Glossary of Final ap exam!!
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- The ductus deferens develops from teh ____of the embryo.
- a.mesonephric duct
- Descent of the testes is achieved by contraction of a cord called
b.the spermatic cord
c.the ductus deferens
d.the pampiniform plexus
e.the rete testis
- a. gubernaculum
- The expulsion of semen occurs when the bulbospongiousus muscle is stimulated by
a.somatic efferent neurons
b.somatic afferent neurons
c.sympathetic efferent neurons
d.parasympathetic efferent neurons
- a.somatic efferent neurons
- Prior to ejacultaion, sperm are stored primarily in
a.the seminiferous tubules
b.the rete testis
d.the seminal vesicles
e.the ejaculatory ducts
- c.the epididymis
- The penis is attached to the puic arch by crura of
a.the corpora cavernosa
b.the corpus sponginoum
c.the perineal membrane
- a.the corpora cavernosa
- The first hormone secreted at the onset of puberty is
b.interstitial cell-stimulating hormone
c.human chorionic gonadotropin
- d.gonadotropin-releasing hormone
- When it is necessary to reduce sperm production without reducing testosterone secretion, the sustentacular cells secrete
- Four spermatozoa arise from each
a.primordial germ cell
b.type A spermatogonium
c.type B spermatogonium
- c.type B spermatogonium
- The point in meisos at which sister chormatids separate from each other is
- d.anaphase II
- Blood is forced out of the penile lacunae by contraction of the ____ muscles
- Under the influence of androgens, the embyronic____duct develops into the male reproductive tract.
- Spermatozoa obtain energy for locomotion from _____ in the semen.
- The_____, a network of veins in the spermatic cord, helps keep the testes cooler than the core body temperature.
- Pampinoform Plexus
- All germ cells beginning with the _____ are genetically different from teh rest of the body cells and therefore must be protected by the bood-testis barrier.
- Secondary spermocytes
- The corpora cavernosa as well as teh testes have a fibrous capsule called the____.
- Turnica albunegia
- Over half of the semen consists of secretions from a pair of glands called the ____.
- Seminal vesicles
- The blood-testis barrier is formed by tight junctions between the_____cells.
- The earliest haploid stage of spermatogeniss is the _____
- secondary spermatocyte
- Erection of the penis occurs when nitric oxide causes the _____ arteris to dilate.
- A sperm penetrates the egg by means of enzymes in its____.
- The male scrotum is homologous to the female labia majora.
- Sperm cannot develop at the core body temperature.
- Luteinizing hormone stiumlates the testes to secrete testosterone
- The testes and penis are the primary sex organs of the male.
- False, only the testes are primary sex organs
- A high testosterone level makes a fetus develop a male reproductive system, and a high estrogen level makes it develop a female reproductive system.
- False, Female development results from low testosterone levels, not from estrogen
- Most of the semen is produced byt the seminal vesicles.
- The pampiniform plexus serves to keep the tese warm.
- False, it prevents the testes from overheating
- Prior to ejaculation, sperm are stored mainly in the sminal vesicles.
- False, sperm are stored in the epididymis
- Male menopause is the cessation of sperm production around the age of 55.
- False....no such thing!!
- Erection is caused by parasympathetic stimulation of the penile arteries.
- Of the following organs, the one(s) most compariabel to the penis is (are)
c.the vestibular bubles
d.the labia minora
- a.the clitoris
- The ovaries secrete all of the following except
- The first haploid stage in oogenesis is
b.the primary oocyte
c.the secondary oocyte
d.the second polar body
- c.the secondary oocyte
- FSH secretion begins toe rise and new follicles beging to grow during
a.the premenstrual phase
b.the menstural phase
c.the preovulatory phase
d.the luteal phase
e.the plateau phase
- a.the premenstrual phase
- The hormone that most directly influences the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle is
- The ischemic phase of the uterus results from
a.rising progesterone levels
b.falling progesterone levels
c.stiumation by oxytocin
d.stimulation by prostaglandins
e.stimulation by estrogens
- b.falling progesterone levels
- Before secreting milk, the mammary glands secrete
- Few women become pregnant while nursing because_____inhibits GnRH secretion.
- Smooth muscle cells of the myometrium and myoepithelial cells of the mammary glands are the target cells for
- Which of these is not true of the luteal phase of the sexual cycle?
a.progesterone level is high
b.the endometrium stores glycogen
d.fertilization may occur
e.the endometrial glands enlarge
- c.ovulation occurs
- Each egg cell develops in its own fluid-filled space called a/an_____.
- The mucosa of the uterus is called____.
- a girl's first menstrual period is called____.
- A yellowish structure called the _____ secretes progesterone during the secretory phase of the sexual cycle.
- Corpus luteum
- The first layer of cells around a mature secondary oocyte is the_____.
- Corona radiata
- A secondary follicle differs from a primary follicle in having a cavity called the____.
- Menopause occurs during a midlife period of changing hormone secretion called_____.
- All the products of fertilization, including the embryo or fetus, the placenta, and the embryonic membranes, are collectively called the____.
- The funnel0like distal end of the uterine tube is called the)_____ and has feathery processes called____.
- Infundibulum, fimbrae
- Postpartum uterine involution produces a vaginal discharge called____.
- After ovulation, a follicle begins to move down the uterine tube to the uterus.
- False, only the ovum and corona radiata eneter the uterine tube, not the follicle
- Human chorionic gonadotropin is secreted by the granulosa cells of the follicle.
- False, HSC is secreted by the placenta
- An oocyte never completes meiosis II unless it is fertilized.
- A slim girl who is active in dance and gymnastics is likely to being menstrauting at a later age than an overweight inactive girl.
- There are more future eggs cells in the ovary at puberty than there are at birth.
- False, many eggs and follicles undergo atresia during childhood, so there number is reduced by the age of puberty
- Women do not lactate while they are pregnant because prolactin is not secred until after birht.
- Prolactin is secreted during prgnancy, but does not induce lactation then.
- Colostrum contains more protein than milk, but less fat.
- Several follicles develop in each ovarian cycle even though only one of them usually ovulates.
- Porgetserone inhibits uterine contractions.
- The entire endometrium is shed in each menstrual period.
- False, only the superficial layer is shed.
- When a conceptus arrives in the uterus, it is at what stage of development?
- The entry of a sperm nucleus into an egg must be preceded by
a.the cortical reaction
b.the acrosomal reaction
c.the fast block
- b.the acrosomal reaction
- The stage of conceptus that implants the uterus wall is
- c. a blastocyst
- Chorionic villi develop from
a.the zona pellucida
e.the corona radiata
- c.the syncytiotrophoblast
- Which of these results from aneuploidy/
b.fetal alcohol syndrome
- a.turner syndrome
- Fetal urine accumulates in the____and contributes to the fluid there.
- One theory of snescenece is that it results from a lifetime of damage by
- c.free radicals
- Photoaging is a major factor in the senescence of
a.the integumentary system
c.the nervous system
d.the skeletal system
e.the cardio vascular system
- a.the integumentary system
- Which of these is not a common effect of senescence?
a.reduced synthesis of vit D
b.atrophy of the kidneys
c.atrophy of the cerebral gyri
d.increased herniation of intervertebral discs
e.reduced pulmonary vital capacity
- d.increased hernation of intervetebral discs
- For the first 8 weeks of gestation, a conceptus is noursided manily by
a. the placenta
- d.decidual cells
- Viruses and chemicals that cause congenital anatomical deformities are called_____.
- Aneuploidy is cased by____, the failure of two homologous chromosomes to separate in meiosis.
- The maximum age attainable by a member of the huma species is called the ____.
- The average age attained by humans in a give population is called ___.
- LIfe expectancy
- Fetal blood flows through growths called____, which project into the placental sinus.
- Chorionic villi
- The enzymes with which a sperm penetrates an egg are contained in an organelle called the___.
- Stiffening of the arteries, joints, and lenses in old age may be a result of cross-linking between____ molecules.
- An enlarged tongue, epicanthal folds of the eyes, and mental retardation are characteristic of a genetic anomaly called___.
- Down syndrom
- The fossa ovalis is a remnant of a fetal shunt called the_____.
- Forman oval
- A developing individual is first classified as a/an-_____ when the three primary germ layers have formed.
- Freshly ejaculated sperm are more capable of fertilizing an egg than are sperm several hours old.
- False, sperm require about 10 hoursto become capacitated and able to fertilize an egg.
- Fertilization normally occurs in lumen of the uterus.
- Fertilization occurs in the uterine tube.
- By the time a conceptus reaches the uterus, it has already undergone several cell divisions and consists of 16 cells or more.
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