Glossary of Forgetting 1
Created by gallup005
- What did the Squire and Slater memory for horse results and the Meeter et. al. memory for news headlines show?
- The retention interval was transience - longer retention interval that had quick drop off and then leveled off
- What is permastore?
- The part of memory that remains and is constant after the initial drop off
- why do we have permastore?
- May be because the things that are in the permastore are the things intially better learned, or more consolidated
- What did the Bahrick, and Wittlinger Names and Faces study show?
- High school reunion: recall was worse than recognition because recall questions don't have the constraining cues that recognition does.
Recall have to name person in picture - recognition have to match name to picture
- What is Jost's Law?
- older memories are remembered better/more durable
- Example of Jost's Law:
- memory for address of house you grew up in is going to be more remembered than college address later on
- Why does Jost's Law occur?
- occurs because rate of forgetting at the beginning is fast and then it levels off making the older memories more durable
- Inhibition and Jost's Law for Spontaneous Recovery
- Old memory is initially inhibitied to allow learning of new one. Later the inhibition fades and old memory "pops back up"
- What did the rat experiment show about Jost's Law?
- Rats were first conditioned that the bell meant a shock, and would freeze.
Then extinction occured, sound bell no shock.
Then counter conditioning: rats hear bell and get food, are happy.
Wait one month and sound bell: rats will freeze b/c it's the older memory - more durable
- What are five things that seem to help resistance to forget?
- 1. strength of inital learning
2. depth/elaboration/uniqueness of inital learning
- What are 3 ways to bring a memory back?
- 1. time/spontaneous recovery
2. cue reinstatement
3. retrieval/testing effects
- Two possible explanations for spontaneous recovery?
- 1. differential strengths
2. recovery from inhibition
- The more distinct something is and the more elaborative __/__ practice = the more __ in memory
- rehearsal and distributed practice
- Why is it good to have multiple links for a memory?
- In case one fails have more to use
- Describe the Linton Diary study:
- Wrote down events fro 6 years to retain distinctiveness
Test: semi-randomly drew from a pool of events that she already wrote about and put them in order
- Results of the forgetting curve of the Linton Diary Study:
- Forgetting curve: flat at the beginning than a shallow curve
- Why was the Linton Diary Study Forgetting curve the way it was?
- 4 year items began to loose distinctiveness
B/c she was doing practice (random drawing) don't see the large drop at the beginning, gradually drop off in memory
- What does the Linton Diary Study show for rehearsal and why are these memories remembered more?
- Memories that were tested multiple times were remembered better than the others.
Remembered more b/c she is forming more links/associations by being tested more times on that memory
- Retrieval may help memory for the things __, but may hurt memory for other ___ items (retrival __/part __ cueing_
- retrieved, related, inhibition, set
- 4 things may cause Cue reinstatement and spontaneous recovery:
- 1. Jost's Law
2. Release of inhibition
3. Encoding specificity
4. Accessibility vs availability
- How do the role of cues influence relapse?
- People avoid places assoicated with addiction initially, but when they see a cue (bar, drink, drug) that cue will reinstate memory
- more total items remembered at later test than at earlier test
- items remembered at later test that were not recalled on earlier test
- Why does hypermnesia require reminiscience?
- Hypernesia is remembering more total numbers, so have to have reminisciene for this to exist - have to remember more than remembered before
- 2 ways remembering more with multiple retrieval attempts is accurate:
- 1. Stimulus sampling/varied retrieval cues - different and perhaps better cues on later tests (encoding specificity) - think about it in diff way
2. Retrieval time: activation needs to spread - eventually weak links are activated
- 2 Ways that Multiple retrieval teems lead to inaccurate memories:
- 1. Response Crieterion: more willing to say something is memory after time
2.Post - event suggestion: more suggestibility
- What did the Penfield studies attempt to show?
- There was no loss in memory, just needed better cues to bring them out.
Attempted to show that memories are avaliable, just not accessable always
- What is the flip side of Jost's Law:
- Ribot's law of amnesia: more recent memories are lost first in amnesia because they are not consolidated yet
- Systems consolidation Hypothesis:
- compared to older memories, newer memories are not as consolidated and therefore not as protected from decay
- Multiple Trace Theory:
- compared to older memories, newer memories don't have as many traces, and are more vulnerable to damage
Every time rethink of memory it will leave a trace (slash mark) need enough traces to move memrioes from hippocampus to cortex
- What is important in associations?
- Memory shifts from what to what?
- hippocampus to cortex - hippocampus becomes less responsible for the memory after consolidation and movement to the cortex
- True episodic memories require:
- the hippocampus
- Anterograde Amnesia:
- problems with associations and (explicit) learning of new info - intact priming
- Temporally grade amnesia:
- suggests problems with consolodation - or things that haven't moved to semantic memory
- Hippocampus serves two functions:
- associations and consolidation
- Post traumatic amnesia:
- confused stage immediately following head injury, usually will fade
- Retrograde amnesia:
- may extend far into past immediately after injury then shrink.
period right before or right after injury will be forgotten
- Is retrograde amnesia a problem with encoding or consolidation?
- Not encoding - remember things immediately after, but probably consolidation disrupted - biochemical, state dependency
- 3 things that may diffuse damage in a head injury:
- 1. disruption of cell function and metabolism
2. white matter damage
3. perfusion/ circulatory damage
- 3 areas of brain to be related to recovery of metabolism and perfusion in head injury:
- 1. hippocampus - most likely damaged first
2. posterior cingulate
- What is a problem with decay:
- if memory is rusting/fading away what is causing this fading?? no explanation for this
- 2 counter examples for decay:
- monkeys and coackroaches:
Cockroaches can be conditioned and if you freeze them, then thaw them out, the thawed ones still can remember - inhibit incoming info, eliminate forgetting
Monkeys that learn something, then turn off lights to inhibit more learning, and don't see decay
- Proactive Interference:
- previous knowledge interferes with learning/memory of new info
first memory advantage, no PI
- Retroactive Interference:
- new knowledge interferes with retrieval of old info
- 3 possible mechanisms for forgetting:
- 5 Reasons we may forget acording to NOBA article:
- 1. encoding failures
3. Lack of appropriate Retrieval Cues
- How can forgetting be seen as adaptive?
- It lets us hold onto only the most relevant memories - is efficient
- What is the difference between anterograde and retrograde amnesia?
- Anterograde: is the inability to form memories for new info post trauma
Retrograde: is the inability to retrieve old memories prior to amnesia
- Lack of appropriate retrieval cues is a problem of availability or accessibility and whY?
- Accessibility because have the memory but just cannot temporarily access them - don't have the right cue
- Explain the encoding failure theory of forgetting and which memory sin does it relate best to?
- Encoding failure: we are distracted or not paying attention at encoding - Misattention
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