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Glossary of EdPsych Exam 4

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Created by ElenaMatthews

Social Learning Theory
theory that emphasizes learning through observation of others
Social cognitive theory
theory that adds concern with cognitive factors such as beliefs, self-perceptions, and expectations to social learning theory.
Triarchic Reciprocal Causality
an explanation of behavior that emphasizes the mutual effects of the individual and and the environment on each other
Self-Efficacy
a person's sense of being able to deal effectively with a particular task
Human Agency
the capacity to coordinate learning skills, motivation, and emotions to reach your goals.
Mastery Experiences
our own direct experiences-the most powerful source of efficacy information
Arousal
Physical and psychological reactions causing a person to feel alert, excited, or tense.
Vicarious Experiences
Accomplishments that are modeled by someone else
Modeling
changes in behavior, thinking or emotions that happen through observing another person-a model
Social persuasion
a "pep talk" or specific performance feedback-one source of self-efficacy
Ripple Effect
"Contagious" spreading of behaviors through inflation
Teachers' sense of Efficacy
a teacher's belief that he or she can reach even the most difficult students and help them learn.
Self-Regulation
Process of activating and sustaining thoughts, behaviors, and emotions in order to reach goals
Volition
Will power; self-discipline; work styles that protect opportunities to reach goals by applying self-regulated learning
Cognitive Behavior Modification
procedures based on both behavioral and cognitive learning principles for changing your own behavior by using self-talk and self instruction
Self-Instruction
talking oneself through the steps of a task
Self-Regulated learning
a view of learning as skills and will applied to analyzing learning tasks, setting goals, and planning how to do the task, applying skills, and especially making adjustments about how learning is carried out.
Motivation
an internal state that arouses, directs, and maintains behavior
Intrinsic Motivation
Motivation associated with activities that are their own reward
Extrinsic Motivation
Motivation created by external factors such as rewards and punishments
Locus of Causality
The location-internal or external- of the cause of behavior
Reward
an attractive object or event supplied as a consequence of a behavior
Incentive
an object or event that encourages or discourages behavior
Humanistic Interpretation
approach to motivation that emphasizes personal freedom, choice, self-determination, and striving for personal growth
Expectancy x Value Theories
Explanations of motivation that emphasize individuals' expectations for success combined with their valuing of the goal
Sociocultural Views of Motivation
Perspective that emphasize participation, identities, and interpersonal relations within communities of practice
Legitimate Peripheral Participation
Genuine involvement in the work of the group, even if your abilities are underdeveloped and contributions are small
Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow's model of seven levels of human needs, from basic physiological requirements to the need for self-actualization
Self-Actualization
fulfilling one's potential
Deficiency Needs
Maslow's four lower-level needs, which must be satisfied first
Being Needs
Maslow's three higher-level needs, sometimes called growth needs
Need for autonomy
the desire to have our own wishes, rather than external rewards or pressures, determine our actions
cognitive evaluation theory
suggests that events affect motivation through the individual's perception of the events as controlling behavior or providing information
Goal
What an individual strives to accomplish
Goal Orientations
Patterns of beliefs about goals related to achievement in school
Mastery Goal
A personal intention to improve abilities and learn, no matter how performance suffers
Task-Involved Learners
students who focus on mastering the task or solving the problem
Performance Goal
a personal intention to seem competent or perform well in the eyes of others
Ego-Involved Learners
Students who focus on how well they are performing and how they are Judged by others
Work-Avoidant Learners
students who don't want to learn or to look smart, but just want to avoid work
Social Goals
A wide variety of needs and motivates to be connected to others or part of a group
Epistemological Beliefs
Beliefs about the structure, stability, and certainty of knowledge and how knowledge is best learned
Entity View of Ability
Belief that ability is a fixed characteristic that cannot be changed
Incremental View of Ability
Belief that ability is a fixed characteristic that cannot be changed
Attribution Theories
Descriptions of how individuals' explanations, justifications, and excuses influence their motivation and behavior
Learned Helplessness
the expectation based on previous experiences with a lack of control, that all one's efforts will lead to failure
Mastery-Oriented Students
students who focus on learning goals because they value achievement and see ability as improvable
Failure-Avoiding Students
Students who avoid failure by sticking to what they know, by not taking risks or by claiming not to care about their performance
self-handicapping
students may engage in behavior that blocks their own success in order to avoid testing their true ability
Failure-Accepting students
students who believe their failures are due to low ability and there is little they can do about it
anxiety
general uneasiness, a feeling of tension
Motivation to Learn
the tendency to find academic activities meaningful and worthwhile and to try to benefit from them
Academic tasks
The work the student must accomplish, including the content covered and the mental operations required
Importance/attainment value
the importance of doing well on a task; how success on the task meets personal needs
Interest or Intrinsic Value
The enjoyment a person gets from a task
Utility Value
The contribution of a task to meeting one's goals
Authentic Task
Tasks that have some connection to real-life problems the students will face outside the classroom
Problem-Based Learning
Methods that provide students with realistic problems that don't necessarily have the right answers
Goal Structure
the way students relate to others who are also working toward a particular goal
Classroom Management
techniques used to maintain a healthy learning environment, relatively free of behavior problems
Allocated time
time set aside for learning
Engaged time/time on task
time spent actively learning
Academic learning time
time when students are actually succeeding at the learning task
Participation structures
rules defining how to participate in different activities
Self-management
management of your own behavior and acceptance of responsibility for your own actions
procedures/routines
prescribed steps for an activity
rules
statements specifying expected and forbidden behaviors; dos and don'ts
Natural/logical consequences
instead of punishing, have students redo, repair, or in some way face the consequences that naturally flow from their actions
Action zone
area of a classroom where the greatest amount of interaction takes place
Withitness
according to Kounin, awareness of everything happening in a classroom
overlapping
supervising several activities at once
Group focus
the ability to keep as many students as possible involved in activities
Movement management
keeping lessons and the group moving at an appropriate (and flexible) pace, with smooth transitions and variety
Paraphrase Rule
policy whereby listeners must accurately summarize what a speaker has said before being allowed to respond
Empathetic listening
hearing the intent and emotions behind what another says and reflecting them back by paraphrasing
"I" message
clear, nonaccusatory statement of how something is affecting you
Assertive discipline
clear, firm, unhostile response style
Culturally responsive management
taking cultural meanings and styles into account when developing management plans and responding to students
Warm demanders
Effective teachers with african american students who show both high expectations and great caring for their students, and work to create school and classroom environments in which students feel safe, accepted, and respected

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