Glossary of Essentials of Psychology Ch. 5: Learning
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- Dr. Patel is attempting to check Jan's knee-jerk reflex. She is sitting with her legs crossed, with one foot dangling in the air. When the doctor gives her a sharp tap just below the kneecap, her foot jumps. However, one second before the doctor taps the
- Classical conditioning.
- Every time little Clara blows air into her pet rabbit's face, he blinks. Soon, Clara starts to giggle right before blowing into his face. After a while, the rabbit blinks as soon as Clara starts to giggle before she has a chance to blow. In this example
- Conditioned stimulus (CS).
- Han moves into a new apartment. Soon afterward, he is taking a shower when he hears his son flush the toilet and the water suddenly becomes extremely hot, causing Han to jump. After a few flushings during his showers, Han notices a change in his behavior
- A conditioned stimulus (CS).
- Han moves into a new apartment. Soon afterward, he is taking a shower when he hears his son flush the toilet and the water suddenly becomes extremely hot, causing him to jump. After a few flushings during his showers, Han notices a change in his behavior
- Stimulus generalization.
- Luis came down with a stomach virus one day last month. For dinner that night, he ate lasagna. The next morning, he was extremely sick to his stomach. He now starts to feel sick to his stomach if he just smells lasagna. Luis's taste-aversion conditioning
- The conditioned stimulus must be presented no more than 1.5 seconds before the unconditioned stimulus.
- When Jackie asked a question in class, the instructor told her it was a great question and made her feel good about herself. Since then, Jackie has asked many more questions in class. Jackie's experience is an example of
- The law of effect.
- Tom doesn't like to hear his infant son, Parker, cry. When Tom makes funny faces, Parker stops crying. Tom is now much more likely to make funny faces than he used to be. This increase in the likelihood that Tom will make funny faces can best be explaine
- Negative reinforcement.
- Because Theo is lactose intolerant, he can become ill if he eats diary products. Therefore, before he eats any diary products, he takes medicine to prevent the illness. Taking the medicine before eating is an example of
- Avoidance conditioning.
- Children are often aware of which conditions are more favorable and which are less favorable to asking parents for an advance on their allowance. Psychologists call these conditions
- Discriminative stimuli.
- Anna wanted to train her dog, Alex, to give a "high five." At first, she gave Alex a treat just for raising his paw. As the training progressed, she required Alex to raise his paw and slap her hand to get the treat. By the end of the training,
- Anika receives an allowance from her parents. Because she has learned that she can exchange the money for candy, toys, and other treats, her allowance is a
- Secondary reinforcer.
- Theodore does not like to take out the garbage. His parents, on the other hand, want him to take out the garbage every day. In order to get him to do so, they begin giving him five dollars after he has taken out the garbage three times. After a while, th
- Fixed ratio.
- Ihab knew he needed to study for his exam. He decided that he would make a tape containing all the important information and listen to it while he slept. Unfortunately, Ihab flunked the exam. When he got his test back, he said, "That's the last time
- Donella told her son, "I told you to stop that, and you didn't, so now you're in time out." She removed her son from activity and stimulation by making him sit still in a chair facing a blank wall. Donella is using what method to discipline her
- Punishment II.
- Linda studied very hard for her first two quizzes in history class and flunked both. She now rarely attends class, never reads the book, and doesn't study for quizzes and tests. Linda is exhibiting
- Learned helplessness.
- The power was out late last night when Eduardo got home. Even though he couldn't see very well, he was able to move around his apartment without much difficulty because he had
- A cognitive map.
- Recently, a suggestion box appeared at work. The only person who filled out one of the cards to make a suggestion was Doris. A couple of days later, the boss came into the office, told Doris that he was pleased that she had made a suggestion, and handed
- Vicarious conditioning.
- Instead of lecturing about how our legal system works, Diane assigned students to be lawyers and jurors. The students then participated in a mock trial. Diane's students experienced
- Active learning.
- True / False
Positive reinforcement ensures that only good and desirable behaviors will occur again.
- True / False
Negative reinforcement is the same thing as punishment.
- True / False
When used properly, punishment can be effective.
- True / False
Aggressive behavior is aggressive behavior, regardless of what part of the world in which it occurs.
- True / False
Watching violent television makes people more violent.
- The two basic requirements for classical conditioning are a neutral stimulus and what type of behavior?
- Reflex behavior.
- In Pavlov's experiment, the salivation to the sound of the tone is the
- Conditioned response.
- What is the unconditioned stimulus in Pavlov's experiment?
- The meat powder.
- After conditioning a dog to salivate to the sound of the tone, Pavlov stopped giving the dog the meat powder. As a result, the dog
- Gradually stopped responding to the sound of the tone.
- The reappearance of a conditioned response after it had been extinguished and without further pairings of the conditioned stimulus with the unconditioned stimulus is called
- Spontaneous recovery.
- Rats can be conditioned with shock to fear a light or a buzzer, but not flavored water. Conversely, they can be conditioned with nausea to avoid flavored water, but not a light or a buzzer. The above is an example of
- Thorndike discovered that an animal would repeat a behavior in the presence of a stimulus, if that behavior was rewarded in the past. This describes
- The law of effect.
- Operant conditioning differs from classical conditioning in that
- In classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus both precede the response, but in operant conditioning the response comes first.
- Negative reinforcement is
- A type of reward.
- In the shaping procedure, behavior is reinforced
- At every step along the way to a target behavior.
- Bread is what type of reinforcement to a hungry person?
- When responses are reinforced after a varying amount of time, the schedule of reinforcement is called
- Variable interval.
- Because their teacher gives pop quizzes on a fixed interval schedule, the students can expect to have a quiz after
- A certain amount of time has passed.
- Penalty differs from type I punishment in that only penalty
- Involves the removal of a positive stimulus.
- When it comes to effective punishment, all of the following pieces of advice should be followed EXCEPT
- "Wait until a certain 'cooling period' has passed before administering the punishment."
- Sean has a pessimistic explanatory style. Consequently, when a good thing happens to him, he'll say that it is
- Temporary and due to luck.
- When Tolman's rats successfully ran the maze to retrieve food, he concluded that their behavior could be explained by latent learning and
- Cognitive maps.
- Köhler attributed his chimps' problem solving behavior to
- Vicarious conditioning is what type of learning?
- Observational learning.
- One difference between the typical American classroom and the typical Japanese classroom is that
- Japanese children are more likely to work cooperatively than are American children.
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