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Glossary of Earth Science 1021

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Absolute Age Dating
Determines the numerical or exact age of objects.
Radioactive decay
the release of radioactive particles and change of other isotopes
Half-life
the length of time it takes for half of the isotope to decay
Dating rocks
scientists look at the paent-daughter ratios of the radioactive isotopes in the minerals that make up the rock.
Radiocarbon dating
scientists use C-14 to determine the age of organic materials
tree rings
when you cut down a tee, count the rings on the stump and you\'ll find out how old it is
ice cores
contain a record of past enviormental conditions in layers of snow deposits
varves
different colored sediments that build up over time
relative age dating
estimating the age of objects
uniformtarianism
the geological processes occuring today have been occuring since earth formed.
original horizontally
sediments rocks are deposited in horizontal layers
superposition
oldest rocs at the bottom & each layer above it is younger than the previous one
cross-cuting relationship
the intrusion is younger than the rock is cuts
inclusions
the rock layer must be older than the one that contains them
unconformities
buried surfaces of erosion
disconformity
horizontal layer of sedimentary rock is over another horizontal layer of sedimentary rock
nonconfrmity
a layer of sedimentary rock overlies a layer of igneous/metamorphic rock, the eroded surface is easier to identify
angular unconformity
a horizontal layer of sedimentary rock deformed during mountain building, they are uplifted & tilted
correlation
unique outcrops of rocks & fossils that match
ey bed
sediment/rock used as a marker
fossil correlation
used to correlate rock formations in other areas that geological distant
Principle of Original Horizontality
Sedimentary layers & lava flaws are deposited in horizontal layers

Principle of Original Lateral Contunuity
Lava flows & strata extend laterally in all directions until they pinch out (thin to nothing)/ reach the edge of their basin of deposition
Principle of Superposition
In a n undistured sequence of strata/lava flows
-oldest layer at the bottom
-youngest layer at the top

Principles of Inclusions
Any piece of roc that has been included in another rock/body of sediment must be older than the rock/sediment into which it has been incorperated. The surrounding body of rock is called a matrix (or groundmass). Thus the includion is older than the matrix
Principle of Cross-Cuting
Any feature that cuts across a rock/body of sediment must be younger than the rock/sediment it cuts across.
Principles of Unconformities
Most contacts between adjacent strata or formations are conformities, meaning that rocks on both sides of them of formed at the smae time
Eons
-Phanerozoic
-PreCambrian
Eras
-Cenozoic
-Mesozoic
-Paleozoic
-Precambrian


Period
-Ouaternary
-Tertiary
-Cretaceous
-Jurrasic
-Triassic
-Permian
-Pennsylvanian
-Mississippian
-Devonian
-Silurian
-Ordovician
-Cambrian
-PreCambrian











Epoch
-Holocene
-Pleistocene
-Pliocene
-Miocene
-Oligocene
-Eocene
-Paleocene





T/F
THe dates & information on the geologic timetable are fixed and will never be changed.
False
T/F
The fossil record determines the beginning and end of an era.
True
T/F
Dinosaurs died out in the Triassic Period.
False
T/F
Mesozoic means \"middle life\".
True
T/F
The Silurian is the oldest period of time in the Paleozoic.
False
T/F
Epochs are longer and more distinct units of time than periods.
False
T/F
The oldest era the Pre-Cambrian, contains rocks loaded with fossils of land animals
False
T/F
The ice age occured during the Pilocene Epoch.
False
T/F
Cenozoic means \"recent life\"
True
T/F
THe Paleozoic era is divided into 7 periods
True
T/F
The earliest nown record of animal life are marine invertebrates.
True
T/F
The transition fom marine animals to land animals occured during the Silurian Period.
True
T/F
THe Mesozoic Era is divided into 2 periods, Triassic and Tertiary
False
T/F
Evidence of early humans appeared during the ice age
True
T/F
It is possible to establish some points on the geologic timescale in terms of years by determining the rate of decay of radioactive materials.
True
T/F
The term cretaceous refers to chalk.
False
T/F
The Mesozoic Era lasted approximately 50 million years.
False
T/F
The Cenozoic Era is known as the Age of Reptiles.
False
T/F
The Paleozoic Era is known as the Age of Invertabrates.
True
T/F
The Mesozoic Era is known as the Age of Fish
False
Original Remains
soft tissues are still present
Replaced Remains
soft parts are replaced harder minerals
Mold
impression or hollowed area
Cast
mold filled w/ mineral material
Trace Fossils
tracks of animals instead of remains
Index fossils
short lived, easily reconized, widespread
Corporalites
\"fossilized poo\"
The Phanerozoic Eon includes the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and ________
Cenozoic
The Archean and Proterozoic are examples of ______
eons
Which of the following is marked by the appearance of organisms with hard parts?
the end of the Precambrian
T/F
The process of plate tectonics the movement of Earth\'s plates, started at the end of the Precambrian
False
T/F
The amount of radioactive isotopes contributing heat to Earth is greater now than it was when Earth was newly formed.
False
sunspot
a sunspot are cooler areas of the sun where the magnetic fiedl (often come in pairs)
solar flare
can be hotter than the core itself for if only a minute, very dangerous
what form of energy does the sun use?
hydrogen
Fission
-separation of a large atom into smaller nucei
-ex: uranium-> lead
-\"bad\" by product

Fusion
-fusion of hydrogen atoms
-good by product
-ex: hydrogen->helium
-exotherme
-sun\'s energy



Corona
hottest layer of the sun

What layer is only visible during an eclipse?
The moon aligns w/ the sun, so it blocks out the center of the sun so you can only see the corona during a lunar eclipse
What layer contains most of the suns \"activity\"?
Chromosphere... i.e. sunspot, solar flares, promanances
What is inside the Sun\'s core?
In the sun\'s core, helium is the product of hydrogen nuclei fusing.

H->He=energy=fission energy

What layer is the visible light that we see from?
Photosphere, because it\'s the visible surface of the sun, and the visible light emitted by the sun comes from this layer.
What are solar flares?
Solar flares are just gas, and promanances are solar flares that get suced back into the sun.
What layer contains most of the suns deadly radiation?
Radiative layer
What color is the cooler parts of the sun?
Darker than the area around it. (Brown-sunspots)
Where does the solar winds that cause geometric storms come from?
coronal holes, solar flares+ promanaces
Notes on the Sun:
-closest star
-149,59,00 km away=90 million miles away
-sunlight takes 8.33 minutes to get here
-use AU
-lightyear:distance light travels in 1 years time



T/F
Compared to the human eye, telescopes can collect light over longer periods of time.
True
T/F
The corona is visible only during eclipses because it is the coolest layer of the Sun\'s atmosphere.
True
A _______ eclipse occus when the Earth passes between the Sun and Moon
lunar
A lunar eclipse can only occur during the phase of the ____________.
full moon
Ou timekeeping system is based on the ________.
solar day
Most of the light emitted by the Sun comes from the _______.
photosphere
WHen the polarity of the Sun\'s magnetic field is taken into account, the solar activity cycle lasts_________.
22.4 years
Why does the midwest have 4 season & the equator region have 1?
-solar radiation
-direct-indirect sunlight
-ground conditions

Why the equator has one season:
The equator absorbs more sunlight -> keep temperature constant, constant movement of Earth\'s surfaces, oceans, and atmosphere
About the Earth:
-1 revolution around the sun= 1 calender year = 365.25
-1 rotation on our axis = 1 day = 24 hours
Earth spins:
counter-clockwise
Tilt:
a major event such as:
-space (collison)
-Earthbound major earthquake

supernova:
2 ways for it to happen:
-when 2 stars collide
-when a massive star just collapses on itself

-similar 2 hydrogen bomb
-over 20 billion times luminous than the sun for a few weeks




red shift:
-if a star is moving away, the wavelenghts become longer

-shows that object is moving away

-ROYGBIV



Blue Shift:
-an object is moving towards us (closer)

-lines will moe to the blue in ROYGBIV

Brightness:
amount of light given off
Luminosity:
energy output of a star per second
Apparent magnitude:
how bright a star appears (the closer it is = brighter it seems)
Absolute magnitude:
-brightness of a star at the same distance away

- the brightness at 10 pc (parasec)

T/F
Compared to the human eye, the telescope can collect light over longer periods of time.
True
T/F
The Asteroid Belt has the possiblitly of forming new planets if the debris were to be drawn together.
True
T/F
Thea is the name of the moon that colided with Earth to produce a larger planet with a smaller iron core.
False
People who see a partial solar eclipse are located in the _______ portion of the Moon\'s shadow.
penumbra
What force draws the matter in an interstellar cloud together to form a star?
gravity
Which planet has composition and density similar to the Sun?
Saturn
A scientist comparing the properties of a lare number of different stars could expect to find the most variation in the data describing the star\'s ______.
luminosity
Elliptical galaxies are divided into subclasses based on ______________ and _________________.
-their elongated shapes

-the ratio of their major and minor axes

WHat is true about an AU?
-it is ta distance of 93 trillion miles

-it is the distance from the Earth to the Sun

mT=
maritime tropical
cT=
continental tropical
mP=
maritime polar
cP=
continental polar
Northern Hemisphere\'s current moves __________.
clockwise
Southern Hemisphere\'s currents:
counterclockwise
Pattern of Currents:
-warm: move away from equator
-cold: move away from the poles
-warm: west side of the ocean basin
-cold: east side of the ocean basin


currents drive______.
weather
exosphere:
outermost layer of Earth\'s atmosphere, transitional space between Earth\'s atmosphere and outer space
thermosphere:
layer above the mesosphere , absorbs solar radiation
mesosphere:
layer abouve the stratosphere, ends at the mesosphere
stratosphere:
layer above the troposphere, contains the ozone layer & ends at the stratopause
Troposphere:
laye closest to Earth\'s surface, ends at the tropopause
continental margin:
area where continents meet the ocean
Seamount:
submerges basaltic volcanoes more than 1km/high
Continental shelf:
shallowest part of a continental margin extended seaward from the shore
Continental rise:
the gently sloping accumulation of deposits from turbity currents that forms at the base of the continental slope
Continental slope:
where the sea drops away wuickly to the depths of several m
Trench:
deepest part of the ocean basin
Mid-Ocean Ridge
most prominent features of the ocean basins
Absolute humidity
actual amount of water in the atmospher measured in grams
Relative humidity
how close the air is to being filled w/ water vapor

-its the amount of moisture is the air divided by the amount of water vapor it takes to fill the air x 100%

Golden Rule of Meterology:
the colder the air is, the less water vapor it can hold

-warmer air holds more water

Dew Point Temperature:
the name for the temperature to which the air must be cooled to become saturated
Cumulus Stage:
-heat on the surface warms the air around it
-warms air=lighter than cold air
-warm air rises (updrafts)
-if the ai is moist, then the warm air condenses into the cumulus stage


Mature Stage:
-cool air starts to enter the cloud
-cold air = heavier than warm air
-downdraft- pulls the heavywater downward



Dissapating Stage:
-warm air moist can no longer rise
Thunder=
lightning
Thunder:
-sonic boom
-lightning super heats surrounding air
-expands faster than speed of sound = sonic boom

Tornado Watch:
-conditions are perfect for a tornado
-supercell
-tornado
-funnel cloud


Tornado Warning:
-tornado has been sighted/touched down
-AHHH!
What is lightning?
-happens when (+) & (-) charged particles collide, causing an electrical disturbance w/in the cumulonibus cloud \"mother nature\" fixes this disturbance by producing a charge (lighting)
equatorial air:
hottest (solowly rises and expands as it gains altitude)
-poles air = cold air over the poles sink & rises as it heats @ the 60 degree latitude
^sets up wind convection cells or Hadley Cells

Coriolis Effect:
the effect of the rotation of the earth on the path of an object taveling oer the surface of the Earth
Northern Hemisphere:
the coriolis dflects to the right

Southern Hemisphere:
the coliolis bend to the left
Jetstreams:
300 mph winds go through the upper troposphere lie a powerful river
-wanders up & down in lazy s-curves
-major impact on weather

Birth of a Hurricane:
1) ocean conditions
2) humidity
3) winds
4) thunderstorms


Layers of a Hurricane:
-spiral bands
-eye wall
-eye

T/F
The newer EF scale is not used often, and is being replaced by the newer F scale
False
T/F
The Jetstream is a result of the martitime and polar air masses
True
The sun shines on and warms Earth\'s surface directly in a method of enery transfer known as __________.
-conduction
The density of air ______ as altitude decreases.
decreases
The atmosphere is composed mostly of _____ and oxygen, with traces of other gases such as carbon dioxcide and water vapor.
nitrogen
Both temperatue and pressure gernerally _______ with height in the troposphere.
varies
A super cell will produce tornadoes______% of the time.
20%-30%
Differnet types of lightning:
-in the cloud
-ground-> cloud
-highest point of the cloud-> above the cloud /storm
-cloud top-> cloud top


supercell:
-cell dissapating
-giving superpowers to a cloud

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