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Glossary of Forensic Science Exam 1

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criminalistics
father of forensics(Paul Kirk) coined referring to physical evidence generated by crime scene
pathology
determine the cause and manner of death
-autopsy(postmortem examination)
-medical examiner(coroner) physician appointed by the gov

Public Crime Labs
-enlisted:sworn police officer
-civilian:hired to fill space
-analyze evidence and to testify
-crime scene unit collects the evidence and turns it over to police investigators


manner of death
suicide, homocide, natural, accidental
the drug enforcement administration
analyze illicit drugs seized by DEA agents and by task forced made up of state or local drug agents
the department of homeland security
preventing counterfeit money and credit cards
the department of treasury
counterfeiting
the bureau if alcohol, tobacco, fire arms, and explosives
in charge of making sure all alcohol produced in or imported has proper tax stamp indicating that correct taxes have been paid
the internal revenue service
making sure taxes are paid and given to
forensic science
application of science to criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in criminal justice system
ethics
-not the same as morals
-based off morals agreed upon
-implies a "written document" much like a law

California association of criminalist
-1957
-defined profession
-cultural ethics violation 1950 caused the code
-call for transparency in consumer agreement
-serves as a specific code



American academy of forensic science
-created to unite a group of professionals
-more general to allow for flexibility to reflect changing obligations of the profession
who are the consumers?
families, friends, lawyers, judges, court system
issues w/ frequent consumers?
police department and lawyers
obligations to consumer
-objectivity(confident)
-technical competence
-reliable results
-comprehensive review of relevant issue


pool of experts
-responsibility of the lawyer
-expert witness is competent and credible
-weigh what the experts are saying
-maintain credibility
-responsibility of the exert



Lab director survey 1987, AAFS
(biggest probs. in labs)
-incompetence
-failure to inform strengths and weaknesses of cases
-giving opinions that exceed the data
-lack of objectivity
-misrepresentation of credential
-intentional falsifaction of data
-failure to report serious unethical behavior





law
formal means of social control that involves the use of rules that are interpreted and are enforceable by the courts of political community
crime
act committed or omitted in violation of a law forbidding or commanding it
4th amendment
determination of probable cause by neutral magistrate and instead of being judged by an officer engaged in very competitive enterprise out crime

5th amendment
exist a person already changed w/ a crime and for any person who could be charged for a crime
-protects the person
6th amendment
person had a right to be assisted by counsel of his own choosing at trial
- supreme court decided
5th and 14th amendment
due process- in judging fairness of procedure, avoiding mistaken conviction of innocent persons
search warrants
specify about evidence wanted to collect, where to search and who to search
chain of custody
started at crime scene shows court when the evidence was collected, who actually touched it and what they did. so when or if evidence goes missing- know who to look for
rule 102 of the federal code and rules
(purpose of evidence)
-secure fairness
-avoid delay and expense
-ascertain the truth

evidence
proof legally presented in a court of law through witnesses, records, documents, and objects for the purpose of inducing beliefs in the mind of the court and jury on the issues of the case
physical evidence
-prove crime was committed or establish the key elements
-link a suspect w/ victim or crime
-establish identity of persons associated
-exonerate the innocent(protect)
-compel suspect to confess
-more reliable than eyewitness




scientific evidence
-validity of scientific theory
-validity of technique applying it
-proper application of technique

daubert test
can theory be tested, publication, error rate, general acceptance
Presumptive
(Lab Schema)
-find class characteristics
-very fast; expensive
-screening tool

confirmation
(lab schema)
very specific test to identity source
ultimate goal
(lab schema)
-crime scene reconstruction
-determine the actions surrounding the commission of a crime
collaborate effort for results requires
-objectivity
-physical evidence
-objective assessment of witness/ victim/ offender statements
-logic


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