Glossary of EPPP Industrial-Organizational

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Compensatory Tasks
average contributions of all members of the group represents the group product
Equity Theory
motivation is a function of the comparisons workers make between their own input/output ratio & that of workers doing similar jobs

if receiving more praise & benefits than a coworker doing equal work, an employee might work harder to obtain equilibrium between his input & output
Disjunctive Tasks
the judgement or solution of only one member of the group (the best member) is taken as the group product
Conjunctive Tasks
performance of the worst performing member represents, or limits, the group's product
Halo Effect
when a rater's rating of an employee on 1 dimension of job performance affects their ratings of the employee in other areas
ways to reduce the halo effect:
training raters, using multiple raters, rating specific behaviors, using forced-choice & paired comparison scales
Theory Y
assumes people are industrious, creative, & seek responsibility & challenge

assumes punishment is not necessary to bring about good performance

participative leadership style is best
Herzberg's Two Factor Theory
all people have 2 basic needs:

HYGIENE NEEDS - job context, can cause dissatisfaction

MOTIVATOR NEEDS - job content, can cause satisfaction
Job Enlargement
increasing the variety of tasks performed by a worker (does NOT increase responsibility or challenge)

increases satisfaction but does NOT improve performance
Job Enrichment
increasing workers' responsibility & involvement

increases both satisfaction & performance
Japanese Management Philosophy
lifetime commitment to the employee, emphasizes loyalty

slow career development that may involve trying out different positions

termed Theory Z by Ouchi (1981)
Theory X
McGregor, 1960

assumes workers are lazy, dumb, dishonest, must be coerced & directed, are only motivated by $

aka scientific management approach, views workers as extensions of machines
Critical Incidents
descriptions of specific job behaviors that define successful & unsuccessful job performance

could be in a graphic format, like a Likert scale, or in a checklist format
Leaderless Group Discussion
used alone or in assessment centers to identify or develop a manager's communication, decision-making, & leadership skills
Forced Choice Technique
a rater must choose between 2 or more behavioral descriptions that are similar in social desirability

difficult to develop

more useful for obtaining an overall rating, not for giving feedback

developed to reduce rater bias
behaviorally anchored rating scale

graphic rating scales rating an employee's performance in terms of specific job behaviors (critical incidents)

used for providing employees with feedback about their performance

designed to increase rater accuracy but research is NOT favorable
Most effective strategies for reducing conflict
1. locating a common enemy
2. setting up negotiations between powerful subgroups
3. determining a superordinate goal

Reitz, Behavior In Organizations, 1981
Maslow's Need Hierarchy
motivation results from 5 needs:


individuals strive to fill lowest unmet needs

related to job level: managers value esteem & self-actualization; non-managerial value lower level needs

derived from his observations of clients, college students, & people he thought were highly productive
Encapsulating Conflict
Reitz, 1981

establishing rules to attempt to settle conflict

may temporarily suppress conflict but won't end it
Additive Tasks
coordinated efforts of several people add together to form the group project
Fiedler's LPC Scale
"least preferred coworker": a contingency therapy

measures extent to which a leader describes ineffective subordinates in positive terms
(a high LCP leader says nice things about ineffective workers)

low LPC (task-oriented)is best when situational control is low & high; high LPC (person-oriented) best in moderate situational control

situational control is determined by three factors: leader-member relations, task-structure, and leader position power
Theory of Career Anchors
Edgar Schein

a person's self-concept acts as a stabilizing force, determining future occupational decisions

8 categories of anchors: autonomy/independence
technical/functional competence
general managerial competence
service/dedication to cause
pure challenge
Acquired Needs Theory
McClelland, 1965

used TAT to identify needs underlying job motivation

need for achievement (nACH)
need for power
need for affiliation
ERG Theory
modification of Maslow's hierarcy, by Alderferer, 1972

3 needs: existence, relatedness, growth

can be motivated >1 need at a time, needs aren't hierarchical

people may regress when needs are frustrated

more empirical suport than for Maslow's
VIE Theory
expectancy theory, Vroom

employees will work hard when:
they expect effort will lead to success, they believe success will lead to reward, rewards are desirable(+ valence)

sometimes useful for predicting satisfaction, effort, & job choice
FOR Training
frame of reference training; improves accuracy of performance ratings by providing raters with common performance standards

tends to improve inter-rater agreement
Rational Emotive Model
aka, classical decision theory

compiling all relevant information, investigating all possible solutions, & choosing the best

rarely used due to practical limits
Research on flex time
mixed results: may increase morale & productivity

most consistently associated with decreased tardiness & absenteeism
Needs Analysis/Assessment
conducted in organizations to identify training needs & determine appropriate content for training programs
Door-in-the-face Technique
initially requesting something very large & then when refused, making the request smaller
Goals of Total Quality Management
improve organizational effectiveness by:
1. maximizing customer satisfaction

2. relying employee involvement (teamwork)

3. making continuous changes
one who purposefully & gradually turns over power, responsibility, & control to a self-managing work group
Transactional Leaders
believe employee behavior is goal oriented, employees will act rationally to meet goals

use rewards & punishments to control employee behavior

believe a boss should have a laissez-faire style

appeal to the self-interest of their followers
Transformational Leaders
believe each employee will function best if viewed as an individual & given personal attention

motivate workers to achieve transcendental goals that go beyond each worker's immediate self-interests
Holland's Theory of Career Choice
6 personality & occupational types: realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, conventional (RIASEC)

a highly differentiated person scores high on 1 dimension only

personality/occupational match is most accurate for predicting outcomes of highly differentiated people

job satisfaction, performance, etc are directly related to the degree of congruence between personality & work environment

focuses on knowledge of oneself & of the working world
Donald Super's Life space/life span theory
5 stages encompass life span:
growth (0-14), exploratory (15-24), establishment (25-44), maintenance (45-64), disengagement (65+)

each stage involves a set of developmental tasks (web), mastery of tasks = career maturity

emphasizes the role of self-concept in vocational development & choice

career is viewed as a combination of 8 life roles (rainbow)
Organizational Development
broad approach to organizational change

goal: improve problem solving & renewal processes, through more effective, collaborative management; emphasis on teams

primary targets: people & relationships
Goal Setting Theory
acceptance of goals is more important than participating in setting goals

relatively difficult goals + feedback about progress produces greatest productivity
House's Path-Goal Theory
a contingency theory of leadership

best leadership style depends on the task (ambiguity, structure) & on the workers (traits, abilities)

primary task of a leader is to help subordinates find the best path to organizational goals & connect them to individual goals

styles = directive, supportive, participative, or achievement-oriented
Vroom-Yelton-Jago Model
includes a decision tree to choose between 3 leadership styles (autocratic, consultative, group-decision making)

best choice depends on the situation (time constraints, importance of subordinate commitment to the decision, structure of the task)
Tiedeman & O'Hara's theory of Career Development
considers career identity development to be an aspect of ego identity development

2 career processes: differentiation (maintining uniqueness) & integration (becoming part of a system)

2 career phases: anticipation/preoccupation (exploration, vocational choice); implementation/adjustment (achieving a balance between work demands & own needs)
Krumboltz's Social Learning Theory of Career Decision Making
people choose careers based on what has been learned through modeling & reinforcement

career development is based on social learning, environmental influences, genetics, learning
Job Burnout
depleted energy, lowered resistance to illness, increased dissatisfaction & pessimism, increased absenteeism & inefficiency

5 stages: honeymoon, fuel shortage, chronic, crisis, hitting the wall

results from unmanaged work stress

the more hours worked, the greater the likelihood of burnout
Criterion Contamination
when raters of the criterion measure know subjects' scores on the predictors

results in inflated criterion-related validity coefficients
Best predictor of job choice:
interest or vocational aspiration
Quality Control Circles
goal = improve finished product & level of production

method = increasing workers' responsibility for work & participation in decisions

usually affect only part of an organization
Gender differences in leaders
people turn to male bosses for information & female bosses for support

both women & men prefer male bosses

men are more likely to be directive leaders, women leaders tend to be more supportive
Big 5 Personality Trait associated with successful job performance across all occupations
Realistic Job Previews
providing prospective job applicants with accurate information about a job to reduce overly optimistic expectations

most significant benefit is reduction in turnover
Vroom & Yetton's Normative Model
5 styles of leadership on a continuum: autocratic to complete participation

most effective style depends on the situation & the decision
Graen's leader-member exchange theory
formerly known as vertical dyadic linkage theory

focuses on the impact of the leader-subordinate relationship on the leadership process

in-group employees are seen as competent & motivated; out-group employees as incompetent & unmotivated

style is supervisory for out-group; & leadership for in-group (giving responsibility)
Incentive/Reward Theory
broader than reinforcement theory and emphasizes the features of the job and work environment that maximize worker interest and satisfaction
Taylor-Russell tables
used to estimate the % of new hires who will be successful employees, given the validity coefficient, selection ratio, & base rate

when the selection ratio is low & the base rate moderate, a predictor with a low validity can improve decision-making accuracy
selection ratio
ratio of job openings to job applicants

low selection rations (many applications for 1 or a few jobs) are preferred because an employer can be more selective (raise the predictor cutoff score)
base rate
% of employees who are performing satisfactorily without use of the proposed predictor

ranges from 0 to 1.0

moderate base rates are associated with greatest incremental validity

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