
On the Donation of Constantine
Lorenzo Valla was copying it and it was said to be written in the 1300s but he found that it was actually written in the 1200s and that the church was lying about the church having temporal power
Lorenzo Valla
On the Donation of Constantine
Giovanni Boccaccio
vernacular writer. Decameron. 20 rich kids left Florence during the plague. bawdy, makes fun of church + social issues
Leonardo Bruni
social commentary writer. civic humanism - work to help society.
Giovanni Mirandola
social commentary writers. Oration on the Dignity of Man.
Baldassare Castiglione
social commentary writer. The Courtier. described ideal Renaissance man and woman.
Niccolo Machiavelli
social commentary writers. The Prince. ideal ruler maintains power for the good of the country.
Bretheren of Common Life
monk educators who were supposed to be Christ-like tried to bring generosity and goodness back into Christianity
Erasmus
The Praise of Folly. challenged church practice, not doctrine. everyone must learn Greek and Latin.
Sir Thomas Moore
in Bretheren of Common Life. Utopia. beheaded by Henry VIII's request
Sandro Botticelli
Florence artist under de Medici. paints classical subjects (Greek) + Christian
Raphael Sanzio
Florence artist under Medici. painted idealized Madonnas and classical scenes
Michelangelo
Florence artist under Medici. Sistine Chapel, Pagan form w/ Christian thought, sculpted in marble: "Pieta" - piety, pity, young looking Mary holding Jesus. "David" - classical features, shepherd boy.
Leonardo daVinci
inventor, painter, studied the human body. The Last Supper - didn't single out Judas.
Titian
Venice artist. bright colors, detail.
Bosch
Northern Renaissance. surreal, bizarre, bright colors. Heaven, Hell, and Purgatory.
Breughal
drew partying peasants and landscapes
Donatello
sculptor. "Mary Magdeline" - prostitute/adultress. smooth hands praying, God's grace saved her.\
Ghiberti
sculpted doors
Brunelleschi
domes

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