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Glossary of EdPsych Exam 3

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Created by ElenaMatthews

Cognitive view of learning
a general approach that views learnings as an active mental process of acquiring, remembering, and using knowledge
Domain-specific knowledge
information that is useful in a particular situation or that applies mainly to one specific topic
General Knowledge
information that is useful in many different kinds of tasks; information that applies to many situations
information processing
the human mind's activity of taking in, storing, and using information
sensory memory
system that holds sensory information very briefly
perception
interpretation of sensory information
Bottom-up processing
perceiving based on noticing separate defining features and assembling them into a recognizable pattern
Gestalt
german for pattern or whole. gestalt theorists hold that people organize their perceptions into coherent wholes
prototype
the best example or best representative of a category
attention
focus on a stimulus
automaticity
the ability to perform thoroughly learned tasks without much mental effort
working memory
the information that you are focusing on a given moment
short-term memory
component of memory system that holds information for about 20 seconds
central executive
the part of working memory that is responsible for monitoring and directing attention and other mental resources
phonological loop
part of working memory. a memory rehearsal system for verbal and sound information of about 1.5 to 2 seconds
visuospatial sketchpad
part of working memory a holding system for visual an spatial information
cognitive load
the volume of resources necessary to complete a task
Intrinsic cognitive load
the resources required by the task itself, regardless of other stimuli
extraneous cognitive load
the resources required to process stimuli irrelevant to the task
Germane cognitive load
deep processing of information related to the task, including the application of prior knowledge to a new task or problem
maintenance rehearsal
keeping information in working memory by repeating it to yourself
elaborative rehearsal
keeping information in working memory by associating it with something else you already know
chunking
grouping individual bits of data into meaningful larger units
decay
the weakening and fading of memories with the passage of time
long term memory
permanent store of knowledge
declarative knowledge
verbal information; facts; "knowing that" something is the case
Procedural knowledge
knowledge that is demonstrated when we perform a task; "knowing how"
self-regulatory knowledge
knowing how to manage your learning, or knowing how and when to use your declarative and procedural knowledge
explicit memory
long term memories that involve deliberate or conscious recall
implicit memory
knowledge that we are not conscious of recalling, but influences behavior or thought without our awareness
semantic memory
memory for meaning
propositional network
set of interconnected concepts and relationships in which long-term knowledge is held
Images
representations based on the physical attributes-the appearance- of information
concept
a category used to group similar events, ideas, objects, or people
defining attribute
qualities that connect members of a group to a specific concept
exemplar
an actual memory of a specific object
schemas
basic structures for organizing information; concepts
story grammar
typical structure or organization for a category of stories
episodic memory
long-term memory for information tied to a particular time and place, especially memory of the events in a person's life
Flashbulb memories
clear, vivid memories of emotionally important events in your life
procedural memory
long-term memory for how to do things
script
schema or expected plan for the sequence of steps in a common event such as buying groceries or ordering pizza
productions
the contents of procedural memory, rules about what actions to take, given certain conditions
priming
activating a concept in memory or the spread of activation from one concept to another
elaboration
adding and extending meaning by connecting new information to existing knowledge
organization
ordered and logical network of relations
the physical or emotional backdrop associated with an event
context
levels of processing theory
theory that recall of information is based on how deeply it is processed
spreading activation
retrieval of pieces of information based on their relatedness to one another. remembering one bit of information activates (stimulates) recall of associated information
retrieval
process of searching for and finding information in long-term memory
reconstruction
recreating information by using memories, expectation, logic, an existing knowledge
interference
the process that occurs when remembering certain information is hampered by the presence of other information
mnemonics
techniques for remembering; the art of memory
loci method
technique of associating items with specific places
acronym
technique for remembering by using the first letter of each word in a phrase to form a new, memorable word.
chain mnemonics
memory strategies that associate one element in a series with the next element
keyword method
system of associating new words or concepts with similar sounding cue words and images.
remembering information by repetition without necessarily understanding the meaning of the information
rote memorization
serial-position effect
the tendency to remember the beginning and the end but not the middle of a list
part learning
breaking a list of items into shorter lists
distributed practice
practice in brief periods with rest intervals
massed practice
practice for a single extended period
automated basic skills
skills that are applied without conscious thought
domain-specific strategies
consciously applied skills to reach goals in a particular subject or problem
executive control processes
processes such as selective attention, rehearsal, elaboration, and organization that influence encoding, storage, and retrieval of information in memory
metacognition
knowledge about our own thinking process
learning strategies
general plans for approaching learning tasks
learning tactics
specific techniques for learning, such as using mnemonics or outlining a passage
concept map
a drawing that charts the relationships among ideas
cmaps
tools for concept mapping developed by the institute for human and machine cognition that are connected to many knowledge maps and other resources on the internet
READS
a five step reading strategy: review headings; examine boldface words; ask, "What do I expect to learn?", do it-Read; summarize in your own words
CAPS
a strategy that can be used in reading literature: characters, aim of story, problem, solution
KWL
a strategy to guide reading and inquiry: Before- what do I already know? What do I want to know? After- what have I learned?
Production Deficiency
students learn problem-solving strategies, but do not apply them when they could or should
problem
any situation in which you are trying to reach some goal and must find a means to do so
problem solving
creating new solutions for problems
schema-driven problem solving
recognizing a problem as a "disguised" version of an old problem for which one already has a solution
Algorithm
step-by-step procedure for solving a problem; prescription for solutions
Heuristic
General strategy used in attempting to solve problems
Means-ends analysis
Heuristic in which a goal is divided into subgoals
Working-back strategy
heuristic in which one starts with the goal and moves backward to solve the problem
analogical thinking
heuristic in which one limits the search for solution to situation that are similar to the one at ahnd
verbalization
putting your problem-solving plan and its logic into words
functional fixedness
inability to use objects or tools in a new way
Response set
Rigidity; tendency to respond in the most familiar way.
representativeness heuristic
judging the likelihood of an even based on how well the events match your prototypes- what you think is representative of the category
availability heuristic
Judging the likelihood of an event based on what is available in your memory, assuming those easily remembered events are common
belief perseverance
the tendency to hold on to beliefs, even in the face of contradictory evidence
confirmation bias
seeking information that confirms our choices and beliefs, while disconfirming evidence
insight
sudden realization of a solution
creativity
imaginative, original thinking or problem solving
Restructuring
conceiving of a problem in an new or different way
divergent thinking
coming up with many possible solutions
convergent thinking
narrowing possibilities to a single answer
brainstorming
generating ideas without stopping to evaluate them
stand-alone thinking skills programs
programs that teach thinking skills directly without need for extensive subject manner knowledge
critical thinking
evaluating conclusions by logically and systematically examining the problem, the evidence, and the solution
transfer
influence of previously learned material on new material; the productive (not reproductive) uses of cognitive tools and motivations
low-road transfer
spontaneous and automatic transfer of highly practiced skills
high road transfer
application of abstract knowledge learned in one situation to a different situation
over learning
practicing a skill past the point of mastery
Digital divide
a split between access to technologies between those who fall into high versus low socioeconomic status
service learning
combines academic learning with personal and social development for secondary and college students
Fostering Communities of learners (FCL)
A system of interacting activities that results in a self-consciously active and reflective learning environment and uses a research, share, and perform learning cycle.
structured controversy
students work in pairs within their four-person cooperative groups to research a particular controversy
Jigsaw Classroom
a learning process in which each student is part of a group and each group member is assigned part of the material to be learned by the whole group. students become "expert" on their piece and then teach it to the others in their group.
reciprocal questioning
students work in pairs or triads to ask and answer questions about lesson material.
cooperative learning
situations where elaboration, interpretation, explanation, and argumentation are integral to the activity of the group and where learning is supported by other individuals
cooperation
a way of working with others to attain a shared goal
collaboration
a philosophy about how to relate to others - how to learn and work
Reciprocal teaching
is designed to help students understand and think deeply about what they read
cognitive apprenticeship
a relationship in which a less experienced learner acquires knowledge and skills under the guidance of an expert
anchored instruction
a type of problem-based learning that uses complex, interesting situation as an anchor for learning
problem-based learning
methods that provide students with realistic problems that don't necessarily have "right" answers
inquiry learning
approach in which the teacher presents a puzzling situation and students solve the problem by gathering data and testing their conclusions
learning sciences
a new interdisciplinary science of learning has emerged, based on research in psychology, education, computer science, philosophy, sociology, anthropology, neuroscience, and other fields that study learning
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
an MRI is an imaging technique that uses a magnetic field along with radio waves and a computer to create detailed pictures of the inside of the body. A functional MRI uses the MRI to measure the tiny changes that take place in the brain during brain activity
Constructivism
view that emphasizes the active role of the learner in building understanding and making sense of information
first wave constructivism
a focus on the individual and psychological sources of knowing, as in Piaget's theory
Radical Constructivism
knowledge is assumed to be the individual's construction; it cannot be judged right or wrong
appropriation
being able to internalize or take for yourself knowledge and skills developed in interaction with others or with cultural tools
second wave constructivism
a focus on the social and cultural sources of knowing, as in vygotsky's theory
constructionism
how public knowledge in disciplines such as science, math, economics, or history is constructed
community of practice
social situation or context in which ideas are judged useful or true
situated learning
the idea that skills and knowledge are tied to the situation in which they are learned and difficult to apply in new settings
complex learning environments
problems and learning situations that mimic the ill-structured nature of real life
social negotiation
aspect of learning process that relies on collaboration with others and respect for different perspectives
intersubjective attitude
a commitment to build shared meaning with others by finding common ground and exchanging interpretations.
Multiple representations of content
considering problems using various analogies, examples, and metaphors
spiral curriculum
Bruner's design for teaching that introduces the fundamental structure of all subjects early in the school years, then revisits the subjects in more and more complex forms over time

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