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Glossary of Environmental Anth

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What are two types of human adaptation?
Biological and Behavioral
What are two types of Biological adaptations in humans?
Genetic and Developed
What is an example of a genetic adaptation?
cranial capacity, bipedality
What is an example of a developed adaptation?
climate acclimation or other physiological changes
What are two types of Behavioral adaptations?
Acquired and Shared
What portion of the environment is utilized specifically?
Resources
Who was a notable scholar in Human Paleoecology?
Karl Butzer
What is the definition of Ecology?
the study of relationships between organisms and their environment
Under what sub-discipline does Paleoanthropology fall?
Biological or Physical
Under what sub-discipline does Human Paleoecology fall?
Archaeoology
What is Ethnography?
Specific group, specific time
What is Ethnology?
comparative study between groups?
What is the difference between prehistoric and historic Archae?
prehistoric has no written record
What are the 3 Conservationist ideas?
Human unity with nature, Stewardship, and human cooperation with nature
Who is connected with Stewardship?
John Muir and George Marsh
Who is connected with early empiricism and science?
Francis Bacon, Charles Lyell, and Charles Darwin
Who is associated with Human unity with nature?
Charles Darwin and St. Francis of Assisi
What are some 1800s anthropologists?
George Marsh and Frederick Ratzel
What 1900s anthropologist championed the landscape approach?
Carl Sauer
What is Environmental Determinism?
the environment dictates how people adapt
What are some problems with environmental determinism?
It is fixed and unchanging, says that given a specific environment specific changes will occur
Who is linked with the Culture Area concept?
Alfred Kroeber
What are some problems with the culture area concept?
It is a synchronic version of time instead of diachronic or evolutionary
What theme is the culture area concept associated with?
Determinism
Who is linked to the theme of Human Adaptation?
Lyell, Malthus, and DArwin
What are four principles of evolutionary theory?
1. populations have genetic variation
2. can increase exponentially without restraints
3. phenotypes best adapted for the environment are selected for
4. indirect influence of environment on genotype


Who is connected with Unilinear Evolution?
Adam Smith, Lewis Morgan, EB Tylor
What are the three stages of "progress"?
Savagery, Barbarism, and Civilization
Who is connected with Multilinear Cultural Evolution?
Julian Steward
What book did Julian steward write in 1955?
Theory of Culture Change
Who is conncted with Neoevolution?
Leslie White
What book did Leslie White write in 1949 about neoevo?
The Science of Culture
What are the four sizes and complexities of Neoevolutionary theory?
Band, Tribe, Chiefdom, and State
Who is connected with Possibilism?
Franz Boas
C = E x T
Culture = Energy x Technology
What are synonymous terms for Genetic and Developed adaptations?
Anatomical and Physiological
What are two types of Physiological adaptations?
Primary and Secondary
What is the difference between a Primary and Secondary adaptation?
Primary = acclimatization, immediate
Secondary = months or years
What "rule" is an example of an Arctic Anatomical adaptation?
Bergman's rule of body surface area and temperature
What are some things that regulate population?
food supply, bc, infanticide, geronticide, and warfare
How is St. Francis of Assisi linked to environmental anth?
He wrote Human Unity with Nature, saw humans as a strand in a web
Two people linked to stewardship
John Muir and George Marsh
What does Redman consider a theme of human cooperation with Nature?
Gardening
How is culture connected with Fred Ratzel?
Saw culture as a way of shaping the environment
What ecological approach is connected with Vayda and RAppaport?
New Ecology
What ecological approach is connected with Harris
Cultural materialism
What ecological approach is connected with Wolf
Political Ecology
What ecological approach is connected with Deevey
Historical ecology
What theoretical approach is illustrated by the sacred cows of india?
cultural materialism
Who coined the term ecology (oikos)?
Haeckel
How are biomes connected with cultural areas?
biomes with added layers of culture, carrying capacity and economy become culture areas
What are some terrestrial biomes?
deciduous forest, grassland, tundra, desert, boreal forest, and tropical forest
What are some aquatic biomes?
Estuarys, Littoral, Limnetic, Profundal, still water, moving water, riparian
what is refugia?
remnants of a past biome that have survived
How are refugia useful?
can be used to study characteristics of past biomes that may no longer exist
What are indicators of refugia?
small areas of stark contrast with a current biome
Who linked ecosystem to bioshpere and when?
Odum, 1953
What term is applied to the quantity of living matter and productivity?
biomass
What erm is related to the variety of organisms in an environment?
biodiversity
Generalized adaptations are
highly diverse
Specialized adaptations are
low diversity
What defines a resource according to Sauer?
something that is actually utilized by an organism
What is a niche?
the role an organism plays in its community
What is habitat?
the specific location where an organism lives
The maximum number of people that can be supported by a given ecosystem
Carrying capacity
what is the Convoy principle?
the speed of the slowest ship determines speed of the convoy
How is the convoy principle linked to Liebigs Law of Minimums?
carrying capacity can only be as high as tis most limiting resource will permit

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