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Glossary of Exam III

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Pretense
Putting on a show of being more righteous than you are (the pharisees)(cf. Matt. 6:2-5; Matt. 23:25-27

Blame
Condemning someone for what you are guilty of as well (example: David) (cf. 2 Samuel 12:1-7; Luke 6:39)

Inconsistency
Acting inconsistently with one’s own judgments or other actions (example: Saul) (cf. 1 Samuel 28; Matt. 23:23-24; Luke 13:10-17

Complacency
Ignoring the demands of morality when they become too costly (cf. Matt. 23:23-24)
Hypocrisy
a form of deception (sometimes involving self-deception) where one poses as being better than s/he really is.
Why Christians are Prone to the Accusation of Hypocrisy
1. The Christian moral standard is high – This makes it difficult to live the Christian life.

2. Christianity teaches salvation by divine grace – There are fewer religious “rites”, which makes religious fraud more easy.



Further Points on Hypocrisy
1. Some hypocrites are not really Christians but imposters.

2. Hypocrisy is sometimes a tribute to Christian morals (“the tribute that vice pays to
virtue”)

3. Some apparent hypocrites are really just morally weak. Example: Peter’s denial of
Christ (Matt. 26:31-35; 69-75)

4. The real question is whether Jesus was a hypocrite.

5. Jesus himself exposed and rebuked hypocrites.









Christians are given the BLANK of righteousness, not the BLANK of righteousness(until the afterlife).

status; nature
BLANK is a gradual process
sanctification
Naturalism and Postmodernism
Two major worldviews rival Christianity in the West today
Moreland’s thesis
We must work to recover a Biblical worldview in the realms of the intellect, ethics, and spiritual formation.
Naturalism -- two main claims
Metaphysical & Epistemological
Metaphysical
only the physical world exists
Epistemological
scientific (empirical) knowledge is an absolutely superior (if not the only true) kind of knowledge
On a naturalistic worldview, the following cannot be accounted for:
1) Consciousness
2) Afterlife
3) Moral values
4) Ultimate purpose


Consciousness
1. How can brute matter become aware?
Afterlife
2. When your body dies, you’re gone forever.
Moral Values
3. Science can only tell us what “is” not what “ought” to be. Nothing is good or evil.

Ultimate Purpose
4. If all our striving comes to nothing, then what’s the point? (cf. Camus)
naturalism offers us a “thin” world
“Thin” world – a world with no objective value, purpose, or meaning
“Thick” world
a world in which there is objective value, purpose, and meaning (Russell quote, pp. 26-27)
Two losses of naturalism
Moreland notes another casualty of naturalism: Drama. To have true drama, there must be a story with purpose and meaning. Since there is no overarching purpose or meaning, given naturalism, there is no real drama. Further implication: The loss of beauty
Problematic implications of postmodernism/On a naturalistic worldview, the following cannot be accounted for
1. Rational objectivity
2. Absolute moral values
3. The concept of tolerance

Rational Objectivity
all truth claims (including scientific ones) are biased.
Absolute moral values
all moral values are relative to local communities. Thus:
(a) no practices can be praised or condemned absolutely
(b) moral progress is impossible
(c) all moral reformers are corrupt




The concept of tolerance
this implies putting up with views that are false.
Several Points about Knowledge
1. There are 3 different kinds of knowledge.
2. Knowledge does not require certainty.
3. You can know something without knowing that you know it (or knowing how you know it).

3 Different kinds of knowledge
(a) Knowledge by acquaintance
(b) Propositional knowledge–justified true belief
(c) Know-how



Impact of Naturalism and Postmodernism on the Church
1. Naturalism undermines spiritual discipline and pursuit of spiritual gifts by denying the reality of the supernatural.

2. Postmodernism undermines these practices by denying objective truth in these areas.



How should we respond to naturalism and postmodernism?

We must get back to biblical belief and practice:

• Believe in the possibility of miracles and other forms of supernatural activity in the world—both divine and demonic.
• Develop the fruit of the spirit by practicing the disciplines.
• Pursue the spiritual gifts (e.g., prophecy, healing, etc.)



Four Views on Spiritual Gifts
1. Cessationist
2. Open but cautious
3. Third wave evangelicals
4. Pentecostal/charismatic


Cessationist
There are no miraculous gifts today; these ceased with the early Church when the biblical canon was closed and the last apostles died.
Open but cautious
Miraculous gifts are possible today, but there is so much abuse that a guarded and skeptical attitude is best
Third wave evangelicals
The gifts of the spirit should be actively pursued, as they are important for the life of the church. (All Christians are baptized by the Holy Spirit at conversion.)
Pentecostal/charismatic
Much greater emphasis on speaking in tongues and, typically, a belief in post-conversion baptism by the Holy Spirit.
Today it is often said that we live in a “BLANK age.”
postmodern
The shift from the modern to the postmodern represents transitions in every sphere of human life:

1. Philosophically:

From certainty to skepticism -- The possibility of an all-encompassing world-view has been abandoned in favor of local points of view. There is less confidence in human reason, because of the failure of science and other forms of rational inquiry to unpack the deepest secrets of the universe.
The shift from the modern to the postmodern represents transitions in every sphere of human life:

2. Economically:

From the industrial age to information society -- The modern emphasis on manufacturing goods is being replaced by the postmodern emphasis on
information. The “proletariat” (Marx) is being replaced by the “cognitariat” (Jencks). Mass production is displaced by mass information.


The shift from the modern to the postmodern represents transitions in every sphere of human life:

3. Socially:

From individuality to plurality -- There is less focus on the individual subject and more of a focus on community. The collective is primary, while the individual is only secondary.
The shift from the modern to the postmodern represents transitions in every sphere of human life:

4. Politically:

From the universal to the local. Nationalism is being replaced by a move toward retribalization. There is greater and greater loyalty to a more local context and interest in rediscovering one’s particular ethnic, religious, or cultural roots.
The shift from the modern to the postmodern represents transitions in every sphere of human life:

5. Artistically:

From uniformity to heterogeneity -- Once uniform styles and standards, as well as clear and distinct definitions of genres in music, architecture, literature, and the visual arts are being obliterated, fragmented, and blended. Principled art has been
displaced by experimentalism.


“I define postmodern as incredulity toward metanarratives.”
Jean-Francois Lyotard
The modern mind (the enlightenment mentality) affirmed:

(a) the objectivity of truth and knowledge
(b) the possibility of discovering truth through reason


Postmodernism denies these claims, maintaining instead:







(a) truth and knowledge are relative
(b) reason provides only one point of view


Postmodernism “marks the end of a single, universal worldview. The postmodern ethos resists unified, all-encompassing, and universally valid explanations. It replaces these with a respect for difference and a celebration of the local and particular at
Grenz's words
The Modern Mind
is characterized by the “Enlightenment Project,” the endeavor to rationally comprehend the universe and gain mastery over nature.
Supremely confident, modernists affirmed:

(a) The comprehensibility of the cosmos

-- The universe is inherently reasonable and orderly, operating according to strict natural laws.

Supremely confident, modernists affirmed:

(b) The sufficiency of reason and science

-- Through the use of reason and empirical inquiry humans are capable of discovering all of the basic workings of the universe.
Supremely confident, modernists affirmed:

(c) The inevitability of human progress

-- Science and rational inquiry will eventually solve all of humankind’s most pressing problems. All that is necessary is for nature’s secrets (natural laws) to be unlocked and exploited.
Supremely confident, modernists affirmed:

(d) The dispensibility of faith and revelation

-- Humans take the place of God at the center of the cosmos and human history. Science can explain all mysteries and solve our problems, so religion is unnecessary.
Key Modern Figures
1. Descartes
2. Newton
3. Kant
4. Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau


Modern - Descartes:
Affirmed the autonomy of the rational subject and the possibility of absolute
certainty


Modern - Newton:
Conceived of the cosmos as a machine which operates according to strict laws
Modern - Kant:
sought to make ethics a totally rational enterprise
Modern - Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau:
sought to found political rights on natural law
The postmodern mind
is characterized by a rejection of each of the themes of modernism. It is essentially a denial of objectivity and an affirmation of the relativity of truth and knowledge
Key precursors to postmodern thought:
1. Kant
2. Nietzsche
3. Wittgenstein
4. Kuhn


Precursor to postmodern thought - Kant:
Proposed that the individual knower conditions reality and determines the nature
of knowledge


Precursor to postmodern thought - Nietzsche:
Denied that reason could discover objective truth or ultimate meaning; he
maintained that morals were artificially devised.


Precursor to postmodern thought - Wittgenstein:
Conceived of language as a social phenomenon; philosophical problems
are not reflections of the real world but of misuses of language.


Precursor to postmodern thought - Kuhn:
Argued that science is not an entirely rational enterprise; scientific theories are
“incommensurable,” and paradigm shifts are not based in objective theory
assessment.



The science of the modern period (Galileo, Newton, etc.) saw the world as:
1. Mechanistic
2. Homogenous
3. Perceiver independent

Mechanistic
The universe is essentially a machine which runs according to strict
causal laws


Homogenous
The same laws apply to the terrestrial and celestial realms
Perceiver independent
Space and time are absolute; the world is objectively
knowable through neutral observation


Postmodern science (Einstein, Heisenberg, etc.) sees the world as dynamic, heterogenous, and observer dependent:
1. Planck's Quantum theory
2. Einstein's General Theory of Relativity
3. Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle

Planck's Quantum theory
Energy comes in packets, not a steady flow; light is both a
wave and shower of particles


Einstein's General Theory of Relativity
Space and time are not absolute; gravity a
curvature of space (E =mc )


Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle
The position or momentum of a subatomic
particle can be determined, but not both; and
observation affects particles



Philosophers of Postmodernism
A. Michel Foucault
B. Jacques Derrida
C. Richard Rorty

Richard Rorty:
Prophet of neo-pragmatism
Jacques Derrida:
Father of Deconstructionism
Michel Foucault:
Challenger of All Order
Called “Nietzsche’s truest disciple,” BLANK committed his intellectual career to subverting the established order, be it intellectual, social, moral, or political.
Michel Foucault
The Suspicion of History

Modern historians have succumbed to two myths:

(a) the myth of neutrality -- the notion of history as objective inquiry. Such value-neutral
inquiry is impossible, according to Foucault.

(b) the myth of unity -- the picture of history as having real themes or purposeful
direction is illusory. Rather, it is discontinuous, fragmented and meaningless.
Foucault’s major works (in which he does “archaeology of knowledge”) show just
how random, haphazard, and unnecessary various historical developments (such as
major institutions) really are.








Jacques Derrida is another French postmodern philosopher, but the focus of his critique is language and literary texts. His works are extremely turgid and difficult to interpret. Major themes are:



The Deconstruction of Texts

Derrida’s method for defeating logocentrism and overturning the classical theory of meaning is what he calls “deconstruction”, which is a form (not a formal method) of textual analysis which identifies and traces various connections between and within texts. Its upshot is to show that no text means anything by itself but may be continually recontextualized (such as with each reader and each reading), so interpretation must always be deferred (differance).



Richard Rorty is a contemporary American “neo-pragmatist” in the tradition of John Dewey. But he is also heavily influenced by Nietzsche, Wittgenstein, and Kuhn.

The Relativity of Truth --

Rorty rejects the “correspondence theory of truth”, which maintains that a proposition is true if it corresponds with some real state of affairs. Truth, says Rorty, is whatever your peers will let you get away with saying.

Integrity
Wholeness, completeness, or unity (American Heritage Dictionary)
Moral Integrity
A consistent commitment to do what is best, especially under conditions of adversity” (Mark S. Halfon, Integrity: A Philosophical Inquiry).
The Foes of Integrity
1) Hypocrisy
2) Self-deception
3) Moral weakness

Self-Deception
denying what one knows (or seems to know) to be true
Self-deception

Cognitive:

Caused by unintentionally biased beliefs. This involves a failure to
believe something because one does not want it to be true.


Self-deception

Volitional:

A disavowal of one’s behavior as one’s own, which may take
different forms (e.g. refusal to take responsibility for one’s actions,
inability to explain one’s actions, or indulgence in secret).



Moral weakness
The (chronic) failure to do what one believes to be best. Moral
weakness (akrasia) has several causes (e.g. the sinful nature,
self-absorption, lack of circumspection, moral passivity, and
vague moral ideals).




develop moral strength
or "grow in sanctification"
virtue
A specific excellence or “any character trait that makes a person a good specimen” (Robert Roberts). Such traits include the fruits of the Spirit identified by Paul in Galatians 5:22-23.
How one may train to be virtuous:

1. Preparatory strategies

(e.g., learning one’s special weaknesses, practicing
anticipatory thinking)


How one may train to be virtuous:

2. Mental and behavioral disciplines

(e.g., self-trickery, self-commands, mundane
repetitions)


How one may train to be virtuous:

3. The spiritual disciplines

“Activities of mind and body purposefully undertaken to
bring our . . . total being into effective cooperation with the divine order” (Dallas
Willard, Spirit of the Disciplines).

A. Disciplines of abstinence -- solitude, silence, fasting, frugality, chastity, secrecy,
sacrifice

B. Disciplines of engagement -- study, worship, celebration, service, prayer,
fellowship, meditation, confession, submission,









“Every day, the church is becoming more like the world it allegedly seeks to change” (Christianity Today, Aug. 2002, p. 34).
George Barna
“Scandalous behavior is rapidly destroying American Christianity. By their daily activity, most ‘Christians’ regularly commit treason. With their mouths they claim that Jesus is Lord, but with their actions they demonstrate allegiance to money, se
Ron Sider
How did we fall so far:

3 major factors:

1.) Original Sin
2.) Our Culture
3.) Bad Doctrine

Original Sin
We have a natural tendency toward sin, which we inherited
from Adam (Psalm 51:5).


Our Culture
We are constantly exposed to attitudes of self-indulgence,
pride, and impurity especially through television, the internet,
Hollywood films, and the sports world.



Bad Doctrine
Evangelicals often accept some lies about the Christian life:

• Jesus is only interested in getting us to heaven – Eternal life with Christ is our ultimate hope. But until then we are called to an abundant life with Christ now, living in joyful obedience to him. Jesus says, “If you love me, you will obey what I command” (John 14:15).

• Faith is merely a cognitive state – This is the notion that faith is just about what you believe. Intellectual assent is only the crucial first step. We must also behave a certain way. “Faith without deeds is useless…a person is justified by what he does and not by faith alone” (James 2:20, 24).

• Salvation is a one-time conversion event – Christian salvation is proven in a life of following Christ and obeying him. This takes hard work. As Paul says, “continue to work out your salvation with fear and trembling” (Phil. 2:12). Elsewhere he compares the process of spiritual growth to athletic training (1 Cor. 9).

No wonder Paul links sound doctrine with salvation when he says, “Watch your life and doctrine closely. Persevere in them, because if you do, you will save both yourself and your hearers” (1 Tim. 4:16)









Solution to our moral problem:
Personal transformation; developing a Christ-like character

This is our goal, while inner peace, life in heaven, etc. are the benefits of achieving this.



What is Christ's Character?
Jesus’ character is to be understood in terms of particular traits such as humility, self-control, patience, kindness, courage, forgiveness, faith, and love. These are essential Christian virtues (what Paul also calls the “fruit of the Spirit” in Gal. 5:23), and the personal transformation that we are called to in Christ must involve development of these virtuous traits.
Virtue analogy:
Analogy: Carpenter (hammering, sawing, measuring, painting, sheet rocking, etc.) A good carpenter must possess many such skills and develops them through intentional practice.

Similarly, to be a good person, one must display many moral skills (patience, courage, generosity, self-control, kindness, etc.).



So how do we acquire virtues or the fruit of the Spirit and thus develop a Christlike character?
Through practice, especially the spiritual disciplines.

Disciplines of engagement: worship, celebration, study, service, prayer,
meditation, fellowship, confession, submission

Disciplines of abstinence: fasting, frugality, chastity, silence, solitude, secrecy,
sacrifice

With each spiritual discipline we do moral training, such as that referred to by Paul in 1 Cor. 9:24-27, when he says,

“Do you not know that in a race all the runners run, but only one gets the prize? Run such a way as to get the prize. Everyone who competes in the games goes into strict training. They do it to get a crown that will not last; but we do it to get a crown that will last forever. Therefore, I do not run like a man running aimlessly; I do not fight like a man beating the air. No, I beat my body and make it my slave so that after I have preached to others, I myself will not be disqualified for the prize.”

See also 1 Tim. 4:8: “Train yourself to be godly. For physical training is of some value, but godliness has value for all things, holding promise for both the present life and the life to come.”













What are spiritual disciplines?
“Activities of mind and body purposefully undertaken to bring … our total being into effective cooperation with the divine order” (Dallas Willard, Spirit of the Disciplines)
Different Kinds of spiritual disciplines:
1) Disciplines of abstinence
2) Disciplines of engagement
Disciplines of abstinence:
solitude, silence, fasting, frugality, chastity, secrecy, sacrifice
Disciplines of engagement:
study, worship, celebration, service, meditation, prayer,
fellowship, confession, submission


Why is fasting important?
• Builds moral strength (through the practice of self-control)
• Trains us to maintain our focus on God through suffering
• Makes a statement of our moral-spiritual earnestness (esp. with prayer)
• Reminds us that our bodily comforts are not what is most important




What are some common occasions for fasting?
• Seeking God’s forgiveness – Lev. 23:27 (Day of Atonement); 1 Sam. 7:2-6 (Israel’s repentance of idol worship); Jonah 3 (the repentance of Ninevah); Acts 9:1-9 (Paul’s repentance)

• Seeking God’s counsel or blessing – Acts 13:2-3 (the commissioning of Paul and Barnabas); Acts 14:21-23 (Paul and Barnabas’ commissioning of elders at the churches of Lystra, Iconium, and Antioch)

• Seeking God’s strength – Matt. 4:1-2 (Jesus fasted when “he was led by the Spirit into the desert to be tempted by the devil”); Matt. 17:20 & Mark 9:29 (in some manuscripts Jesus says “this kind can come out only by prayer and fasting”)





Problem of abuse as it pertains to fasting:
o Eating disorders: Those who have had this problem may be advised to avoid fasting, to do so only with strict accountability, or to practice only selective fasting (e.g. refraining from sweets, meats, or other particular foods).

o Legalism: We don’t allow legalistic abuses of the other spiritual disciplines to discourage us from them; but we should be on our guard against the legalistic mindset and pride which might ensue, especially if we are unique among our friends in fasting.

• Still we should expect that the enemy would try to discourage our fasting, because it is so powerful. Keep this in mind as you begin to fast.





Christian Virtues:
1) Self-control
2) Humility
3) Patience
4) Courage
5) Justice
6) Generosity
7) Kindness
8) Wit
9) Discretion
10) Modesty
11) Perseverance
12) Forgiveness
13) Gratitude
14) Wisdom
15) Faith
16) Love














Four loves:
1) Storge - familial love
2) Eros - romantic love
3) Philios - friendship love
4) Agape - divine love


Two vices of practicing trust
-lust for control
-cynicism
Two trials of faith:
-Hardship
-Prosperity
How to grow in the virtue of faith:
-Recognize one's place in the cosmos
-Voluntary acts of surrender
Wisdom
the virtue of practical moral insight.

characteristics: curiosity, versatility, critical thinking

Gratitude
is proportional to the sense of one's own forgiveness
The danger of spoilage
The very blessings that warrant gratitude can inhibit thankfulness
Three theories of humor (what makes people laugh)

1) Superiority theory (Hobbes)
2) Incongruity theory (Kant)
3) Relief theory (Freud and Spencer)



ordo amoris
order of loves - generosity requires a proper order of loves
Different senses of justice:
-Remedial: preparation for some wrong
-Commercial: the fair exchange of goods/money
-Distributive: the fair distribution of goods and services; possible criteria: equality, need, desert

Three kinds of courage:
1) in repentence
2) truth-telling
3) suffering

Three kinds of patience:
1) When facing nuisances (e.g., traffic, annoying people)
2) When facing boredom (e.g., ruts at work or at home)
3) When facing suffering (e.g., a long or difficult trial)—fades into the virtue of perseverance



Two kinds of humility:
1) Voluntary—the choice to lower oneself
2) Involuntary—being lowered by circumstances (esp. by suffering)


Self-control
the essence of moral strength
Culture
refers to the care and cultivation of human life, using the resources God has given us.

Nature = what God gave us at creation
Culture = what we do with what God gave us


Cultural Mandate
This refers to God’s command at creation to “do culture” (p. 46); we must be creative stewards of creation
Appropriation
infusing popular arts and practices with spiritual justification
Mistaken approaches to popular culture:
1) Condemnation
2) Appropriation
3) Consumption

Consumption
downplays conflicts between popular culter and Christian faith
Condemnation
complete rejection of popular culture
What is the difference between "popular culture" and "entertainment?"
The term "entertainment" suggests a lack of aesthetic value.
What do the terms "secular" and "sacred" properly apply to?
To the absense or presence of faith conviction in doing whatever one does.
Worldview
= “a lens, model, a picture or a framework consisting of ‘fundamental beliefs through which we view the world and our calling and future in it’” (59).
Maps of Reality
-Since popular artworks are borne out of culture and express worldviews, they can be “read” or interpreted as “texts”.
-To interact with popular arts is to engage in cultural conversation.


Cultural Functions of Popoular Art:
1) Cultural communication - popular arts "convey and examine common cultural ideas, beliefs, values, and assumptions"
2) Social and cultural criticism - popular arts "treat dilemmas and contentious issues of contemporary life"
3) Social unity - popular arts "inform people's communal identity"
4) Collective memory - poplualr arts "serve the funciton of remembering for the human race"


3 approaches Christians use to assess poplular artworks:
1) Moralist approach - focus on false beliefs and immoral practices
2) Ideological approach - focus on social, economic, and political ideas
3) Theological approach - focus on religious themes or implications

Pitfalls of Hollywood films
1) Melodrama
2) The "Wizard of Oz" Syndrome


Melodrama
-overly sentimental; emotionally manipulative
-presents the world in black and white terms
-oversimplifies difficult issues
-one-dimensional characters
-clean endings; good triumphs over evil

examples: Pretty Woman, Remember the Titans, Braveheart, Legend of Zorro







The "Wizard of Oz" Syndrome
Refers to any film that gives “an overly positive evaluation of human moral capacity” and “invests humans with everything they need to secure their own destiny and salvation” (169).

Examples: Garden State, Erin Brockovitch, The Patriot, Ray, Gladiator, etc.



Christian Art:
-Should be realistic, not melodramatic
-Should “show” not “tell” spiritual truth
-Faith should be the context not necessarily the subject of the artwork



3 Perspectives on Art & Ethics
1) Aestheticism
2) Moralism
3) Ethicism

1) Aestheticism
Art and the artist are insusceptible to moral judgment. Art and
ethics never conflict, because the creative artist is above morality.

Oscar Wilde: “There is no such thing as a moral or an immoral book. Books are well written or badly written. That is all.”




2) Moralism
Moral-spiritual value is the sole criterion for assessing art. The only
relevant judgments of art are ethical in nature.

Leo Tolstoy: “The estimation of the value of art…depends on men’s perception of
the meaning of life, depends on what they consider to be the good and the evil of life. And what is good and what is evil is defined by what are termed religious.”





3) Ethicism
The moral qualities of an artwork contribute to or detract from the
overall quality of an artwork. Overall assessments of art must balance
many factors, including moral assessments.

Berys Gaut: “The ethical assessment of attitudes manifested by works of art is a legitimate aspect of the aesthetic evaluation of those works…”





But why bother with beauty? Why should the Christian care about aesthetics?
1. The Genesis creation account (“it is good”)

2. Bezalel and Oholiab (Exod. 35)

3. God’s nature—the beauty of God, “glory” as an aesthetic quality, etc. (Augustine,
Aquinas, Edwards)






In Search of guidelines:

6 important distinctions:

1. Depiction of evil vs. endorsement of evil (Saving Private Ryan & Passion of the
Christ vs. Cider House Rules & Million Dollar Baby)

2. Necessary depiction vs. gratuitous depiction of evil (The Deerhunter, The
Exorcist & City of God vs. Natural Born Killers, Friday the 13th, Nightmare on
Elm Street)

3. Depiction in service of a noble theme vs. depiction in service of a trivial theme
(On the Waterfront & Spitfire Grill vs. Sin City & Requiem for a Dream)

4. Provision of insight into truth vs. obscuring of truth (The Big Kahuna & Les
Miserables vs. JFK, Pleasantville, & Chocolat)

5. Final justice and personal redemption vs. moral lawlessness and personal
hopelessness (Dead Man Walking & American History X vs. The Silence of the
Lambs & Dogville)

6. Objective content of the artwork vs. subjective response of the audience
• Profanity in Good Will Hunting
• Sexual premise in American Beauty
• Violence in Pulp Fiction





















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