Glossary of Forgetting 1

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Created by gallup005

What did the Squire and Slater memory for horse results and the Meeter et. al. memory for news headlines show?
The retention interval was transience - longer retention interval that had quick drop off and then leveled off
What is permastore?
The part of memory that remains and is constant after the initial drop off
why do we have permastore?
May be because the things that are in the permastore are the things intially better learned, or more consolidated
What did the Bahrick, and Wittlinger Names and Faces study show?
High school reunion: recall was worse than recognition because recall questions don't have the constraining cues that recognition does.

Recall have to name person in picture - recognition have to match name to picture

What is Jost's Law?
older memories are remembered better/more durable
Example of Jost's Law:
memory for address of house you grew up in is going to be more remembered than college address later on
Why does Jost's Law occur?
occurs because rate of forgetting at the beginning is fast and then it levels off making the older memories more durable
Inhibition and Jost's Law for Spontaneous Recovery
Old memory is initially inhibitied to allow learning of new one. Later the inhibition fades and old memory "pops back up"
What did the rat experiment show about Jost's Law?
Rats were first conditioned that the bell meant a shock, and would freeze.
Then extinction occured, sound bell no shock.
Then counter conditioning: rats hear bell and get food, are happy.

Wait one month and sound bell: rats will freeze b/c it's the older memory - more durable

What are five things that seem to help resistance to forget?
1. strength of inital learning
2. depth/elaboration/uniqueness of inital learning
3. consolidation
4. practice
5. retrieval

What are 3 ways to bring a memory back?
1. time/spontaneous recovery
2. cue reinstatement
3. retrieval/testing effects

Two possible explanations for spontaneous recovery?
1. differential strengths
2. recovery from inhibition
The more distinct something is and the more elaborative __/__ practice = the more __ in memory
rehearsal and distributed practice
more links
Why is it good to have multiple links for a memory?
In case one fails have more to use
Describe the Linton Diary study:
Wrote down events fro 6 years to retain distinctiveness
Test: semi-randomly drew from a pool of events that she already wrote about and put them in order
Results of the forgetting curve of the Linton Diary Study:
Forgetting curve: flat at the beginning than a shallow curve
Why was the Linton Diary Study Forgetting curve the way it was?
4 year items began to loose distinctiveness
B/c she was doing practice (random drawing) don't see the large drop at the beginning, gradually drop off in memory
What does the Linton Diary Study show for rehearsal and why are these memories remembered more?
Memories that were tested multiple times were remembered better than the others.
Remembered more b/c she is forming more links/associations by being tested more times on that memory
Retrieval may help memory for the things __, but may hurt memory for other ___ items (retrival __/part __ cueing_
retrieved, related, inhibition, set
4 things may cause Cue reinstatement and spontaneous recovery:
1. Jost's Law
2. Release of inhibition
3. Encoding specificity
4. Accessibility vs availability

How do the role of cues influence relapse?
People avoid places assoicated with addiction initially, but when they see a cue (bar, drink, drug) that cue will reinstate memory
more total items remembered at later test than at earlier test
items remembered at later test that were not recalled on earlier test
Why does hypermnesia require reminiscience?
Hypernesia is remembering more total numbers, so have to have reminisciene for this to exist - have to remember more than remembered before
2 ways remembering more with multiple retrieval attempts is accurate:
1. Stimulus sampling/varied retrieval cues - different and perhaps better cues on later tests (encoding specificity) - think about it in diff way
2. Retrieval time: activation needs to spread - eventually weak links are activated
2 Ways that Multiple retrieval teems lead to inaccurate memories:
1. Response Crieterion: more willing to say something is memory after time
2.Post - event suggestion: more suggestibility
What did the Penfield studies attempt to show?
There was no loss in memory, just needed better cues to bring them out.
Attempted to show that memories are avaliable, just not accessable always
What is the flip side of Jost's Law:
Ribot's law of amnesia: more recent memories are lost first in amnesia because they are not consolidated yet
Systems consolidation Hypothesis:
compared to older memories, newer memories are not as consolidated and therefore not as protected from decay
Multiple Trace Theory:
compared to older memories, newer memories don't have as many traces, and are more vulnerable to damage

Every time rethink of memory it will leave a trace (slash mark) need enough traces to move memrioes from hippocampus to cortex

What is important in associations?
Memory shifts from what to what?
hippocampus to cortex - hippocampus becomes less responsible for the memory after consolidation and movement to the cortex
True episodic memories require:
the hippocampus
Anterograde Amnesia:
problems with associations and (explicit) learning of new info - intact priming
Temporally grade amnesia:
suggests problems with consolodation - or things that haven't moved to semantic memory
Hippocampus serves two functions:
associations and consolidation
Post traumatic amnesia:
confused stage immediately following head injury, usually will fade
Retrograde amnesia:
may extend far into past immediately after injury then shrink.
period right before or right after injury will be forgotten

Is retrograde amnesia a problem with encoding or consolidation?
Not encoding - remember things immediately after, but probably consolidation disrupted - biochemical, state dependency
3 things that may diffuse damage in a head injury:
1. disruption of cell function and metabolism
2. white matter damage
3. perfusion/ circulatory damage

3 areas of brain to be related to recovery of metabolism and perfusion in head injury:
1. hippocampus - most likely damaged first
2. posterior cingulate
3. PFC

What is a problem with decay:
if memory is rusting/fading away what is causing this fading?? no explanation for this
2 counter examples for decay:
monkeys and coackroaches:
Cockroaches can be conditioned and if you freeze them, then thaw them out, the thawed ones still can remember - inhibit incoming info, eliminate forgetting
Monkeys that learn something, then turn off lights to inhibit more learning, and don't see decay

Proactive Interference:
previous knowledge interferes with learning/memory of new info
first memory advantage, no PI
Retroactive Interference:
new knowledge interferes with retrieval of old info
3 possible mechanisms for forgetting:

5 Reasons we may forget acording to NOBA article:
1. encoding failures
2. Decay
3. Lack of appropriate Retrieval Cues
4. Interference
5. Interference

How can forgetting be seen as adaptive?
It lets us hold onto only the most relevant memories - is efficient
What is the difference between anterograde and retrograde amnesia?
Anterograde: is the inability to form memories for new info post trauma
Retrograde: is the inability to retrieve old memories prior to amnesia
Lack of appropriate retrieval cues is a problem of availability or accessibility and whY?
Accessibility because have the memory but just cannot temporarily access them - don't have the right cue
Explain the encoding failure theory of forgetting and which memory sin does it relate best to?
Encoding failure: we are distracted or not paying attention at encoding - Misattention

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