Glossary of Emotion and Memory4
Created by gallup005
- fMRI studies show what other regions besides the amygdala are used in emotional memory?
- Ventromedial PFC
- What 3 things is the ventromedial PFC used for in emotional memory?
- increasing interest, emotional regulation, self-processing
- The amygdala and __ are integrated heavily with each other
- The window of a year when brain development of fear occurs:
- Hyproresponsive period
- In lab how are human's fear responses measured?
- skin conductance response, increase in fear/arousal will sweat a bit more, not noticable but will picked up on SCR
- pts with amygdala damage don't show __ __ but can tell what light/tone means is coming
- conditioned response
- Pts with MTL damage show __ __ __ but don't have __ __ to why
- skin conductance response, declarative knowledge
- Would amygdala pt like SM show the same advantage to being able to remember murderer in list of words?
- Yes, has semantic knowledge, can tell you that murderer is a bad thing and will remember it more relative to others.
Won't have same SCR to the word murderer - no fear
- Does SM show same eye movement pattern as others when watching bank robber's gun?
- No, control's eyes seem to focus on the gun whereas SM doesn't have the emotional context to the gun so eyes to focus on it
- controls show emotional memory __ amaygdala pts __
- boost, don't
- Amygdala pts remember __ than control pts for emotional memory
- Focus more on __ details related to emotional context and loose the __ peripheral details
- gist, unrelated
- what 3 things may make amygdala pts different?
- 1. etiology: how they got the damage
2. Timing: when it occurs
3. extent of damage
- During the horror film study: amygdala pts can do what, and can't do what?
- Can identify scenes that should be scary
Don't have SCR - didn't show any fear
- What were the results of the gist vs peripheral detail study?
- Putting people in an emotional state caused them to remember more gist info.
opposite for amygdala pts
- More amygdala have left more bias for __ memory
- Having larger HC better for __ memory
- MTL amnesics w/out amygdala damage remember __ info, SM shows the opposite
- Connections: conditioned emotional learning:
- amygdala connections back on self
- procedural memory, choke or freeze under pressure
- HPA modulates:
- other parts of the body, controls arousal and stress
- All pts wit amygdala damage show defects in __ emotion but not all show defects in __/__ effects
- Cortisol effects on memory:
- short term can be benifical to encoding, consolidation and retrieval, but too much have negative effects on MTL and rememberence goes down
- Long-term effects of high cortiosl:
- detrimental: system adapts to not be in stressful situations at all times, so when are have harder time with declarative, assns/context, and consolidation
- Widespread effects of high cortisol:
- increase heartbeat, shuts down reproductive tract, GI tract and decrases neurogenesis
- Short term cortisol increase or decrease neurogenesis?
- Mood-dependent effects:
- version of state/context effects
match b/w mood at encoding and retrieval - mood not very powerful cue, not specific, more general
- Mood - congruent effects:
- easier to recall memories that match current emotional tone
More specific, more bias to search thru networks
- If you have test anxiety what is the best suggestion?
- Before the exam, sit down and write about all anxieties - made diff in score for students w/ high test anxiety - no diff for students w/out high test anxiety
- McGaugh Memory modulation hypothesis:
- effects on consolidation: cortisol effecs consolidation
- LaBar argues what stage of memory affected?
- encoding, retrieval affected too
memories assocated w/ betrayed have less of response competition than hungry, will be remembered better
- What did the beta=blocker control subjects show?
- No better memory for the emotional information at the story suggesting emotion and amygdala important for encoding
- How are beta blockers used in PTSD?
- For prevention/treatment: if someone has traumatic experience and gets a dose of beta-blocker, seem to be good a blocking emotional part of the memory
- What is the DM effect?
- differences related to subsequent memory
- What mediates why brain regions show bigger response for items remembered than forgotten?
- mediated by arousal and a little valence, nothing for neutral
- More interactions DM effects corelates for __ but not ____ memories
- emotional, nonemotional
- With more emotional information HC
- more arousal
- when retrieve memory very similar the meomry becomes flexible, unconsolidated state, can break apart associations and reform the memory
- Is it effective to block emotional memrories/disrupt the link b/w emotion and memory?
- some effectivenes if given immediately after traumatic event, reconsolidate effects less clear
- High arousal state may impair ability to retrieve __ info
- 3 regions of the brain that show more activation when recognized as old then when rejected as new:
- HC, amygdala and entrohinal cortex
- Retrieving emotional memories: recollection vs familiarty: amygdala, HC, entorhinal cortex:
- Amgdala: recollection
Entorhinal cortex: maybe familiarity
- Why may it not be Really recollection?
- distinctiveness, deep and relational encoding, doesn't fit well with gist vs details idea, remember-know is a subjective judgement
Don't know for sure if it's real
- Most common lab procedure to measure fear:
- shock and SCR
- What interactions with sensory cortex and motor and ANS and amygdala show?
- amygdala integrates sensory info about threats across these routes: defensive rxns by controlling autonomic and motor output centers
- What amygdala interactions with frontal lobes and HC help accomplish?
- aquisition and suppresion (extinction) of fear to cues enviornment
- Memory modulated hypothesis:
- following an emotionally arousing experience, the amygdala engages in adrenergic and cortiosl stress-hormone systems to promote memory
- What characteristics of memory might the amygdala activation be related to, other than strength?
- vivedness, recollection/familiarity, physiological changes that generate feeling states
- What kind of emotion-memory interactions not strongly related to arousal and amygdala?
- cortical interactions and hormonal engagement
- 2 Pros for if familiarity vs recollection discoveries:
- 1. distinctiveness
2. deep vs relational encoding
- 2 cons for the familiarity vs recollection discoveries:
- 1. doesn't fit well with the gist vs detail
2. knowing/remembering is subjective
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