Glossary of Equine anatomy-HEAD
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- 1. Describe the relation of the alar cartilage to the anatomy of the nostril.
- 2. Describe the nasal septum of the horse.
- Divides the nasal cavity into left and right parts
-made of hyaline cartilage
- 3. What is the false nostril?
- the nasal diverticulum- a dorsally located blind-ended pouch in the nostril
- 4. What is a nasal meatus? How many are present in the nasal passage of the horse? Where are they located?
- They are spaces between the conchal bones. There are four. Dorsal-between nasal bone and dorsal conchae
Middle-between dorsal ande ventral conchae
Ventral-between ventral conchae and hard palate
- 5. Identify/draw the nasal conchae and meatuses ona cross section of the nasal cavity
- 6. Identify the nasal conchae and meatuses on a gross specimen
- 1. dorsal nasal concha
2. middle nasal concha
3. ventral nasal concha
4. ethmoid nasal concha
- 7. What is the significance of the sublingual caruncle and the sublingual fold in the horse?
- sublingual caruncle-opening of the mandibular salivary glands
sublingual fold-openings of the polystomatic sublingual salivary glands
- 8. Identify the various lingual papillae of the horse.
vallate-taste (2 only- a left and right)-separates the root and body of the tongue
- 9. Describe the lingual and pharyngeal tonsils of the horse.
- lingual tonsils-found at the root of the tongue
pharyngeal tonsils-dorsolateral wall of the pharynx- diffuse scatterings of tissue under the mucosa--cobblestone appearance during an inflammatory reaction
- 10. Identify the palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches on a gross specimen.
- Palatopharyngeal--dorsal to esophagus
Palatoglossal--soft palate to tongue
- 11. What are the divisions of the oral cavity?
- 1. Nasopharynx
- 12. What are the divisions of the pharynx?
- 1. nasopharynx
- 13. Where is the pharyngeal orifice of the auditory tube? Identify the diverticulum of the tube. What is this structure called? Is it present in the dog?
- It is located in the nasopharynx.
The diverticulum of this tube is called the gutteral pouch. It is not present in the dog.
- 14. Identify the cartilages of the larynx.
- 1. epiglottis
2. arytenoid (paired)
-corniculate, muscular, and vocal processes
-lamina:rostral cornu-thyroid fissure, caudal cornu
- 15. Where are the thyroid foramen and thyroid notch of the thyroid cartilage located?
- on the thyroid cartilage (see picture)
- 16. What is the anatomic significance of the cricothyroid and cricotracheal ligaments or membranes?
- -an incision is made in the cricothyroid ligament when performing a laryngostomy
- 17. Identify the three processes of the arytenoid cartilage.
- 1. muscular process
2. vocal process
3. corniculate process
- 18. Identify the bones of the hyoid apparatus.
- 1. stylohyoid
2. ceratohyoid (keratohyoid)
3. basihyoid-lingual process
(5. epihyoid-fused to proximal stylohyoid)
(6. tympanohyoid-fused to distal stylohyoid)
- 19. Where is the lingual process of the basihyoid found? Is it present in the dog?
- -attached to the basihyoid bone and embedded in the root of the tongue. Not present in the dog
- 20. Identify the laryngeal ventricle and the folds of mucosa associated with it.
- 1. Lateral folds
-vestibular folds and vocal folds
2. Median fold
-caudal to the base of the epiglottis
- 21. An endotracheal tube passes through the rima glottidis. What is this structure?
- -the opening to the glottis
- 22. Identify the three extrinsic muscles of the larynx.
- 1. hyoepiglotticus
- 23. ID the 3 pharyngeal muscles and the 2 intrinsic laryngeal muscles.
- 1. cricopharyngeus
1. cricoarytenoideus dorsalis
- 24. What structures are innervated by the cranial laryngeal nerve and the recurrent laryngeal nerve?
- cranial laryngeal n.=cricothyroideus m.
recurrent laryngeal n.= motor to all intrinsic muscles
*becomes caudal laryngeal n.**
- 25. Describe roaring
- pg. 172-173 in guide
- 26. What is the rostral opening of the nasal cavity called?
- external nares
- 27. what is the caudal opening of the nasal cavity called?
- -internal nares
- 28. Describe tooth aging.
- Determining the age of an equine by chages that occur in the appearance of the tooth.
- 29. What are the differences between hypsodont and brachydont teeth?
- Hypsodont teeth have a large crown and grow continuously.
- 30. What are the deciduous and permanent dental formulae of the horse?
- Deciduous: 2(Di 3/3 Dc 0/0 Dp 3/3)
Permanent: 2(I 3/3 C 1/1 P 3or4/3
- 31. Which of the permanent teeth of the horse may be vestigial or absent?
- the wolf teeth (1st upper PM) or the canine teeth in the female
- 32. Give the anatomic explanation for the formation of points.
- the mandible is narrower than the maxilla and the teeth do not wear evenly.
- 33. What is Galvayne's groove? What are dental caps? What is the 7 year hook?
- Galvayne's groove- a brownish triangle on upper I3 where cementum is present
Dental caps-retained deciduous teeth that are still attached to PM and sometimes Molars
7 year hook- a point on the occulsal surface of I3
- 34. Understand the general principles for estimating the age of an older animal.
- see notes
- 35. Be able to grossly / diagrammatically ID the bones of the skull.
- 1. incisive
10. interparietal-fused to parietal
11. facial crest
- 36. ID the major foramina of the skull and the structures that pass through them.
- 1. supraorbital- Opthalmic n.
2. infraorbital- Infraorbital n.
3. maxillary- Maxillary n.
4. foramen lacerum- CN IX, X, and XI
- 37. ID the foramina and the prominences of the equine mandible.
- 1. mandibular foramen
2. mental foramen
- 38. Compare the orbit of the equine skull with that of the canine.
- Equine-zygomatic process of the frontal bone, zygomatic process of the temporal bone, temporal process of the zygomatic bone
Canine-frontal, lacrimal, zygomatic, maxillary, presphenoid, basisphenoid, palatine
- 39. Be able to ID the foramen lacerum.
- rostral to the occipital bone
- 40. Which neural structures pass through the foramen lacerum in the equine skull?
- 1. CN IX, X, XI
2. internal carotid a. and n.
3. mandibular n.
- 41. ID the facial crest of the equine skull on a skeletal or live specimen.
- transverse facial a., v. and n. run ventral to this structure
- 42. ID the salivary glands. Where do the ducts of each gland open into the oral cavity? Compare the glands present in the horse with those in the dog.
- 43. Compare the equine mandibular lymph nodes with those of the canine species. Number? Location? Drainage?
- 44. Study the pattern of sensory innervation of the equine head.
- figure 7-5
- 45. What is the functional innervation provided by the facial nerve?
- 46. What is the functional innervation provided by the facial nerve?
- 47. Compare the platysma of the dog with its counterpart in the horse.
- -in the horse it is the cutaneous faciei
- 48. Which veins unite to form the external jugular vein?
- the maxillary and linguofacial vv.
- 49. Describe /ID the venous drainage of the face as discussed in lecture.
- 50. ID the individual muscles of facial expression. Which cranial nerve supplies their functional innervation?
- 51. ID the individual muscles of mastication. which cranial nerve supples their functional innervation?
- 52. ID the primary branches of the trigeminal nerve. Which are sensory and which are motor?
- 53. ID the superficial branches of the facial nerve.
- 54. You should be able to differentiate whether a given nerve is motor, sensory, or both.
- 55. You should be able to ID/label the structures indicated in figs. 7-2,3,4,6 in the dissection guide.
- 56. What is the superficial muscle that lies over the parotid gland in the horse?
- parotidoauricularis muscle
- 57. Describe the anatomic arrangement of the digastricus in the horse.
What is the motor innervation to this muscle?
- 58. The common carotid artery terminates by splitting into which branches on the left side? Right side?
- 59. ID the branches of the external carotid artery in the horse.
- 60. What are the branches of the maxillary artery?
- 61. What are the branches of the superficial temporal artery?
- 1. rostral auricular a.
2. transverse facial a.
- 62. Which neural structure can be seen superficially with the transverse facial vessels?
- transverse facial n.
- 63. Which structures are associated with the vascular groove of the mandible?
- 1. facial a.
2. facial v.
3. parotid salivary duct
- 64. How does the internal carotid artery enter the cranial cavity?
- pg. 159
- 65. Which artery branches off the external opthalmic artery?
- 66. Which artery branches off the infraorbital and passes through the bony orbit?
- malar a.
- 67. ID the paranasal sinuses of the horse.
- Rd. pgs. 166-167
- 68. Describe/ID the internal structure of the paranasal sinuses. What are the internal communications of the sinuses?
- 69. Describe the septa of the maxillary sinus.
- 70. ID/describe/draw the anatomic and surgical boundaries of the paranasal sinuses.
- 71. What are the major surgical procedures that involve entering the sinuses?
- 72. ID the exit from the maxillary sinus to the nasal cavity.
- 73. Where is the infraorbital canal located? What is its association with the paranasal sinuses?
- 74. Differentiate the auriculotemporal n. and the auriculopalpebral n.
- 75. What is a paranasal sinus?
- 76. Appreciate the 3-D organization of the guttural pouches.
- 77. Describe the membrane lining the guttural pouch.
- 78. How are the pouches related at the midline?
- 79. What is the path of the internal carotid a. through the area of the guttural pouches?
- 80. Which vessel passes between the major divisions of the pouch?
- 81. Describe the anatomy of the pouches and their extent.
- 82. What are the classic signs of guttural pouch disease?
-swollen in Viborg's triangle if their is air trapped inside (tympany)
-possibly neurologic dysfunction
- 83. What is guttural pouch empyema?
- an abscessed guttural pouch
- 84. ID operative sites associated with the tx of guttural pouch disease.
- 85. Know major structures associated with the guttural pouches. (see notes)
- 1. Stylohyoid bone
2. linguofacial trunk
3. CN IX, X, XI, and XII
4. cranial cervical ganglion
5. internal carotid a.
- 86. Inflammation of the guttural pouches may cause neural damage that manifests itself by signs of pharyngeal paralysis and dysphagia. Why?
- CN IX, X, XI and XII may be affected by inflammation of the guttural pouch
- 87. What is the important anatomical difference of the equine eye compared to the canine eye as discussed in class?
- Fig. 7-26
the equine eye has an "iridic granule"/black body/corpora nigra located haging from the iris down into the pupil
- 88. What is the textbook description of the location for the medial and lateral retropharyngeal lymph nodes?
- pg. 160
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