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Glossary of EdPsych Exam 2

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Created by ElenaMatthews

Disablility
The inability to do something specific such as walk or hear
Handicap
A disadvantage in a particular situation, sometimes caused by a disability
Intelligence
Ability or abilities to acquire and use knowledge for solving problems and adapting to the world
General Intelligence - g
A general factor in cognitive ability that is related in varying degrees to performance on all mental tests
Fluid Intelligence
Mental efficiency, nonverbal abilities grounded in brain development
Crystallized Intelligence
Ability to apply culturally approved problem-solving methods
Theory of Multiple Intelligence
In Gardner's Theory of intelligence, a person's eight separate abilities: logical-mathematical, linguistic, musical, spatial, body-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, and naturalist
Triarchic theory of Successful Intelligence
A 3 part description of the mental abilities (thinking processes, coping with new experiences, and adapting to context) that lead to more or less intelligent behavior
Insight
the ability to deal effectively with novel situations
Automaticity
the result of learning to perform a behavior or thinking process so throughly that the performance is automatic and does not require effort
Mental Age
In intelligence testing, a performance that represents average abilities for that age group
Intelligence Quotient - IQ
Score based on statistical comparison of an individual's performance with the average performance of others in that age group
Flynn Effect
Because of Better health, smaller families, increased complexity in the environment, and more and better schooling, IQ test scores are steadily rising
Learning styles
characteristic approaches to learning and studying
Learning preferences
preferred ways of studying and learning, such as using pictures instead of text, working with other people vs. alone, learning in structured or in unstructured situations, and so on
Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA)
Latest amendment of PL 94-142; guarantees a free public education to all children regardless of disability
Free, Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)
Public funding to support appropriate educational programs for all students, no matter what their needs
Zero Reject
A basic principle of IDEA specifying that no student with a disability, no matter what kind or how severe, can be denied a free public education
Least restrictive environment (LRE)
Education each child with peers in the regular classroom to the greatest extent possible
mainstreaming
teaching children with disabilities in regular classes for part or all of their school day
Integration
fitting the child with special needs into existing class structures
Inclusion
the integration of all students including those with severe disabilities, into regular classes
Individualized Education Program (IEP)
annually revised program for an identified student, detailing present achievement level, goals, and strategies, drawn up by teachers, parents, specialists and (if possible) the student
Learning Disability
Problem with acquisition and use of language; may show up as difficulty with reading, writing, reasoning, or math
Learned helplessness
the expectation, based on previous experiences with a lack of control, that all one's efforts will lead to failure
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
current term for disruptive behavior disorders marked by overactivity, excessive difficulty sustaining attention, or impulsiveness
speech disorder
inability to produce sounds effectively for speaking
Articulation Disorders
Any of a variety of pronunciation difficulties, such as the substitution, distortion, or omission of sounds
Voicing Problems
Inappropriate pitch, quality, loudness, or intonation
Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
behaviors or emotions that deviate so much from the norm that they interfere with and the child's growth and development and/or the lives of others - inappropriate behaviors, unhappiness or depression, fears and anxieties, and trouble with relationships
Intellectual Disabilities/Mental Retardation
Significantly below-average intellectual and adaptive social behavior, evident before age 18.
Transition Programming
Gradual preparation of students with special needs to move from high school into further education or training, employment, or community involvement.
Cerebral Palsy
Condition Involving a range of motor or coordination difficulties due to brain damage
Spasticity
overly tight or tense muscles, characteristic of some forms of cerebral palsy
Epilepsy
Disorder marked by seizures and caused by abnormal electrical discharges in the brain
Generalized Seizure
A seizure involving a large portion of the brain
Absence Seizure
A seizure involving only a small part of the brain that causes a child to lose contact briefly
Low vision
Vision limited to close objects
Educationally Blind
Needing braille materials in order to learn
Autism/ Autism spectrum disorders
developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age 3 and ranging from mild to major
Response to intervention (RTI)
A process to make sure students get appropriate research-based instruction and support as soon as possible and that teachers are systematic in documenting what interventions they have tried with these students so this information can be used in planning
Gifted and Talented students
a very bright, creative, and talented student
culture
the knowledge, values, attitudes, and traditions that guide the behavior of a group of people and allow them to solve the problems of living in their environment
tracking
assignment to different classes and academic experiences based on achievement
immigrants
people who voluntarily leave their country to become permanent residents in a new place
refugees
a special group of immigrants who also relocate voluntarily, but who are fleeing their home country because it is not safe
Melting Pot
A metaphor for the absorption and assimilation of immigrants into the mainstream of society so that ethnic differences vanish
Cultural deficit model
a model that explains the school achievement problems of ethnic minority students by assuming that their culture is inadequate and does not prepare them to succeed in school
Ethnicity
a cultural heritage shared by a group of people
race
a socially constructed category based on appearances and ancestry
Minority group
a group of people who have been socially disadvantaged - not always a minority in actual numbers
prejudice
prejudgement or irrational generalization about an entire category of people
stereotype
schema that organizes knowledge or perceptions about a category
Discrimination
teaching or acting unfairly toward particular categories of people
stereotype threat
the extra emotional and cognitive burden that your performance in an academic situation might confirm a stereotype that others hold about you
dialect
rule-goverened variation of a language spoken by a particular group
code-switching
successful switching between cultures in language, dialect, or nonverbal behaviors to fit the situation
Genderlects
different way of talking for males and females
Bilingualism
speaking 2 languages fluently
English Language Learners (ELL)
students whose primary or heritage language is not english
English as a Second Language (ESL)
Designation for programs and classes to teach english to students who are not native speakers of english
semilingual
not proficient in any language; speaking one or more languages inadeuately
Gender bias
different views of males and females, often favoring one gender over the other
multicultural education
education that promotes equality in the schooling of all students
culturally relevant pedagogy
excellent teaching for students of color that includes academic success, developing/maintaining cultural competence, and developing a critical consciousness to challenge the status quo
resilience
the ability to adapt successfully in spite of difficult circumstances and threats to development
sociolinguistics
the study of the formal and informal rules for how, when, about what, to whom, and how long to speak in conversations within cultural groups
pragmatics
the rules for when and how to use language to be an effective communicator in a particular culture
participation structures
the formal and informal rules for how to take part in a given activity
Learning
Process through which experience causes permanent change in knowledge or behavior
Behavioral Learning theories
explanations of learning that focus on external events as the cause of changes in observable behaviors
contiguity
association of two events because of repeated pairing
Stimulus
event that activates behavior
response
observable reaction to a stimulus
Classical conditioning
association of automatic responses with new stimuli
Respondents
responses (generally automatic or involuntary) elicited by specific stimuli
Neutral stimulus
stimulus not connected to a response
Unconditioned stimulus (US)
stimulus that automatically produces an emotional or physiological response
Unconditioned Response (UR)
naturally occurring emotional or physiological response
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
Stimulus that evokes an emotional or physiological response after conditioning
Operants
Voluntary (and generally goal-directed) behaviors emitted by a person or animal
Operant conditioning
learning in which voluntary behavior is strengthened or weakened by consequences or antecedents
Antecedents
events that precede an action
Consequences
events that follow an action
reinforcement
use of consequences to strengthen behavior
reinforcer
any event that follows a behavior and increases the chances that the behavior will occur again
Positive reinforcement
strengthening behavior by presenting a desired stimulus after the behavior
Negative Reinforcement
strengthening behavior by removing an aversive stimulus after the behavior
aversive
irritating or unpleasant
punishment
process that weakens or suppresses behavior
presentation punishment
decreasing the chances that a behavior will occur again by presenting an aversive stimulus following the behavior; also called type I punishment
Removal punishment
Decreasing the chances that a behavior will occur again by removing a pleasant stimulus following the behavior; also called type II punishment
continuous reinforcement schedule
presenting a reinforcer after every appropriate response
intermittent reinforcement schedule
presenting a reinforcer after some but not all responses
Interval schedule
length of time between reinforcers
Ratio Schedule
reinforcement based on the number of responses between reinforcers
Extinction
the disappearance of a learned response
stimulus control
capacity for the presence or absence of antecedents to cause behaviors
effective instruction delivery
instructions that are concise, clear, and specific, and that communicate an expected result. statements work better than question
cueing
providing a stimulus that "sets up" a desired behavior
prompt
a reminder that follows a cue to make sure the person reacts to the cue
Applied behavior analysis
the application of behavioral learning principles to understand and change behavior
Behavior modification
systematic application of antecedents and consequences to change the behavior
premack principle
principle stating that a more-preferred activity can serve as a reinforcer for a less-preferred activity
shaping
reinforcing each small step of progress toward a desired goal or behavior
successive approximations
small components that make up a complex behavior
task analysis
system for breaking down a task hierarchically into basic skills and subskills
positive practice
practicing correct responses immediately after errors
reprimands
criticisms for misbehavior; rebukes
response cost
punishment by loss of reinforcers
Social isolation
removal of a disruptive student for 5 to 10 minutes
Time out
technically, the removal of all reinforcement. in practice isolation of a student from the rest of the class for a brief time
Good behavior game
arrangement where a class is divided into teams and each team receives demerit points for breaking agreed-upon rules of good behavior
group consequences
rewards or punishments given to a class as a whole for adhering to or violating the rules of conduct
contingency contract
a contract between the teacher and student specifying what the student must do to earn a particular reward or privilege
Token reinforcement system
system in which tokens earned for academic work and positive classroom behavior can be exchanged for some desired reward
Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA)
procedures used to obtain info about antecedents, behaviors, and consequences to determine the reason or function of the behavior
Positive behavior supports (PBS)
interventions designed to replace problem behaviors with new actions that serve the same purpose for the student
social learning theory
theory that emphasizes learning through observation of others
social cognitive theory
theory that adds concern with cognitive factors such as beliefs, self-perceptions, and expectations to a social learning theory
observational learning
learning by observation and imitation of others
vicarious reinforcement
increasing the chances that we will repeat a behavior by observing another person being reinforced for that behavior
self-reinforcemetn
controlling your own reinforcers
self-management
use of behavioral learning principles to change your own behavior
precorrection
a tool for positive behavior support that involves identifying the context for a student's misbehavior, clearly specifying the alternative expected behavior, modifying the situation to make a problem behavior less likely, then rehearsing the expected positive behaviors in the new context and providing powerful reinforcers

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