Glossary of EOSC 114 final exam
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- How are the earth atmosphere and ocean stratified?
- according to density
- What is the SI unit for years? (ex. one millenium)
- a (1000 a)
- What are the time scales for : earthquakes, volcanoes, hurricanes, thunderstorms, rogue waves, landslides and meteorites?
- E: years – minutes
V: decades – days
H: months - days
T: hours - minutes
R: hours - seconds
L: days - seconds
M: millenia - seconds
- Thunderstorms occur in the ________ (layer of the atmostphere).
- SI unit for mass is the ________
- Isotopes have the same number of ________but a different number of ____________.
- (same # of) protons
(different # of ) neutrons
- The greatest chemical components of Earths crust are___________
- oxygen, silicon, aluminum
- Some molecules loan electrons, and valences sum to zero. This is what type of bond?
- Some molecules share electrons. this is what type of bond?
- Atoms in molecules sometimes line up in a ___________. This is called a __________.
- regular lattice
- Cyrstals will fracture along the _________bonds in the lattice. Where they fracture is called ____________
- The change in size or shape of an object is called __________
- What type of strain describes the ability for an object to bounce back to its orginal form after being deformed?
- elastic strain
- What type of strain describes the ability of an object to deform its shape permanently when forced?
(ductile = very plastic)
- Tightly bound groups of atoms that are not completely ___________because they carry a non-zero charge are called____________
- The following type of energy is defined as a Force X Distance
- What is the SI unit for pressure and stress? How is is defined?
- The period of a wave is _____
So a wave going 2 cycles/sec has a period of ________
- Individual waves travel at the ______speed.
Packages of waves travel at the _________speed.
Energy and matter travel at the _______speed.
_______speed is faster than ________speed.
phase is faster than group
- Tornadoes happen most often in ___________
- central North America
- If a material deforms easily and remains deformed after the stress is removed the material is __________
- Irregular motion of energy and matter whose wavelength/period cannot be measured or predicted from past motion is____________
- turbulent motion
- How is the doubling time defined?
If world pop is growing at rate of 1.3%, what is the DT?
- DT: 70/%growth rate
- _________waves are parallel to the direction of propagation.
- Mt Pinatubo was compounded by the fact that during the eruption _____________
- a typhoon hit
- Hurricanes are called _________in the Western Pacific and ___________ in Australia.
- In 97-98 the following event caused Torrential rain and mudslides in Southern California, Flooding in Peru that washed out many bridges, warming of the surface water in the eastern Pacific Ocean
and Snow in Mexico
- El nino
- Since 1950 economic losses in developed countries have__________
- increased exponentially
- The number of human deaths in the past 20 years due to natural disasters has _________
- fluctuated by an order of magnitude from year to year
- In the 20th century which 2 types of natural disaster killed the most people?
- Earthquakes and hurricanes
- How old is the earth?
- 4.5 Ga (giga years)
- Force per unit are applied perpindicular to a surface is called __________
- Water _________in density when it freezes.
- The Himilayas are the result of a ____________plate boundary
- continental collision
- Tectonic plates move as a result of ________________
- pull from huge subducting slabs
- When we refer to ‘plates’, we are talking about the ______, which is _____ than the layer below it.
stronger and colder
- At collisional plate boundaries what type of fault is common?
- thrust or reverse where the overhanging side slides up
- A normal fault is where the overhanging side slides _________
- San Andreas and Queen Charlottes faults are what kind of fault?
- strike slip
- The fault nearest Vancouver is the __________and can cause magnitude ____
- Cascadia Subduction Zone
- Fastest type of seismic wave is the __________
- p wave
- You can compute the Richter magnitude of an earthquake using these two pieces of information:
- maximum amplitude of shaking, difference between P-wave and S-wave arrival times
- What kind of shaking could be the most dangerous to the tallest high-rises downtown?
- low freq horizontal shaking (<1Hz)
- The S-wave shadow zone provides evidence that _____.
- the Earth has a liquid outer core
- The mercalli earthquake intensity scale does not depend on the _________________
- style of faulting
- When soil is loosely packed, it may flow like a ______ during an earthquake, especially when saturated. This is called___________
- What is omori's law?
If there were 1000 aftershocks the day after an earthquake, the next day how many earhqakes would there be?
N= # of aftershocks
- In an earthquake the fault ruptures first at the ____ and the rupture moves out from this point at a rate of ____.
- Buildings that are not fully supported on the first floor (i.e. department stores with high ceilings) can lead to ___________
- soft story collapse
- P waves travel via _________, parallel to the direction of propagation. They move at a speed of ________making them the ______type of seismic wave.
- S waves move __________to the direction of motion.
They travel at a speed of __________
- What is a seismic gap?
- A fault segment which has not had a large earthquake recently.
- What happens to the different frequencies in a seismic wave as it travels long distances through the Earth’s mantle?
- high frequencies disappear
- _____ deaths were caused by earthquakes in the 20th century, and the total shaking time for 20th century
tens of minutes
- A renewal forecast states that as time goes by, likelhood of an earthquake is ___________
- According to the latest renewal forecasts, the probability of a M9 Cascadia subduction zone earthquake in the next 50
years is _____.
- You would feel the shaking of an M9 earthquake for about __________
- 5-10 minutes
- Why is the Richter magnitude often called the local magnitude?
- The Richter magnitude is supposed to be computed from local seismographs (within 500 km of the epicentre).
- Which seismic waves shake at a high enough frequency to actually be heard?
- Stonely waves.
- When a P-wave passes through an interface into a material with a higher P-wave velocity, its travel path ______ and
the new travel direction is more nearly _____.
- In a Rayleigh wave, the ground motion is _____, and the amplitude of shaking is _____ at the surface.
- horizontal and vertical, biggest
- The 2001 Nisqually earthquakes in Washington State occurred at a depth of 50 km. It occurred ______.
- in the subducting plate
- Magma is molten rock________
- beneath the surface of the earth
(not made of mostly silica and feldspar)
- The main factor leading to an increase in volcano-related fatalities over the past 50 years is an increase in ____.
- The two most common elements at the surface of the earth are ____.
- oxygen and silicon
- The type of magma most likely to cause a violent volcanic eruption is____.
- high viscosity and relatively cool
- The landform you would expect from mafic volcanism is a ____.
- shield volcano
- Shield volcano, composite cone, and cinder cone are landforms from _________
- largest to smallest
- An important difference between a pyroclastic flow and a lahar is _____________
- Pyroclastic flows only occur during eruptions.
- Most volcanic ash is formed by ____.
- The rapid growth and destruction of gas bubbles within the magma
- How does a caldera form?
- An extremely large eruption empties the magma chamber and the volcano collapses inwards.
- What is a nuée ardente?
- A red-hot avalanche of incandescent gases and glowing volcanic fragments.
type of pyroclastic flow
- Geolists dated the ancient eruptions at Mt St. Helens by ___________
- radiocarbon dating trees killed by the volcano
- Where do most subaerial volcanoes occur?
- Convergent plate tectonic boundaries.
- What type of magma would you expect in the ground above a continental hot spot?
- Which of the following gases does NOT come out of a volcano:
Water vapour (H2O)
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Hydrogen sulphide (H2S)
Sulphur dioxide (SO2).
- What hazard is associated with Mt. Rainier?
- If Mt Baker erupted what hazard threatens UBC?
- Landslides are most likely to occur if
- the factor of safety goes below 1.0
- Landslides in BC are not that related to _________
- quick clays
- The Rissa quick clay landslide was triggered by ____________
- Quick clays tend to lose shear strength when____________
- salt is removed from the clay
- On the west coast of British Columbia landslides are most likely to occur in what month?
- The fastest landslide type is a ____.
- The Frank slide in the Eastern Rocky Mountains was caused by all but one of the following:
Extensive coal mining.
Weak fractured and faulted bedrock.
Bedding planes of sedimentary bedrock parallel to the slope. Wet weather in years p
- remove of vegetation above the slide
- What is the likely return interval of extremely large landslide events (> 20 million m3) in the Southern Canadian
- 25-100 yrs
- to prevent smaller blocky material from falling onto the road you should use___________
- How does a debris avalanche differ from a debris flow?
- A debris avalanche is not confined to a channel.
- In the Hawaiian Islands large landslides have caused ____.
- the erosion of channels in bedrock on the coast of Australia
- Which is the most important type of landslide in the coastal region of British Columbia?
- debris flow
- The Swedish Circle analysis of slope stability is used on which type of landslide?
- rotational slide
- Which of the following is NOT a hazard of thunderstorms?
- storm surge - thats hurricanes
- A full-sized thunderstorm reaches about how high in the atmosphere?
- Saturation vapour pressure (es) is dependent on the ____.
- A relative humidity of 75% means ____.
- the air is holding 75% of the water it could hold
- The dew point temperature describes ____.
- the temperature at which water vapour will condense out of the air
- Measuring humidity by measuring changing resistance of a carbon-coated glass slide is a _______
- A supercell thunderstorm sometimes____________
- has extremely low precipitation
- Energy in the form of hot humid air reaches storms through ____.
- The primary source of energy for the Earth’s weather is ____.
- the sun
- Most thunderstorms form ____.
- in the afternoon to early evening
- In North America most thunderstorms form ____.
- in the southeast US
- One of the differences between positive and negative lightning strikes is ____.
- positive strikes come from the anvil
- If you increase the temperature of an air parcel ____.
- it will be more buoyant
- The concept of continuity describes how ____.
- air molecules tend to spread themselves smoothly and evenly
- Pressure gradients form because ____.
- warm air loses pressure more slowly than cold air with increasing altitude
- Strong currents of air which descend from thunderstorms are called ____.
- Arc clouds are caused by ____.
- gust fronts
- An adiabatic process refers to ____.
- a change in temperature that does not involve heat transfer
- The lifting condensation level ____.
- is the z at which water vapour condenses out of the air in an updraft
- One thunderstorm can spawn a daughter storm by ____.
- creating a gustfront to lift warm boundary level air off the ground
- Tornado translation speeds are ____.
- between 0 and 100 km/h
- During which months are hurricanes most likely to occur off the coast of North America?
- August to September
- Why don’t hurricanes form at the equator?
- Coriolis effect is too weak
- Which of the following does NOT help to strengthen hurricanes?
A) Warm ocean water >26° C.
B) A large pressure gradient between the eye and the outer part of the storm.
C) Ocean spray from waves increasing the humidity near the centre
- Mixing of the upper levels of the ocean by strong waves
- The short period high frequency compression waves that travel through any material are called ___________
- p waves
about 4.8 km/s in rock
1.4 km/s in water
- The transverse waves that shear or shake through material perpindicular to the direction of motion are _____________, and only move through solids.
- secondary waves
about 3 km/s
- Because ____ waves don't travel through liquid, we know the earth's core is surrounded by a liquid, since these waves stop or are converted into something else.
- secondary waves
- Surfaces waves are of what two types?
They are created by _________waves disturbing the surface.
- Raleigh and Love
- Low frequency long period waves are called_____________
- L waves
(Raleigh and Love)
- L waves that only travel through solids, and move side to side in a horizontal plane perpindicular to the direction of motion are ___________
They travel faster than ____________waves
- Love waves
- ________waves move in a backward rolling elliptical motion, both horizontal and vertical. A _________hypocenter means more P and S waves hit the surface making these waves ________
- Tsunami are most often created by ________________
uplift of the deep sea floor
Vertical movement fault movements at subduction zones
- The largest historic wave occurred in ________ in __________. It is also called a_______
Lituya Bay, Alaska
- The most powerful waves occur when ____________
- a several km ateroid hits the ocean
- The velocity of a tsunami is calculated by __________
D=depth of ocean water
- How fast are tsunami?
- about 232m/s (518mph)
- Tsunami are about _______high in the open ocean and grow to ________in shallow water
- 1 meter
- A tsunami's destructive power is due to its _____________not __________
- Which wave in a series of Tsunami is usually the biggest?
- it is unpredictable
- Why was the Nicaragua earthquake 7.6 mag of 1992 barely felt?
- the fault move very slowly creating long period energy that created tsunami
- How did the Papa New Guinea earthquake in 1998 change our thinking about causes of tsuanmi?
- Not all tsunami come from giant earthquakes. Smaller faults can cause unstable sand and rock to fall, causing landslides which also cause tsunami.
- How is lake Tahoe dangerous?
- There is a 3-4% chance of an earthquake happening there which could cause massive tsunami.
- What are the typical period and wavelegths of Tsunami?
- 60 minute period
520 mile wavelengths
- What is more dangerous, a high tsunami or a long tsunami?
- Long tsunami continue to rush in for up to 30 minutes. Their momentum is much more dangerous than their height. They look like pancakes.
- Tsunami are largest when caused by _____________
- impacts from space (several km across)
- What are the four main causes of Tsunami?
- Streams flow because of __________. Waves in large bodies of water occur most often because of __________________
frictional drag of wind blowing across water
- Water orbits cease at a depth of about _____________
- 1/2 the wavelength
- The height of the wave depends on what four things?
- velocity of wind
duration of time wind blew
length of water surface (fetch)
consistency of wind direction
- The length of the water surface over which wind blows is called ___________
- The result of contructive and destructive multiple sets of ocean waves is called_________
- sea swell
- Extremly tall waves that form from synchronous interference are called _________
- rogue waves
- Waves break when ________with the sea floor ________the wave and _________the wavelength until the height:length ratio reaches ______.
Also, the depth of water uner a breaker is about ______the wave height, thus the wave crest is moving________than
- Why is there no sand in the winter?
- Summer waves are shorter and more numerous, pushing sand onto the beach.
Winter waves are stronger and longer wavelenths, pulling the sand away.
- The temperature________in the ___________is greater, and the waves get stronger, and have longer wavelengths.
- temperature contrast
- A great absorber of wave energy is ______________
- beach sand in the summer
- Waves break when they reach a water depth of about _________their wavelength.
- What is the longshore current.
- Waves come in at an angle, so the shallower part breaks early, and while the deeper part catches up the shallower end is already pulling sand directly back.
- Masses built perpindicular to the coastline are called _____________
- groins and jetties
- ___________interfere with the longshore current and longshore transport. Typically one side gets eroded while the other side gets a pile of sand.
- groin and jetties
- ___________may be attached or unattached to the shoreline and prevent waves from hitting the shoreline. They are often accompanied by a permanent _____________operation to move the sand back into the longshore transport system.
- At wavelengths of less than 1.7 cm the wave is a __________wave and the restoring force is usually ______________.
- At wavelengths of more than 1.7 cm the wave is a __________wave and the restoring force is usually ______________.
- Surface Gravity Wave:
Wind Wave, Seiche,
- What 3 factors affect the growth of wind waves?
- Wind speed
Fetch (uninterrupted distance over which
- The Beaufort scale measures _____________
- wind speed causing waves
- What is the Fully
- Condition when the wave size are the maximum theoretically possible for a wind of a
specific strength, duration, and fetch.
2-3 meters in Northern Pacific
6 meters year around around Antarctica
- What is the difference between currents and waves?
- Currents move water; carry mass
Waves move energy; NO net
movement of the water
- Orbital motion of waves __________with depth
- What is the wave base?
- Where orbital motion goes to zero and depth is half the wavelength.
- A deep water wave has wavelength ____________
- A Transitional/Intermediate waves is at what depth?
depth greater than L/20
less than L/2
- A shallow water wave is when depth is ______________
- less then L/20
- The speed of a deep water wave is only dependent on it's ___________
- Deep water waves are ____persive and shallow water waves are __________persive
- The speed of shallow water waves is dependent on ____________
- the depth
- Shoaling waves begin to feel the bottom at __________. Their height ________and the wavelength __________. The crests peak at ________and become unstable at 3:4. Then the waves turn to ____________
- An abrupt bulge of water driven ashore by hurricane/tropical cyclone/typhoon is called__________
- storm surge
- Water level __________underneath the eye
of a storm because of:
low air pressure
winds rushing towards center creating a mound of water
- Surge is technically NOT a ______ it is only a _______!
- Most hurricane/typhoon deaths are a result of the_________and people die of ________
- storm surge
- Tsunami means _________and is incorrectly called a _________in North America
- harbor wave
- Tsunami are caused by the following five things:
1. Volcanic eruptions
2. Meteor impacts
3. Earthquakes (vertical submarine fault motion)**
5. Icebergs falling from glaciers
**seismic sea wave
- The 1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska tsunami was caused by a __________after an earthquake
- In 1883 a tsunami in Krakatoa, Indonesia was caused by a __________
Tsunami were up to 30 m high; 36,000 dead
- volcanic eruption - caldera collapse
- If you are 750 km from the source you have about _______to evacuate before the tsunami hits.
- 1 hour
- At ____________you have have about 10 minutes to 1 hour to avoid a tsunami
- 100-750 km
- The largest recorded tsunami happened in _______in__________and the 3rd peak was biggest at ________.
It travelled across the Pacific Ocean 10,000 km away
and hit ________and ________
- In 1963 the Anthropogenic Tsunami in the Italian Alps was caused by __________________
- Vaiont Dam construction causing landslide
- The largest recorded tsunami in North America happened in _____1964 and is also called the ______________.
It lead to the setup of the International Tsunami Warning
System in Honolulu, Hawaii.
Prince William Sound, Alaska
Good Friday EQ
- Tsunami are always ____________waves because the average ocean depth is_________
- shallow water waves (D<L/20)
- Tsunami charectistics in the open ocean:
Since H/L is so small ________
- 200 km
200 m/s or 720 km/hr
0.5 - 1 m
10 min - 1 hour
ships can't detect tsunami in the open ocean
- The ________may arrive first, thus may observe receding
sea level first.
- trough of a tsunami
- A resonant oscillation of water, or oscillating wave on a
lake or landlocked sea is a _____________
(means to sway back and forth)
- Rogue waves are notoriou where?
- off the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa
- The water brought up by waves
onto shore usually at an angle to the shoreline is called _______
- A beach of fine material means ____water on the beach, ______backwash, sediments _____pile up, and the slope is ______.
gradual (1 degree)
- A beach of large sediment grain size means, _______percolation on beach, _______backwash, sediments _____pile up, and the slope is ______.
steep (24 degrees)
- Steeper waves mean a _________beach, H/L is ______, energy, swash and percolation are _________, backwash is _______, sediments _____pile up, and the slope is ______.
- Smaller waves mean a _________beach, H/L is ______, energy, swash and percolation are _________, backwash is _______, sediments _____pile up, and the slope is ______.
- Wave refraction is _____________
- when a wave bends towards the shore because its shallower end slowed down.
- Overtime wave action __________the shore line.
- Elongated structures that protrude perpendicular to the shoreline to trap sediments are ____________
- Breakwaters that DISSIPATE
wave energy but allow the FLOW of sediments are ___________
- tethered floats
- Reflecting waves with very little energy loss, __________reflect energy and ERODE sediments until it COLLAPSES
- sea walls
- The global rise or fall of sea level is called ________seal level change. It is primarily caused by ______________
melting ice sheets
glacial ice melts,
sea level will
- Land rising or subsiding is called____________
- isostatic rebound
- Due to tectonic movement the Atlantic coast is ___________ & Pacific coast is __________, Sea level rises ____cm/century along N.American east coast.
- The global volume of water is increasing due to__________
- thermal expansion
- In the 20th century, average global SURFACE TEMPERATURE rose by _____C/century
- .6 degrees
- The Biosphere is _____________
- the thin “layer” of life on the Earth’s surface
- "What's on top is youngest" is the ______________and was coined by ________in______
- The principle of superposition
- "Strata of like age can be recognized by the fossils
they contain". This is the ____________coined by __________in ____________
- faunal succession
- Using the appearance and disappearance of fossils to subdivide geological time is called______________________
- ___________(1769 - 1832)found mammoth remains in____________. This lead to idea of species going __________
- George Cuvier
- A mass extinction event is when ____% of the world's speciets lost. It must include a _______range of ecologies and must be ________(time frame).
short and sudden.
- How many mass extinction have there been and in what period?
- 5 in the Phanerozoic Eon (includes everything but precambrian)
- To common requisites for an organism to become fossilized are _______ and ___________
- hard parts - bones, shells, teeth
- Are footprints fossils?
What is a fossil?
evidence of former life
- What is fossil tree sap called?
What three things does it protect from?
scavengers, water, oxygen
- The three major branches of life are______, ________, and ________
- archaea - extreme
eukarya (plant, animals)
- Photosynthetic bacteria removed surplus carbon dioxide creating ______and therefore our________
technically they gave off 02, which got converted to 03 (the ozone)
- Once a species dies out, it _______reappears.
- Over ____%of all life that ever lived is now extinct.
- Current estimates of Earth's specie diversity are_______
- 40-80 million
- The average lifespan of a species is __________
- 4 million years
- Mass extinctions can be caused by (5 things)
- tectonic effects
impacts from space
- Today water is about ____%of the Earth's surface and land is ___%.
Sea level change could increase land percentages to ___% or drop it to____%.
- The bigger the glacier, the ______the sea level.
- Sea level can be changed by what two processes?
- glaciers, created by evaporated ocean water that falls as snow
sea floor spreading
- Ice ages happen when land (continents)_____________and catches the snow.
- moves close to the poles
- Flood basalts can change _______, ________,and _________
- sea level, ocean composition and climate
- When water at the bottom of the ocean becomes depleted of oxygen (because it is too ______to sink), it is called _________
- Biologic causes of extinction include_______________(4 things)
- low population size
reduced geographic area
- Life arose about _________years ago
- 543 million
- The worst day for the biosphere was at the ____________change when ____% of all species went extinct in just ________years.
- What caused the Permo/Triassic extinction? (6 things)
1) Continental configuration - drop in diversity
2) Sea level fall - less ocean ridge activity
3) Oceanic stagnation - anoxia
4) Climate change - much drier
5) Siberian Traps - massive volcanic activity:
2 - 3 million km3 basaltic lava
6) Possible impacts
- When did the Permo/Triassic extinction happen?
What species replaced the 98% that died? in what time period?
- 250 million years ago
dinosaurs in the Mesozoic time
- What were the three major causes of the Cretaceous extenction?
- long-lasting changes to sea level and climate
- These two species have lasted _______million years and ________million years respectively.
- horshoe crabs 450 million
sharks 350 million
- In the last 1.5 million years what type of species is going extinct at a faster than expected rate and why?
- large bodied animals
- Extinctions of large animals seems to follow the ________of humans. Coexistince (as in ______) seems to have kept many more alive.
- They think humans are causing mammal extinctions because________(3 reasons)
- More animals than plants went extinct. Why would food go before the eater went?
climate change shouldn't affect mammals with their temperature regulating bodies
retreat of glaciers means more land, there should be more mammals not less
- Effects of humans on species extinction began__________
- with every human advance in tools, hunting etc - 12,000 years ago and has been increasing
- The KT event killed ______% of all species.
- Nothing over ___ kg on land survived the KT event.
- The KT event killed _______% of marine species.
- The KT event has a ___cm thick layer of ______and was discovered by ___________________
Walter and Luis Alverez
- What is the source of such high iridium content found globally and relating the era between the Tertiary and the Cretaceous?
- What is the main evidence that a meteorite helped wiped stuff out in the KT event?
- iridium deposits
- What evidence about the KT event comes from fern spores?
- Fern Spores vs pollen
• Ferns: first to colonize fire impacted landscape
• Just after K/T have massive spike in fern spores
The fossil record shows an increase from 25% to 100% indicating plant life took a heavy hit, possibly due to burning up from an impact.
- What evidence is there that massive global fires happened during the KT event.
- Soot layers associated with the iridium layer
- What are tektites and what do they tell us?
Glass - produced by
melting rocks during
good evidence of a meteorite impact
- What is shocked quartz?
- Another “impact” feature
Stress lines in quartz crystals
- What are breccia?
- melted rocks which lead to the "smoking gun" evidence of a crater in Mexico - meaning a meteorite hit
- The Chicxulub Impact Crater was ______km across and had ______deposits, _______and _________
- The KT asteroid was _____across and hit earth at a _______degree angle
- 10 km
- Chicxulub means_______
- “Tail of the Devil”
- Most of “ejecta” of the KT asteroid went towards the __and realsed about __________ Tonnes TNT and _____km3 Rock was vaporized.
6.2 x 107
- Some of the short term effects of the KT event were____________(3)
- Vaporizes all close by
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