Glossary of Environmental Toxicology
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- Layer of gases that extends upwards 62,000 mi.
Source of oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide.
Acts as a freshwater distillery.
Absorbs cosmic rays and UV radiation.
Insulates the earth – the “Greenhouse Effect.”
- Hydrologic Cycle
- sunlight evaporates water. It’s a distilling process. Water vapor condenses in the atmosphere and comes back down.
- Cosmic Rays
- Damaging rays. UV causes skin cancer.
- Carbon Cycle
- Two processes:
Plants. Take sunlight energy and combine CO2 and water into a sugar called glucose.
Provides energy for almost all organisms on the planet.
We take sugar and combust it biologically and release energy. This is the energy we live on. We also release some waste. Plants take these back up, make more sugar, we combust, etc etc.
- Can't pass through glass. Sunlight passes through glass and gets converted to infrared energy.
- Greenouse gasses
- Triatomic or Larger
Carbon dioxide, water vapor, ozone, nitrous oxide, methane, freons, NOx, SOx, etc.
Need a central atom from which to vibrate.
Most atmospheric gases are diatomic (99%).
The central atom acts as a fulcrum so that the other 2 can vibrate against. Has to vibrate to re-radiate that energy after absorption occurs.
- Global Warming
- Increasing amounts of gases in the atmosphere. Temeperature changes are happening much faster than before
- Industrial Revolution
- Key determinant of increased levels of CO2
- Carbon Seasonal Fluctuations
- Carbon Cycle occurs more during the summer than winter.
- Estimated that doubling of CO2 would increase temp. by 5 - 6c. Pretty close.
- Ice Melting
- Huge problem w/ global warming. Results in sea leel rise. Over past 50 years, line starting to go exponential.
- Removal of CO2
- Takes on average 50 - 200 years for it to come back. Could take a while before we see an improvement.
- Ways to reduce global warming
- Reduce fossil fuel combustion for energy.
Switch to renewable sources of energy.
Enhance global photosynthetic capacity.
Sequester carbon dioxide in deep oceanic sites or geologic formations.
- Four Belts of the Atmosphere
- Troposphere: where we live (most molecules reside here.
Stratosphere: more elevation more thinner air
- Longer - lower energy
shorter - higher energy
Ultraviolet light has more energy than infrared
- UV A, B, C
- UV A reaches the ground.
UV B tends to get better filtered
UV C is essentially all filtered out
The problem today is that the filtering process is becoming less efficient. UV B now comes through as well which means higher energy and more destruction to our skin.
- Ozone in the troposphere
- Can be quite destructive. Very corrosive to the lungs. Created by baked industrial processes, lawn mowers, trucks, and other volatile organic compounds.
- Ozone in the stratosphere
- Good. Filters harum ultraviolet rays.
Oxygen gets split up into atomic oxygen (highly reactive). Those react w/ other oxygens to form ozone. Goes from UV energy to infrared energy (lower form of energy). UV -> heat
- Created by Refrigernats, spray propllants, plastic foam blowing (styrofoam).
CFS are great for refrigeration. Good compressibility and relatively inert.
With increase in CFC came drop in ozone because they started escaping (especially during fridge repairs).
- Made of carbon and a halogen (chlorine or fluorine). Quite stable
- Ozone depletion
- Particularly acute at the poles
- Ozone reduction by freons
- CFC are source of cholrine radical. Freaon + UV = chlorine in form of free radical. Attacks ozone and converts it to Oxygen. Now you have one oxygen on cl. Atomic oxygen comes along to release Cl and to form oxygen (o2). Reaction starts all over again.
- Donate an H+
Measured as pH
Strong acids donate readily.
- Accept an H+ or donate -OH.
- Acid rain
- occurs in highly industrialized areas.
Winds can cause acid rain somewhere else even though it is caused in another area. Northa AMerica to Europe.
- Acids that contribute to Acid Rain
- Carbonic acid (from carbon dioxide) = water + CO2 - >weak
Sulfuric Acid (from sulfur dioxide)
Nitric Acid (from nitric acid)
Nitric and Sulfuric Acid comes from industry.
- Calcium carbonate
- Weak Base
- Acidic soils
- These are most sensitive to acid rain. Regeions w/ basic limestone rich soils are capable of buffering acid rain.
- Remediate Acid Rain
- Lake Liming: throw crushed limestone into acid lakes. Not a permanet solution.
Catalytic converters: convert nitric oxide in auto exhausts to nitrogen and oxygen gases. Expensive
Smokestack Scrubbers: convert sulfur dioxded to gypsum.
- Includes water bodies and water atmosphere. Recycles itself via hydrologic cycle. All living organisms are living on 2% fresh water supply.
- Water pollution
- Organic: petroleum, dyes, detergents, pesticides
Inorganic: acids and bases, salts, nitrates, phosphates
- Biological Water Pollution
- Pathogenic - cause disease: bacteria, fungi, virus
Aquatic Weeds: plants that use nutriens and choke off waterways
Aquatic algae: excessive grwoth caused by excess nutrients: eutrophication.
- chimeical Oxygen Demand
- Amount of oxygen required for degradation of a pollutant over 5 days at room temp. Fish in the pond aphyxiate due to a rusting car.
Biological Oxygen Deamnd: Amount of oxygen required for degradation of a pollutant by microbes over 5 days at room temp.
- Sewage treatment
- reduce the oxygen demanding substances released in the environment
- Accelerated Eutrophication
- Nitrates and phosphates are plant fertilizers taht cause excessive plant growth in the summer. In the fall, plants die off and form deritus. Contributes to high BOD in the water. Microbes consume the detrius and oxygen.
- gets into our environment via pipelines, storage tanks, refineries, waste oils, cars, industrialzed sectors
Industrial waste is biggest source (not oil tankers)
- oil begins to dissolve when released in sea water (dissolution).
Aromatic hydrocharbons are most important chemicals in terms of toxicity.
- Remediation technique
- Recovery – removal via the use of booms, collecting agents (e.g. straw), and mechanical skimmers.
Burning – combustion only works well on fresh oil.
Sinking – use of agents that cause oil to sink to the bottom of the sea.
Dispersal – use of detergents (dispersants) to disperse oil into the water column and off the surface.
Bioremediation – Use of bacteria to degrade the oil.
- Break up oil into smaller and smaller portions until it is digested by bacteria.
- mechanism or method by which a chemical acts
- Aerobic Microbes
- Utilize oxygen to perform aerobic respiration. We like these
- anaerobic microbes
- utilize sulfur or nitrogen to perform any anerobic respirtion. Givee off methane, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia. Gives off some toxic chemicals.
- use of biological organisms to alleviate the problems associated with toxic chemicals or other chemical wastes.
Organism Types – Selected organisms can be bacteria, fungi, plants, etc.
- Natural Bacteria
- bioremediation: tend to be adapted for the local environment; disadvantage is the products they produce from a waste may be unknown and toxic (intrinsic bioremediation).
- cloned bacteria
- Advantage is that they can be selected based upon the known non-toxic products they produce; disadvantage is that they might not be adapted for the local environment (enhanced bioremediation).
- chemicals subject to bioremediation
- TCE and other cleaning solvents in groundwater.
Pesticides such as DDT and atrazine in sediments.
Crude oil in coastal estuaries.
Gasoline in groundwater from station storage tanks.
Sewage – normal treatment and in groundwater from sewer pipe seepage.
- Swimming Plants.
Most toxic plankton are dinoflagellates – 24 spp.
They are photosynthetic.
They have whip-like flagella for swimming.
They are filter fed by fishes.
Produce light – bioluminescence (warning for native Americans
- Alexandrium spp.
- type of dinoflagellate
Saxitoxins (STX) - “ I can’t breathe!” (Taken up by molluscs)
Also known as gonyaulax toxin and paralytic shellfish poison.
Tends to arise in summer blooms – months without an “R.”
Filter fed by bivalves, anchovies and sardines.
Causes vomiting and respiratory paralysis.
California coast is quarantined annually.
- Gymnodinium breve
- Type of dinoflagellate
Brevetoxin (BTX) - “I can’t see!”
Causes neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP).
Dissolves in water; the aerosol causes surfer’s cough.
Corrodes boat paint, fish gills, eyes and lungs of people.
Causes respiratory paralysis – manatees and dolphins
- Dinophysis acuta, D. acuminata
- Type of dinoflagellate
Diarrhetic shellfish poison (DSP) - “ I can’t …!”
Found in Europe and eastern Canada.
Okadaic acid and other dinophysistoxins.
Causes diarrhea, stomach ulcers and cancerous tumors.
- Gambierdiscus toxicus
- Type of dinoflagellate
Ciguatoxin (CTX)- “I can’t feel hot and cold!”
Also known as ciguatera poison.
Produced by a photosynthetic benthic dinoflagellate.
Found in the tropics, rests and grows on other algae.
Grazed upon by many tropical reef fishes and moluscs.
Causes nausea, vomiting, and paralysis (rarely lethal).
Reverses temperature sensation!
- Tend to be needle-shaped single cells.
They are photosynthetic and have silica walls.
They exist in colonies of long chains.
They tend to bloom in the spring.
- Pseudo-nitzschia spp.
- Type of diatom
Domoic acid (DA) - “I can’t remember anything!”
It causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP).
Found in Japan, Canada, California, etc.
Filter fed by bivalves, sardines and anchovies.
Causes loss of coordination and seizures.
Impacts seals, sea lions, pelicans, other birds, and humans
- “I can’t move!”
Also known as fugu poison, produced by bacteria.
In red algae, some salamanders, and blue-ringed octopus.
Also in puffer fishes, sunfishes, and porcupine fishes.
In puffer fishes, TTX is concentrated in the ovaries and liver.
Causes respiratory paralysis, and is super toxic.
- Raw pufferfish, considered a delicacy in Japan.
A tingle in the mouth and tongue is considered desirable.
Prepared by licensed chefs.
Some 200 people per year die from bad fugu.
In puffer fishes, TTX is concentrated in the ovaries and liver.
Causes respiratory paralysis, and is super toxic.
- Langerhans cell
- protects from microbes. Allergy response
- pigment of the skin. Protect from UV light. When exposed to UV light, make pigment and donate pigment. Can be targets of melanoma.
- Hydrated Skin
- Makes it easier for things to get in.
- Fossil fuels
- Coal – A form of carbon that is derived from the heat/pressure degradation of swamp plants.
Coal – As determined by carbon and water content, found as anthracite, bituminous coal, or lignite.
Oil/Natural Gas – Hydrocarbon mixtures that are derived from the heat/pressure degradation of marine phytoplankton.
- Oil consists of
- Alkanes (hydrocarbons), Alkenes, Alkynes, Aromatics
- Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil
- Oil consists of literally hundreds of organic chemicals.
Carbon lengths vary from C1 to about C60.
Different size hydrocarbons have different uses.
Hydrocarbons can be separated into size “fractions.”
Separation involves using their unique boiling points.
Boiling point = the temperature at which a chemical transitions between as liquid and a gas.
- Approximate Distilled Fractions
- Natural gas (BP < 20C) – C1 to C4.
Petroleum ether (BP 20 to 60C) – C5 to C6.
Gasoline (BP 30 to 180C) – C5 to C9.
Kerosene (BP 180 to 230C) – C10 to C14.
Heating oil/diesel fuel (BP 230 to 305C) – C15 to C18.
Lubricating oil (BP 305 to 405C) – C19 to C25.
Asphalt (non-boiling) – C26 to C60
- Petroleum “Cracking”
- The splitting of larger hydrocarbons into smaller ones.
About 25 to 45% of a barrel of crude oil can be distilled into gasoline.
Used to make more gasoline (C5 to C9) from the heating oil (C15 to C18) fraction.
Commonly done to meet summer driving demand
- Octane Rating of Gasoline
- Gasoline consists of straight and branched alkanes.
If consisting of all straight alkanes, they ignite before the spark = premature ignition (“knocking”).
n-Heptane causes the most pre-ignition, so it is “0.”
Iso-octane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane) is the best burning branched alkane, so its rating is set at “100.”
Gasoline mixtures are rated by comparison to standard mixtures of n-heptane and iso-octane
- Octane Enhancers
- The octane rating of gasoline can be enhanced.
Reforming can be used to convert straight alkanes to branched alkanes.
Until 1975 TEL was used as a less expensive means.
Until recently MTBE was used.
Methanol and ethanol (gasahol) are now used.
- Problems with Octane Enhancers
- Branched alkanes are too expensive.
TEL simply degrades to lead, which is highly toxic and does not further degrade.
MTBE is both volatile and soluble in water, noxious, and has a low odor and taste threshold.
Methanol and ethanol (gasahol) are now used, but easily absorb water and are expensive.
- the study of the interations between organism and chemical
- Egyptian payrus that is the earliest toxicological document written
- First to classify toxics into categories of animal, vegetable, mineral
- Catherine de medicis
- Middle ages: probably true first toxicologist. Used toxic procedure to study poisions
Time till onset
Specificity: where in the body does it take effect
clinical science: symptoms
- Bombastic Paracelsus
- Considred founder of toxicology
- Percival Plott
- Scrotal cancer + chimney sweeps
- First to put out idea that if one sees toxic symptoms one must do analysis to find out if it was from a toxic cause
- Rachel Carson
- Silent spring: book envisions world of pesticide where no living thing exists.
- Synthetic compounds
- natural compound in asprin
- Normal chemical effects
- predictable effects based on the physical/chemical properties
- Abnormal effects
- based on immunological properties
- Acute effect
- arise within 96 hours
- sub Chronic effect
- One week to a year
- year or more
- graded response
- measured in single individual over time with increasing does
- Quantal response
- measured in population over time w/ increasing dose
- amount of chemical needed to cause an effect
- median effect level
- does that will kill 50% of the population.
- letahl dose
- Sublethal dose for 50% of tested population
- Therapeuitc dose for 50% of the population.
- margin of safety
- distance between toxic effect and therapeutic effect
- Therapeutic index
- TD50/ED50 or TD1/ED99
- chemical requires certain amount before there is a toxic effect
(as opposed to one hit theory w/ cancer)
- Reference dose
- Also known as accepted daily intake
- chemical risk
- the inherent probability that a chemical exposure will resul in an adverse effect
No exposure, no risk
- bioactive chemicals from plants
- bioactive chemicals from molds and fungi
- Drugs that cause temp. relief
- Narcotic analgesics
- produce sleep like painless state
- block pain nerves
- stimulate activity
- produce general sedation
- cure infectious diseases
- ergot alkaloids
- caused by mold on grains.
Rye: one of the most common grains to suffer this condition.
- mycotoxin example
- penicillins; first expensively produced until it was relized that it was usable in patient's urine
- Phytotoxin example
- Opioids: dull senses and induce sleep. relieve diarreah. Narcotic. Used for dysentry. Comes from opium poppy dried sap. Morphine, codeine and papavarine isolated from the sap as well.
- Strong cough suppressant
- similar to viagra.
- combined w/ alcohol as laudanum: given for old war injuries
- produced from morphine. also great cough suppresant.
- Tropane alkaloids
- stimulants that suppress appetite.
cocaine is an example. Numbness of the tongue; local anastethic.
-caine: related to cocaine.
Tropane poison. Used as beauty aid to dilate pupils.
Sarin: war gas that kills within minutes, but atropine is an antidote.
- Henbane poison
related to atropine, isolated from henbane, powerful sedative, used to treat motion sickness
- abnormal concentration of a chemical in an environment.
- abnomral concentration of a chemical in the environment that is above the NOEL
- Three physical environments/compartments
also biosphere (organsims)
- movement of chemical within a compartment
- chemicals travel through water moving through soil
- when a chemical's movement travel between compartments
- study of chemical movement in the
= bioaccumulation - bioconcentration
weaknesses of the model: chemicals can be lost through each level by excretion or detoxification; organisms can absorb chemicals not just through food.
- represents uptake of chemicals via water, soil, air
- represents cheimcal uptake via all routes
- observed that miners who mined for arcenic died young
- Beaver pelt hats
- hats required mercuric nitrate. People who chronically wore the hats developed tremors.
- alkanes(hydrocarbons). Made from crude oil. Generally used as solvents and fuels.
- HO in their molecular structure
Methanol: causes blindness
- related to alcohols; 2 HOs.
Two step process in the liver tuns ethylene glycol into oxalic acid and formic acid
- Oxalic acid
- crystallizes in your brain and kidneys
- formic acid
- causes blidness
- Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)
- sic carbon rings w/ hydrogen.
2 types: pyrogenic and petrogenic
- attacks nervous system and kidneys, carcinogen.
- Nickel And Cadmium
- commonly found in batteries.
Cadmium selectively ends up in kidneys and is carcinogen
Both are likely to replace calcium.
- Cinnabar and Mercury
- Fat soluble, found in sharks, swordfish, tuna. toxic to nervous system and kidneys.
- Abestos fiber for insulation
- form of silicon. When distrubed, breaks off into very small barbed particles. causes mesothelioma.
- HERP risk values
- human exposure over rodent potency.
- contain nitrogen rings
- Found on side of highway. Campers get easily poisoned by it due to unawareness.
- Poison oak
- Contains laccol, easily absorbed into the skin.
- Peruvian lilly
- similar to poison oak. Often found in bouquets and cut flowers
- kind of like poison oak. used in wwII to avoid draft.
- has heart shaped leaves that are gray-green in color. Underside of leaves contain tiny inorganic quartz needles which act like miniscule poison syringes.
- plant contains inorganic n eedles made out of calcium oxalate; slaves punished by being forced eat dumbcane; provided great pain and swelling of the mouth, lips, tongue, throat. Can cause asphyxiation.
- Contains solanine when green.
- poison celery contains xanthotoxin is at its highest level. circulates around the blood ending up in the skin. Once exposed to sunlight, symptoms appear which are similar to that of poison oak
- lima beans
- little amounts of cyanide.
- also has phototoxic effects
- Redwood and pyrethrium daisy.
- sugars attached to an alcohol (lima beans)
- cyclic ester (tulips)
- oxalic acid or its salts
- benzen ring w/ at least one OH group (poison oak).
- Allergic contact dermatitis: delayed skin reaction
- naturla chemical that affects an organism other than that producing it.
- cholinesterase inhibitor
- chemical that binds to enzymes that regulate conduction of nerve impulses between enrve cells; often results in paralysis.
- class of chemicla with fuzed benzene and lactose rings
- capable of forming cyanide
- reaction product of an alcohol and an acid
- cyclic ester
- causing birth defects
- phytochemical: made from ground tobacco in powder form. used to be a pesticide. Very toxic. Black leaf. Falls under category of nicotinoid
- made from the root of the plant derris; general pesticide. More toxic to fish than humans
- made from chrysantehmums; makes up about 40% of all insecicides used.
Initial extraction from chrysantehmum is called pyrethrum; an elixir of six pyrethrins.
- organocholorine insecticide
- classical is ddt.
- orgonophospathe insecticide
- react w/ water breaking down up contanct (hydrolisis).
- carbamate insecticide
- react w/ wather because of the carbon oxygen bond.
- cholorphenoxy herbicide
- agent orange is an example. used to erdicate the vietnamese jungle: mimics growth hormone of plants. stimulates uncontrollable growth and uses up the nutrients in theground.
Dioxin found to be an impurity of agent orange.
- secondary carcinogen
- one which the body has to convert in order for it to become carcinogen.
- chemical that directly reacts w/ DNA to cause a change in its function
- a chemical that causes cancer by any means:
many carcinogens serve to cause cancer by non genetic means such as by supressing the immune system or naturally creasing cell divion rate.
- genotoxic carcinogen
- chemical that causes cancer by drieclty reacting w/ dna to cause a change in its function
- epigenetic carcinogen
- a chemical that causes cancer by non genetic means
- malignant tumor
- invades other cells.
- PAHs in Puget Sound, Washington
- cause tumors in fish
- Sea turtles in hawaiian islands
- suffered from fibropapillomas; expected to be caused by planktonic toxins or by viruses
- cancer that arises from epithelial cells (covering body or tisssue surfaces)
- cancer that arises from supporting or connective tissue
- cancer aht arises from pigmented cells of the skin
- cancer atha rises from teh cells of the lymphatic system
- class 1
- plenty of human evidence and many animal evidence
- class 2
- weak human evidence, many animal evidence
- class 3
- weak human evidence, some animal evidence
- class 4
- data shows that it does not cause cancer
- destory tissues by digesting proteins; either thinning or thickening of blood
- poisons that act at neuromuscular junctions
- marine cnidarians
- jellyfish, sea anemones; these have stinging nematocysts
- digests tissues
- harpoon like tooth filled w/ conotoxins
- cause nerve paralysis, nausea, speech difficulties
- digests proteins
- toads: produce bufotenin, bufotenidin; cause hypertension and hallucination
- (frogs)produce batrachotoxin which cause skeletal muscle paralysis.
Used as arrow tip poison.
venoms lost in captivity
- fishes that contain toxins following ingestion
- fishes that produce toxins in their gonads
- fishes that have toxins in their blood
- fishes that produce aggressive venoms (causes intense pain, cardiac failure, complete limb paralysis
- creatures can cause allergic reactions; venoms tend to be mixtures of enzymes and histamines.
- endocrine disruptor
- hormones which control many activiites, including development, reproduction, and behavior.
- foreign chemical w/ estrogen properties
- foreign chemical w/ androgenic properties
- Hypothalamus and pituitary gland
- responsible for the initial control of hormones
- steroid hormones
- naturally synthesized from cholestrol
- foreign chemicals that can stimulate hormonal affects
- foreign chemicals that block receptors
- Tributyltin and Marine Mollussk
- TBT used in paint for boats. Kills mollusks and baranacles. Endocrine disruptor. Navy still uses it despite it being banned. whelks have suffered conversion of gentipic femalses to phenotypic males
- Estrogens and reptiles
- American alligators impacted by xenoestrogens. Chemicals come from oral contraceptives and natural estrogen from human excretions.
Genotypic femalses become phenotypic males
- Nonylphenol and Fishes
- Used for many years as pesticide solvent and detergent. Stimualtes the estrogenic receptor thus creates an overpoduction of the egg protein, vitellogenin in gentypic males. Males become feminized and infertile. Also cause hermaphroditism
- Endocrine disruptors and human reproduction
- Average sperm count has declined from 113 million/ml to only 66 million/ml
Males considered infertile when count declines below 20 million/ml
- Category A
- biological weapons
- small pox:
- fever, fatiuge
If sprayed, 90% inactivated within 24 hours.
found naturally in soils, very stable.
- bubonic plague
- originally an naimla diseas w/ a rodent host and a flea vector.
characterized by buobes: nodules of tissue swelling filled w/ the bacterium
- Typhoid fever:
- contact w/ tissues of infected animals, bites inhalation, ingestion
- viral hemorrhagic fevers
- hemorrhagic is uncontrolled bleeding.
- hurled clay vases filled w/ venomous reptiles (184 BC)
- Middle ages and black death
- tarta soliders hurled cadavers of plague victims over the city walls
- Pizarro gave indigenous people of south america small pox infected clothing
- French and Indian wars
- Give native americans loyal to the french small pox contaminated blankets
- Germans shipped livestock to US and Russia infected w/ anthrax
- Japanese biological wweapons programs used over 3,000 POWs for experimentation
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