Glossary of Essentials of Psychology

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At 9:50, a bell rings to indicate that class is over, and the students get up and leave. In terms of the three functions of the nervous system, which part of this process is considered output?
The students get up and leave.
The manner in which a neuron reacts to a stimulus is analogous to a
Remote control turning a television on or not depending on whether the batter is good.
Mary Lou has arrived on the set to film a battery commercial. She feels sluggish and tired, so she sends a message to her brain: "Energize me!" In other words, Mary Lou is hoping to increase the amount of what substance in her brain?
Because her mood improved when she took an anti-depressant, Dr. Mendez surmised that Lucy had low levels of the neurotransmitter
Alice sits back and smiles as she enjoys the pleasure of eating a chocolate bar. As she leans back, she accidentally knocks Brad's coffee into his lap. Brad's brain releases a neurotransmitter to help deal with the pain. In fact, it is the same neurotran
An endorphin.
Because his grandfather is in the early stages of Alzheimer's, Alexander was reviewing the literature on nootropic drugs. Consequently, he decided to recommend them to his grandfather because they
Do improve attention slightly and there are no better alternatives at the present time.
Standing on line outside the movie theater, John heard music coming out of someone's radio. Because he liked what he heard, he began to move to the music. Which nervous system allowed him to respond in that way?
While walking in the woods, Amy sees a bear. The sympathetic branch of her autonomic nervous system activates. What is the most likely result?
She begins to sweat, and her heartbeat quickens.
Dudley goes to the doctor for a physical exam. During the exam, the doctor strikes Dudley's kneecap, and his leg kicks forward. Dudley, having taken a psychology class, knows that this reflex is controlled by his
Spinal cord.
A PET scan can be used for which of the following?
To find out which areas in the brain are involved when a person uses hallucinogenic drugs.
Part of Gwen's brain was damaged. She now finds it hard to execute such movements as smoothly getting up out of a chair, effortlessly waving hello to a friend, and gazing sweepingly at the sky. What part of her brain has been damaged?
The midbrain.
During a fall, eleven-year-old Steven sustained an injury to his cerebellum. Consequently, before he recovered, he was unable to
Brush his teeth.
Which of the following messages would not come from the hypothalamus?
"I want to watch television!"
After taking a bullet to the head, officer Dean had trouble waking up in the morning. The bullet had probably injured which brain structure?
The hypothalamus.
After an accident that resulted in injury to his brain, Matthew lost the ability to link features from two sensory systems. For instance, when he smells a rose, he recognizes the odor but he cannot visualize the flower without actually looking at it. The
One Sunday, Leslie broke her foot while skiing. A week later, while limping along on crutches, she slipped on a patch of ice and sustained a head injury in the area of the hippocampus. What is the likely status of Leslie's memories of the two events?
She was likely only able to remember the earlier event of breaking her foot while skiing.
Armando was enjoying a relaxing afternoon at the lake. He was reclining on a dock, allowing his feet to sink into the water. Unfortunately, a large-mouth bass thought Armando's left big toe looked like a tasty treat and bit it. In what part of Armando's
The right parietal lobe.
After having a stroke, Marty finds it difficult to communicate with others. Although he still understands what people are saying to him, he has trouble making himself understood by others. He knows what he wants to say, but the task of actually saying th
After having had her corpus callosum cut by surgeons, six-year-old Monica was placed in front of a device that presented visual images only to the right hemisphere of her split brain. When the doctor showed her a picture of farm animals and asked her to
pointed to the horse and said, "I don't know what it is."
When she confronted a burglar in her bedroom, Betsy experienced the "fight-or-flight" response. She chose to run and to her surprise felt as if she had tremendous energy. The extra energy was probably due to a rise in her blood sugar caused by
True / False

Psychologists do not really need to know biology in order to understand human behavior
True / False

Memories are permanently stored in the hippocampus.
True / False

Brain development is governed mainly by hereditary influences.
True / False

Hormones from endocrine organs function in the same way as neurotransmitters.
True / False

A damaged human brain cannot generally repair itself.
One difference between axons and dendrites is that
There are many dendrites on each neuron but only one axon.
Which of the following is NOT true of neurons?
Neurons must touch each other in order to communicate.
Which of the following is TRUE of neurons?
Have signal senders known as axons.

Are held together by glial cells.

Have signal receivers known as dendrites.
Ned the Neuron has a myelin coating on his axon, while Nick the Neuron does not. What is the effect of Ned's myelin coating?
Ned's action potentials occur more quickly than Nick's.
Which of the following statements about communication in the human nervous system is true?
Charged impulses carry signals within neurons, but neurons use chemicals to communicate with one another.
Dr. Lenz, has been doing research on Parkinson's disease. At present, he is focusing on two kinds of neurotransmitters, both of which affect movement. Normally one inhibits the other. The two are most likely
Dopamine and GABA.
The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems together make up the
Autonomic nervous system.
Kezia is having the electrical activity in her brain measured by having electrodes attached to her scalp. Which of the following procedures is being performed on Kezia?
When Al sustained severe brain damage after a car accident, his doctors needed to look at a detailed picture of his brain. In addition, they wanted to be able to see which parts of the brain were active during various activities. To accomplish both tasks
fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging).
The reticular formation is involved in regulating
Attention and arousal.
Pete is one of the best players on the professional tour. In a recent match, Pete lunged for the ball and hit it for a winner. The announcer exclaimed, "That was just a reflex shot that won the point for Pete!" Apparently, the announcer had nev
The only aftereffect that the astronaut felt after his latest orbital flight was a disturbance in his circadian rhythms. Accordingly, he had difficulty with
Waking and sleeping.
In a bizarre accident involving a banana peel and a nail gun, Bob damaged his hippocampus. What will he no longer be able to do?
Form new memories.
Which part of the cerebral cortex is likely to have sustained damage when a patient is able to speak but unable to understand neither his own speech nor what others are saying to him?
Wernicke's area.
Masako had surgery in which her corpus callosum was cut. Masako was most likely suffering from
Masako had surgery in which her corpus callosum was cut. What will she no longer be able to do?
Transfer information from the left side of her brain to the right side.
After a bad fall, Bernie damaged some neurons in one area of his brain. How will his brain respond to the injury?
By having nearby neurons sprout new axons to take over lost functions.
Who most likely has the most dendrites and synapses in her brain?
Catherine, age six.
What is the difference between neurotransmitters and endocrine hormones?
Neurotransmitters are released into synapses, whereas endocrine hormones are released into the bloodstream.
Heather sees her Aunt Jean at a family reunion. Heather, who is fourteen, has grown six inches taller since the last time she saw her aunt. Jean remarks on how much Heather has grown. Having taken Psychology 100, she attributes Heather's growth to activi
Pituitary gland.
The fight-or-flight syndrome refers to the combined reaction to stress of the adrenal glands and which nervous system?
The sympathetic nervous system.

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