Glossary of Equine anatomy-HEAD

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1. Describe the relation of the alar cartilage to the anatomy of the nostril.
2. Describe the nasal septum of the horse.
Divides the nasal cavity into left and right parts
-made of hyaline cartilage
3. What is the false nostril?
the nasal diverticulum- a dorsally located blind-ended pouch in the nostril
4. What is a nasal meatus? How many are present in the nasal passage of the horse? Where are they located?
They are spaces between the conchal bones. There are four. Dorsal-between nasal bone and dorsal conchae
Middle-between dorsal ande ventral conchae
Ventral-between ventral conchae and hard palate
5. Identify/draw the nasal conchae and meatuses ona cross section of the nasal cavity
6. Identify the nasal conchae and meatuses on a gross specimen
1. dorsal nasal concha
2. middle nasal concha
3. ventral nasal concha
4. ethmoid nasal concha
7. What is the significance of the sublingual caruncle and the sublingual fold in the horse?
sublingual caruncle-opening of the mandibular salivary glands
sublingual fold-openings of the polystomatic sublingual salivary glands
8. Identify the various lingual papillae of the horse.
vallate-taste (2 only- a left and right)-separates the root and body of the tongue
9. Describe the lingual and pharyngeal tonsils of the horse.
lingual tonsils-found at the root of the tongue

pharyngeal tonsils-dorsolateral wall of the pharynx- diffuse scatterings of tissue under the mucosa--cobblestone appearance during an inflammatory reaction
10. Identify the palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches on a gross specimen.
Palatopharyngeal--dorsal to esophagus

Palatoglossal--soft palate to tongue
11. What are the divisions of the oral cavity?
1. Nasopharynx
2. Laryngopharynx
3. Oropharynx
12. What are the divisions of the pharynx?
1. nasopharynx
2. laryngopharynx
3. oropharynx
13. Where is the pharyngeal orifice of the auditory tube? Identify the diverticulum of the tube. What is this structure called? Is it present in the dog?
It is located in the nasopharynx.
The diverticulum of this tube is called the gutteral pouch. It is not present in the dog.
14. Identify the cartilages of the larynx.
1. epiglottis
-cuneiform process
2. arytenoid (paired)
-corniculate, muscular, and vocal processes
3. thyroid
-body:thyroid notch
-lamina:rostral cornu-thyroid fissure, caudal cornu
4. cricoid
-lamina, arch
15. Where are the thyroid foramen and thyroid notch of the thyroid cartilage located?
on the thyroid cartilage (see picture)
16. What is the anatomic significance of the cricothyroid and cricotracheal ligaments or membranes?
-an incision is made in the cricothyroid ligament when performing a laryngostomy
17. Identify the three processes of the arytenoid cartilage.
1. muscular process
2. vocal process
3. corniculate process
18. Identify the bones of the hyoid apparatus.
1. stylohyoid
2. ceratohyoid (keratohyoid)
3. basihyoid-lingual process
4. thyroihyoid
(5. epihyoid-fused to proximal stylohyoid)
(6. tympanohyoid-fused to distal stylohyoid)
19. Where is the lingual process of the basihyoid found? Is it present in the dog?
-attached to the basihyoid bone and embedded in the root of the tongue. Not present in the dog
20. Identify the laryngeal ventricle and the folds of mucosa associated with it.
1. Lateral folds
-vestibular folds and vocal folds

2. Median fold
-caudal to the base of the epiglottis
21. An endotracheal tube passes through the rima glottidis. What is this structure?
-the opening to the glottis
22. Identify the three extrinsic muscles of the larynx.
1. hyoepiglotticus
2. sternothyroideus
3. thyrohyoideus
23. ID the 3 pharyngeal muscles and the 2 intrinsic laryngeal muscles.
1. cricopharyngeus
2. thyropharyngeus
3. hyopharyngeus

1. cricoarytenoideus dorsalis
2. cricothyroideus
24. What structures are innervated by the cranial laryngeal nerve and the recurrent laryngeal nerve?
cranial laryngeal n.=cricothyroideus m.

recurrent laryngeal n.= motor to all intrinsic muscles

*becomes caudal laryngeal n.**
25. Describe roaring
pg. 172-173 in guide
26. What is the rostral opening of the nasal cavity called?
external nares
27. what is the caudal opening of the nasal cavity called?
-internal nares
28. Describe tooth aging.
Determining the age of an equine by chages that occur in the appearance of the tooth.
29. What are the differences between hypsodont and brachydont teeth?
Hypsodont teeth have a large crown and grow continuously.
30. What are the deciduous and permanent dental formulae of the horse?
Deciduous: 2(Di 3/3 Dc 0/0 Dp 3/3)

Permanent: 2(I 3/3 C 1/1 P 3or4/3
M 3/3)
31. Which of the permanent teeth of the horse may be vestigial or absent?
the wolf teeth (1st upper PM) or the canine teeth in the female
32. Give the anatomic explanation for the formation of points.
the mandible is narrower than the maxilla and the teeth do not wear evenly.
33. What is Galvayne's groove? What are dental caps? What is the 7 year hook?
Galvayne's groove- a brownish triangle on upper I3 where cementum is present

Dental caps-retained deciduous teeth that are still attached to PM and sometimes Molars

7 year hook- a point on the occulsal surface of I3
34. Understand the general principles for estimating the age of an older animal.
see notes
35. Be able to grossly / diagrammatically ID the bones of the skull.
1. incisive
2. nasal
3. maxilla
4. lacrimal
5. zygomatic
6. frontal
7. parietal
8. temporal
9. occipital
10. interparietal-fused to parietal
11. facial crest
36. ID the major foramina of the skull and the structures that pass through them.
1. supraorbital- Opthalmic n.
2. infraorbital- Infraorbital n.
3. maxillary- Maxillary n.
4. foramen lacerum- CN IX, X, and XI
37. ID the foramina and the prominences of the equine mandible.
1. mandibular foramen
2. mental foramen

coronoid process
condylar process
38. Compare the orbit of the equine skull with that of the canine.
Equine-zygomatic process of the frontal bone, zygomatic process of the temporal bone, temporal process of the zygomatic bone

Canine-frontal, lacrimal, zygomatic, maxillary, presphenoid, basisphenoid, palatine
39. Be able to ID the foramen lacerum.
rostral to the occipital bone
40. Which neural structures pass through the foramen lacerum in the equine skull?
1. CN IX, X, XI
2. internal carotid a. and n.
3. mandibular n.
41. ID the facial crest of the equine skull on a skeletal or live specimen.
transverse facial a., v. and n. run ventral to this structure
42. ID the salivary glands. Where do the ducts of each gland open into the oral cavity? Compare the glands present in the horse with those in the dog.
43. Compare the equine mandibular lymph nodes with those of the canine species. Number? Location? Drainage?
44. Study the pattern of sensory innervation of the equine head.
figure 7-5
45. What is the functional innervation provided by the facial nerve?
46. What is the functional innervation provided by the facial nerve?
47. Compare the platysma of the dog with its counterpart in the horse.
-in the horse it is the cutaneous faciei
48. Which veins unite to form the external jugular vein?
the maxillary and linguofacial vv.
49. Describe /ID the venous drainage of the face as discussed in lecture.
50. ID the individual muscles of facial expression. Which cranial nerve supplies their functional innervation?
51. ID the individual muscles of mastication. which cranial nerve supples their functional innervation?
52. ID the primary branches of the trigeminal nerve. Which are sensory and which are motor?
53. ID the superficial branches of the facial nerve.
54. You should be able to differentiate whether a given nerve is motor, sensory, or both.
55. You should be able to ID/label the structures indicated in figs. 7-2,3,4,6 in the dissection guide.
56. What is the superficial muscle that lies over the parotid gland in the horse?
parotidoauricularis muscle
57. Describe the anatomic arrangement of the digastricus in the horse.
What is the motor innervation to this muscle?
58. The common carotid artery terminates by splitting into which branches on the left side? Right side?
59. ID the branches of the external carotid artery in the horse.
60. What are the branches of the maxillary artery?
61. What are the branches of the superficial temporal artery?
1. rostral auricular a.
2. transverse facial a.
62. Which neural structure can be seen superficially with the transverse facial vessels?
transverse facial n.
63. Which structures are associated with the vascular groove of the mandible?
1. facial a.
2. facial v.
3. parotid salivary duct
64. How does the internal carotid artery enter the cranial cavity?
pg. 159
65. Which artery branches off the external opthalmic artery?
66. Which artery branches off the infraorbital and passes through the bony orbit?
malar a.
67. ID the paranasal sinuses of the horse.
Rd. pgs. 166-167
68. Describe/ID the internal structure of the paranasal sinuses. What are the internal communications of the sinuses?
69. Describe the septa of the maxillary sinus.
70. ID/describe/draw the anatomic and surgical boundaries of the paranasal sinuses.
71. What are the major surgical procedures that involve entering the sinuses?
72. ID the exit from the maxillary sinus to the nasal cavity.
73. Where is the infraorbital canal located? What is its association with the paranasal sinuses?
74. Differentiate the auriculotemporal n. and the auriculopalpebral n.
75. What is a paranasal sinus?
76. Appreciate the 3-D organization of the guttural pouches.
77. Describe the membrane lining the guttural pouch.
78. How are the pouches related at the midline?
79. What is the path of the internal carotid a. through the area of the guttural pouches?
80. Which vessel passes between the major divisions of the pouch?
81. Describe the anatomy of the pouches and their extent.
82. What are the classic signs of guttural pouch disease?
-swollen in Viborg's triangle if their is air trapped inside (tympany)
-possibly neurologic dysfunction
83. What is guttural pouch empyema?
an abscessed guttural pouch
84. ID operative sites associated with the tx of guttural pouch disease.
85. Know major structures associated with the guttural pouches. (see notes)
1. Stylohyoid bone
2. linguofacial trunk
3. CN IX, X, XI, and XII
4. cranial cervical ganglion
5. internal carotid a.
86. Inflammation of the guttural pouches may cause neural damage that manifests itself by signs of pharyngeal paralysis and dysphagia. Why?
CN IX, X, XI and XII may be affected by inflammation of the guttural pouch
87. What is the important anatomical difference of the equine eye compared to the canine eye as discussed in class?
Fig. 7-26
the equine eye has an "iridic granule"/black body/corpora nigra located haging from the iris down into the pupil
88. What is the textbook description of the location for the medial and lateral retropharyngeal lymph nodes?
pg. 160

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