Glossary of Earth Science Topic 9
Other Decks By This User
- the chemical and physical breakdown of rocks at or near the earths surface
- when does weathering occur?
- when rocks are exposed to air, water, and the actions of living things
- what is the difference between weathering and erosion?
- weathering breaks rocks down without moving them, but erosion moves them
- what does weathering result in?
- residual soil in the same spot where the rock was
- how much of the worlds soil is residual
- what are examples of ways erosion can occur?
- rivers, wind, glaciers, and gravity from landslides
- what is the soil from erosion called?
- transported soil
- how much of earths soil is transported?
- chemical weathering
- the breakdown of rock through a change in mineral or chemical composition
- 2 examples of chemical weathering
- 1. oxidation rusting
2. effect of water on minerals
- physical weathering
- breaks down rocks of the same material
- when does physical weathering occur?
- when frost action, plant root growth, or abrupt temperature changes causes rocks to crack apart
- 4 agents of physical weathering
- 1. frostation
2. thermal expansion
4. pressure unloading
- water expands when it freezes
- thermal expansion
- heating and cooling causes rocks to crack
- pressure unloading
- removing surface layers off the rock-rock comes apart
- process where rock particles grind against another rock--physical weathering
- what characteristic of rocks from river beds and beaches is caused by abrasion?
- rounded shape
- what factors affect the rate and type of weathering?
- exposure, particle size, mineral composition, and climate
- in what ways does exposure affect weathing?
- rate and type of weathering
- how does the distance of a rock to earths surface affect weathering?
- the closer a rock is to earths surface, the faster it will weather
- how does particle size affect weathering?
- when particles are smaller, the total surface area per unite volume exposed to weathering is greater, so the rate of weathering is faster
- how does mineral composition affect the rate of weathering?
- different minerals have different physical and chemical properties and weather at different rates
- where is chemical weathering most pronounced?
- in warm, moist climates
- affect of temp. and humidity on chemical weathering
- the higher the average temp and humidity, the more rapid chemical weathering
- what is the most common form of weathering in cold climates?
- frost action
- where is frost action especially intence?
- in moist climate with temp variations that lead to repeated cycles of freezing and thawing
- what are soil layers called?
- how can soil be transported into an area from another place?
- wind, moving water, and moving ice of a glacier
- how does soil develop in bedrock?
- originally, there is unweathered bedrock at the surace. soil development, by way of weathering, starts at earths surface and gradually progresses downwartd over time to produce soil layers.
- why is water a major agent of chemical weathering?
- it dissolves many of the minerals that make up rocks
- why are a variety of soil types found in new york states?
- becuase areas of the state differ
- what is the chemical composition of a soil formed in a certain area from the bedrock beneath determined by?
- minerals in the bedrock beneath the soil and the climate of the area
- new york soils are most likely composed of rock particles that have been..
- transported by glaciers or water
- what does erosion do to earths surface over time?
- shapes and lowers it
- 4 erosional agents
- 1. rivers or running water
- characteristics of rivers or running water
- rounded particles
- how do the 3 size particles change erosion?
- 1. large particles are rolled and bounced
2. small-fine particles called "colloids" are in suspension
3. ions dissolve-solution
- results of glacier erosion
- -unsorted deposited
- gravity characteristics
- rock becomes angular
- wind agent
- carries fine particles
- what is river velocity determined by?
- 1. slope
2. volume of discharge
- characteristics of young river
- flows fast
water falls, rapids
carves v-shape valley
- river bed
- bottom of river
- river banks
- sides of river
- in a straight river, where does it flow fastest?
- in the middle
- there is no friction with air, sides, or bottom
- where is teh most erosion on the straight river?
- directly below the middle point
- bends in the river
- where is the river the fastest when it curves?
- the outside of the curve
- where is it the slowest?
- the inside of the curve
- where is erosion dominant in a curved river?
- on the outside curve
- where is deposition dominant?
- on the inside curvve
- whhat side of the side view is shaded in?
- the inside curve side
- small deposits that build up on the ride of a river
- base level
- sea level
- characteristics of old age river?
- close to base level
at base level-river slow
- flood plain
- flat land on sides of old river
- water shed
- all areas that feed one major river system
- how does an ox bow lake form?
- the river curves, then goes straight again and there is a cutoff
- forms at the mouth of a river from sediments deposited over time from the ever-shifting channel at the streams mouth
- removal of the small top loose particles
- wind causes sand to hit rocks and that will erode those rocks down
- where do glacirs move fastest?
- in the middle
- what kind of valleys do glaciers carve out?
- what are glaciers erosional features?
- groove,s striations, unsorted rock
- what moves at the same speed as a river?
- dissolved salts (ions)
- how do things carried by a river move in relation to the river?
- move slower
- what happens when an erosional system loses kinetic energy?
- it will drop the sediments its carrying
- horizonal sorting
- as a river slows down, it drops off the largest particles, then the smallest
- when there is maximum KE there is max...
You must Login or Register to add cards