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Glossary of Ethics 4 Test

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Created by cowgirl0288

the scope of healthcare encompasses numerous issues including ____ and _____.
right to refuse treatment and right to limit suffering one will endure
The scope of heathcare ethics is not limited to philosphical issues but embraces ____, ____, ____, and ____
legal, medical, economic and polical dilemmas
Types of ethical dilemmas:
physician assisted suicide, autonomy, morality
moraliy is a ___ ____ ___
code of conduct

morality is a guide to what?
to behavior that all rational persons put forward for governing their behavior
defined as some moral excellence or benificial quality
virtue
a principle is a ____
virtue
examples of virtures are ___and ____
justice and honesty
the things we aim to gain or keep
value
a practice is a ____
value
some instances when a patient can refuse treatment( make a decision about own healthcare)
1. refuse to take meds
2. refuse blood
3. refuse invasive proceduress

Autonomous decision making can be affected by:
Disabilities, mental status, maturity, incapacity to make decisions
The purpose of organizational ethics in the health care setting is ____
to promote behavior in the decision making process
Organizational ethics (types of governmental regulations)
Sarbannes Oxley Act, EMTALA, Joint COmmission
Types of Unethical Practices
billing scams, inappropriate advertising and marketing, Patient Care issues
function of ethics committee
to analyze ethical dilemmas and to advise and educate health care providers, patients and families
Request for a consultation often involve:
1. informed consent
2. DNR orders
3. assistance in conflict resoulution

Evalutation of case consultation should take into consideration: (3)
1. Patients current medical status
2. effect of no treatment
3. life expectency

what 3 roles vary when discussing committee functions?
1. Policy and Procedure Development
2. Educational Role
3. Consultative Role

Name a few ethical dilemmas that the Ethics Committee face?
informed consent
dilemma of blind trials
what role should committee play in HIPAA
to what extent should info be shared with family


The right of Self Determination was emphazized in what case?
Quinlan Case
The Quinlan Case was the first case to address _____
issue of whether euthanasia should be permitted when pt. is terminally ill

Only can appoint a guardian if:
1. family members disagree as to imcompetent wishes
2. physicians disagree
3. malpractice

Patients Intention to reject the prolongation of life by aritificial means were the: (4)
1. persistence of statements regarding individuals beliefs

2. desirability of committement to beliefs

3. seriousness with statements

4. interferences may be drawn





provides patients the right to formulate advance directives, and to make decisions regarding their health care
PSDA (patient self determination act)
Providers must ensure that written policies and procedures with respect to individual regarding advance direcives are established: (4)
1. to provide written info
2. document in medical record
3. no discrimination
4. info to staff


Oregons Death with Dignity Act of 1994 allows what?
physicians to prescribe but not administer lethal drugs to requester who must be terminally ill with fewer than six months to live.
Requirements to Oregons Death with Dignity Act of 1994
1. voluntary
2. waiting period is 15 days
3. 2 physicians
4. witnessed orally and writing


written instructions such as a living will or durable power of attorney for heatlth care under state law
advance directives
Guarding ship Case
terry shiavo
a legal document that allows a person a health care agent to make treatment decisions in the event he or she becomes incapacitated
health care proxy
In contrast to a living will, a living will does not require what?
a person to know about and consider in advance all situations and decisions that could arise
Before excersing an incompetent patients right to forgo medical treatment, the surrogate decision maker must satisfy the following conditions:
1. surrogate must be satisfied that the patient executed executed the document
2. patient must not have reasonable probability of recovering competency so that the patient could exercise the right
3. surrogate must take to ensure that any limitations are taken care of

What three thing determine incapacity?
1. physician must find with a reasonable degree of medical certainty that pt. lacks capacity
2. notation
2. second physician

how would a person go about having a living will?
should be signed and dated by two witnesses who are not blood related and signature and copy to physician
Futility of Treatment occurs when what?
physician recognizes that the effect of treatment will be no benefit to the patient
Withdrawal of Treatment should be considered when:
1. the patient is in a terminal condition

2. patient is noncognitive state with no regaining

3. restoration of cardiac function will last for a brief period



A physican can withold from incompetent nursing home patients who will according to physicians die within a year: (3 things)
1. when it is clear that the patient would have refused treatment
2. treatment would prolong treatment
3. treatment outweighs life

the _____and _____ provide guidelines for the development of federal regulations for medical research and the protection of human subjects
Nuremburg Code and Experimentation
Institutions conducting medical research on human subjects must:
a. disclose all risks to patients

b. make a proper determination that patient is competent to consent


c. identify alternatives

d. obtain written consent






Each organization conductiong medical research has to be reviewed, monitored adn approved by _____
Institutional review board
rules permit the use of experimental drugs outside controlled clinical trial if the drugs are used to treat a life threating condition
FDA (food and drug administration)

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