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Glossary of Exer. Sci. Spt. Med. terms

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Anatomical Position
a) standing erect, with palms and feet facing forward

b) the standard reference point in which all positions movements, and planes are described

Anatomical Planes
a) fixed lines of reference along which the body is often divided or sectioned to facilitate viewing of its structures
b) allow one to obtain a 3D perspective by studying the body from different views
Sagittal Plane
a) the plane dividing the body into right and left portions
b) midsagittal or median are the names for the plane dividing the body into equal right and left halves
Frontal Plane
a) the plane dividing the body into front and back portions
b) also called the Coronal plane
Transverse Plane
a) the horizontal plane dividing the body into upper and lower portions
b)also called the horizontal plane
Oblique Plane
diagonal plane
Superior
refers to a structure being closer to the head or highter than another structure in the body
Inferior
refers to a structure being closer to the feet or lower than another structure in the body
Anterior
refers to a structure being more in front than another structure in the body
Posterior
structure being more in back than another structure in the body
Medial
a structure being closer to the midline or median plane of the body than another structure of the body
Lateral
a structure being farther away from the midline than another structure of the body
Distal
situated away from the point of orgin or attachment; farther from root of limb
Proximal
situated toward the point of orgin or attachemnt; closer to root of limb
Superficial
being at, on, or near the surface
Deep
extending far down from the top or surface; close to core
Ventral
toward front (usually cavities, inside body)
Dorsal
toward back (usually cavities, inside body)
Prone
having the front or ventral part downward; lying face downward
Supine
lying on the back, face or front upward
Unilateral
One side
Bilateral
both sides
Flexion
bend joint (decrease angle of joint)
Extension
straightening a joint (increase angle of joint)
Hyperextention
going beyond anatomical position
Adduction
moving body parts toward midline
Abduction
moving body parts away from midline
Prontaion
turning arm/foot downward
Supination
turning arm/foot upward
Retraction
moving a part backward
Protraction
moving a part forward
Elevation
raise a part
Depression
lower a part
Rotation
turning on a single axis
Circumduction
tri-planar, circular motion at hip/shoulder
External Rotation
rotate hip/shoulder away from midline
Internal Rotation
rotate hip/shoulder toward midline
Lateral Flexion
side bending left or right
Inversion
turning sole inward
Eversion
turning sole outward
Dorsiflexion
ankle bringing foot towards shin
Plantarflexion
ankle pointing foot downward
Radial Deviation
wrist toward lateral side
Ulnar Deviation
wrist toward medial side
Opposition
moving the thumb towards palm
Acute
sudden onset or abrupt injury
Abrasion
skin is rubbed or scraped away (minor)
Aerobic
exercise that requires oxygen (low intensity for long periods of time)
Acclimatization
body has to physiologically adapt to an unfamiliar environment (altitude or temperature)
Amnesia
loss of memory due to injury, illness, shock, or fatigue
Anaerobic
work or excercise not requiring oxygen (quick and intense)
Analgesic
agent for reducing pain (asprin)
Articulation
where bones meet to form a joint
Atrophy
wasting away of organ or tissue
Avulsion
tearing or pulling away of part of a structure
Bursa
fluid-filled sack at joint that prevents friction
Bursitis
inflamation/burst of bursa
Cartilage
gristle-like padding that prevents friction and absorbs shock
Chronic
long duration or frequent recurrence of pain
Constriction
state of being prinched off or smaller than normal
Contraindicate
to advise against
Contralateral
on opposite side (stroke)
Contusion
bruise to a bone or muscle (internal bleeding)
Crepitus
crackling sound or feeling
Cryotherapy
cold therapy
Cyanosis
blue skin from lack of oxygen
Diagnosis
name of disease or condition a person is believed to have
Dilation
state of being enlarged, opens up
Dislocation
complete displacement of a bone from its normal position in a joint
Ecchymosis
bleeding visible beneath the skin as a blue or purple patch
Edema
swelling due to abnormal accumulation of fluid in tissues or cavitites
Effusion
swelling in a joint
Fracture
a break or crack in a bone
Hematoma
swelling composed of blood; internal bleeding associated with a contusion
Hydrotherapy
treatment by use of water
Incision
a cut made surgically with a sharp knife
Indicate
to advise the use of
Inflammation
the body's reaction to injury; involves redness, swelling, heat, pain, and sometimes loss of function
Innervate
to supply with nerves
Joint Laxity
looseness of joint due to loose ligaments
Laceration
a jagged cut or tear in the skin
Ligament
tissue that connects bone to bone
Mechanism of Injury
the circumstance in which an injury occurs; for example, sudden deceleration, wounding by a projectile, or crushing by a heavy object
Modality
method or apparatus used for healing an injury
Palpation
examination by touch
Point Tenderness
pain at the sorest spot of an injury
Prognosis
prediciton of the course and end of a disease or eventual outcome of an injury
Proprioception
the sense of the body's position in space
Range of Motion
movement of a joint around a central point
Reduction
to bring back to the normal position
Referred Pain
pain that occurs away from the injury site
Separation
pulling apart of a generally non-moveable joint
Shock
potentially fatal reaction of the body to injury; failure of the cardiovascular system to circulate enough blood to the body
Sprain
stretching or tearing of ligaments
Strain
stretching or tearing of muscle or tendon
Subluxation
incomplete or partial dislocation of a joint
Tendon
tissue that connects muscle to bone
Thermotherapy
treatment by the use of heat
Valgus
distal aspect of limb forced away from the midline (knock-kneed)
Varus
distal aspect of limb forced towards the midline (bow legged)
Vasoconstrictor
an agent causing the constriction or closing of blood vessels
Vasodilator
an agent causeing the dilation or opening of blood vessels

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