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Glossary of Ecology 370

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Adaptation
-a characteristic that enhances survival and reproduction of its bearers in their environment
allele
-one of the alternative forms of the same gene
allele frequencies
-the proportions of alternative forms of a gene in a population of organisms
directional selection
-form of natural selection that favors an extreme phenotype over other phenotypes
disruptive selection
-form of natural selection that favors two or more extreme phenotypes
ecotype
-locally adapted and genetically distinctive population within a species
endemic
-applied to populations or species found in a particular locality and nowhere else
evolution
-process by which organisms gradually accumulate differences from their ancestors
fitness
-the success of an organism to reproduce
gene
-unit of heredity in a living organism
genetic drift
-change in gene fre
*genetic drift
-change in gene frequencies in a population due to chance or random events
genotype
-genetic make up of an organism (DNA)
hardy-weinberg equilibrium
-rules for idealized population
-random mating
-no mutation
-no immigration
-large population
-all genotypes have equal fitness




heritability
-proportion of total phenotypic variation in a trait attributable to genetic variation
heterozygous
-Different genes (Hh)
Homozygous
-same alleles (hh)
inbreeding
-mating by individuals that are related by decent
inbreeding depression
-decline in fitness due to inbreeding
-affects all aspects of reproductive fitness
loci
-location along the length of a particular chromosome where a gene is located
microsatellite
-repeat units of DNA
-occurs in non coding regions of DNA
-taxon specific

natural selection
-the process by which individuals with certain heritable characteristics survive and reproduce more successfully than those with other heritable characteristics
phenotype
-physical make up of an organism
phenotypic plasticity
-variation among individuals in form and function as a result of environmental influences
polymorphic locus
-a locus that occurs as more than one allele
population
-group of individuals of a single species inhabiting a specific area
range
-difference between largest and smallest values in a set of measurements or observations
stabilizing selection
-form of natural selection that acts against extreme phenotypes
niche
-physical and biological conditions that a species needs to grow, survive, and reproduce
fundamental niche
-range of conditions an organism can live
realized niche
-range of conditions an organism actually lives
-influences by competition, predators, mutualists, etc
distribution
-geographic area where individuals of a species are present
random distribution
-various distances between individuals
regular distribution
-equal distances between individuals
clumped distribution
-found in groups separated by areas without individuals
population density
-number of individuals per unit area
-constantly changing
abundance
-number of individuals of a species that are found in a given area
dispersal
-movement from one place to another
genet
-product of a single fertilization event
ramet
-an actually or potentially physiologically independent organism
invasive species
-introduces species that survive and reproduce in their new environment
metapopulation
-an assemblage of linked subpopulations
cohort life table
-follow from birth to death
static life table
-record age at death
type 1 survivorship curve
-high survival among young
type 2 survirorship curve
-constant survival rate
type 3 survivorship curve
-high mortality among young
fecundity
-number of eggs or seeds produced by an organism
life table
-record of survivorship and death
age distribution
-distribution of individuals among age groups in a population
generation time
-the mean age of parents of all offspring produced within a cohort
geometric population growth
-grows slowly at first, then increases
-abundant resources
exponential population growth
-abundant resources
-grows slowly at first, then increases
logistic population growth
-environmental limitation
carrying capacity
-k
-population size at which growth stops
pandemic
-epidemic of infectious disease
allele effect
-a decrease in the population growth rate as the population density decreases
stochastic
-erratic or unpredictable changes in the environment
cohort
-group of individuals of the same age
density dependent
-magnitude of the outcome is related to the population size
-ex: starvation, competition
density independent
-magnitude of the outcome is not related to population size
-ex: extreme weather
life history
-lifetime pattern of growth, reproduction, and survival of a species
r selection
-per capita rate of increase
k selection
-referring to the carrying capacity in logistic growth
-large and slow
iteroparous
-successive reproductive events
semelparous
-one reproductive event
intrasexual selection
-individuals of one sex compete amongst themselves for mates
intersexual selection
-one sex consistently chooses mates from among the opposite sex
hermaphodite
-individual can produce both kinds of gametes
kin selection
-selection in which individuals increase their inclusive fitness by helping increase the survival and reproduction of relatives that are not offspring
philopatry
-"love of place"
-tendency of some organisms to remain in the same area throughout their lives
caste
-group of individuals that are physically distinctive and engage in specialized behavior within a social unit
-ex: colony
eusociality
-highly specialized
-include individuals of more than one generation living together, cooperative care of young, and division of individuals into sterial and reproductive castes

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