## Glossary of Engineering terms for ENGE 1024

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- analog
- device that uses continuous values of voltages and currents

- analog computer model
- analog circuit that simulates a physical system

- analysis
- the process of defining and seeking an answer to a problem

- cube-square law
- as an object gets smaller, the volume decreases faster than the area. surface-area to volume ratio increases with small obj.

- digital
- device that uses only discrete voltages and currents

- engineering design method
- a procedure of synthesis, analysis, communication, and implementation

- law of diminishing returns
- small inputs, the output increases linearly; larger inputs, outputs levels off

- application issue
- the lack of clarity as to whether a particular act violates a law, rule, or policy

- conceptual issue
- uncertainity about how it should be codified into clearly definied law, rule, or policy

- conflict of interest
- engineer's loyalties and obligations may compromised bc of other loyalities

- convergence
- to tend toward a common solution

- diverge
- to differ

- eminent domain
- the right of the gov't to take possesion of private property for public use

- engineering ethics
- the set of standards engineers should follow

- ethical egoism
- an act is moral if you act in your own self interest

- ethics
- concepts of right and wrong behavior

- etiquette
- the codes of behavior and courtesy

- factual issue
- uncertainity about morally relevant facts

- game theory
- a tool for evaluating optimal behavior strategies

- happiness objective function
- E(benefit)(importance)-E(harm)(importance)

- interaction rules
- expected sets of behavior

- law
- the system of rules established by authority, society, or custom

- legal rights
- just claims given to all humans through the gov't

- moral issue
- issue resolved through moral decision

- moral rights
- just claims that belong to humans

- moral theories
- framework for making moral and ethical decision

- morals
- accepted standards of rights and wrong

- rights analysis
- moral theory that equally respects each human being

- ulitarianism
- to create the most good for people

- vulcanized
- to imporve the strength and resiliency of a polymer by bining it with sulfur

- whistle blowing
- informing authorities of harmful, dangerous, ot illegal activities

- application
- process whereby appropriate information is identified for the problem at hand

- Archimedes' principle
- total mass of a floating object equals the mass of the fliud displaced

- comprehension
- the step in which the proper theory and data are used to actually solve th problem

- heuristic
- the use of speculative strategies for solving a problem

- iterative procedure
- repetition of a sequence of steps to solve a problem

- manipulative models
- a class of problems that have some physical entity that can be used to one's advantage in order to solve a problem

- parallelepiped
- a solid with six parallelogram faces that are parallel to the opposite face

- reductionism
- logically break a problem into pieces

- actuator
- a mechanism that uses pneumatic, hydraulic or electrical signals to activate equipment

- concurrent engineering
- a design approach in which specialists work together right at the beginning of a project

- delphi technique
- members of a group are intentionally separated and given the same problem. they return their solutions to the leader, the solutions are pooled , and the group members rate the ideas

- evalution matrix
- mathmatical evaluation that identifies the best solution by weighing

- feasibility study
- step of the engineeriing design method where ideas are roughed out

- global optimum
- the best condition found with constraints

- initial capital cost
- the purchase price of a product

- life-cycle cost
- the purchase price and additional costs such as labor, operation, insurance, and maintenance

- local optimum
- the best condition found w/ contraints

- nominal group technique
- ideds are discussed and then ranked

- preliminary design
- the step of the engineering design method where some of the more promising ideas are explored in more detail

- redundancy
- the use of multiple components in which each has the same capabilities

- sequential engineering
- an approach in which specialists work in compartmentalized manner

- chronological strategy
- a strategy that gives a historical account of the topic

- accurancy
- the extent to which the reported value approaches the true value and is free form error

- engineering notation
- the use of leading zeros for decimal numbers less than 1

- error
- the differenc between the the reported value and the true value

- precision
- the extent to which the measurement may be repeated and the same answer obtained

- random error
- an error that doesn''t result from a measurement methos thatis inherently wrong

- rounding error
- rounding in intermediate calculations which results in an incorrect final answer

- scientific notation
- numbers expressed in terms of decimal point

- significant figure
- an accurate dight, excluding the zero required to place the decimal point

- systematic error
- an error that results from a mearsurement method that is inherently wrong

- uncertainty
- the result from random error and describes the lack of precision

- abscissa
- the x-axis

- dependent variable
- a varible that cannot be arbitrarily selected and is determinedby the independent variable

- exponential equation
- y=kB^mx

- extrapolation
- extending beyond the data points

- independent variable
- a variable that can be arbitrarily selected

- intercept
- the value where a line interests a coordinate axis

- interpolation
- extending between the data points

- least-squares linear regression
- used to find a line that best fits the data

- linear interpolation
- the approximation of a curve with a straight line

- linear regression
- the process of finding the equation of a straight line that best fits the data

- log-log graph
- a graph in which both axes are linear

- ordinate
- the y axis

- power equation
- y = kx^M

- rectilinear graph
- a graph in which both axes linear

- regression
- going backward from the data to the equation

- semilog graph
- a graph in which one axis is logarithmic and the other in linear

- slope
- rise over run

- vapor pressure
- the pressure of the vapor in equilibrium with the liquid or the solid