Glossary of EMT - Chapter 32: Musculoskeletal Injuries
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- The functions of the musculoskeletal system are:
- - To give the body shape
- To protect the internal organs
- To provide for movement
- What are the three kinds of muscles?
- Voluntary (Skeletal)
- Muscles that are found in the walls of organs and help move food through the digestive system
- Involuntary Muscles
- Muscles found on the walls of the heart
- Cardiac Muscles
- Muscles that are under the control of a person's will.
- Voluntary Muscles
- Most voluntray muscles are attached at one or both ends to the skeleton. True or false
- Composed of specialized connective tissue, ______ connect muscle to bone.
- Composed of specialezed connective tissue, _______ connect bone to bone.
- Places where bones meet?
- The 6 basic components of the skeletal system are?
- Skull, Spinal Column, Thorax, Pelvis, Lower Extremities, and Upper Extremities.
- A broken bone is a _______
- An injury to a muscle or muscle and tendon that have been overextended or stretched is a ________
- An injury to a joint with possible damage to or tearing of ligaments
- The displacement of a bone from its normal position in a joint.
- 3 Forces cause bone and joint injury:
- Direct Force
- Direct Force
- direct blow, occurs at the point of impact.
- Indirect Force
- The force impacts on one end or a limb, causing injury some distance away from the point of impact. (brace yourself on fall, sprain wrist 'direct force', dislocate ipsilateral shoulder 'Indirect force.'
- Twisting Force
- one part of the extremity remains stationary while the rest twists.
- What two types of fractures are considered to be critical injuries?
- Femur and Pelvis.
- How many liters of blood can be lost in a femur fracture?
- Approximately 1-2 liters
- How many liters of blood can be lost in a pelvic fracture?
- Approximately 2 liters.
- If a patient has a life-threatening condition that is not directly related to the or caused by the extremity injury you should?
- Initiate Transport and if time permits, during transport immobilize the injury.
- Pulseness and cyanosis distal to an injury is not a serious condition. True or False
- False, Transport this patient immediately after immobilizing the injury, immeidately following your focused history and physical exam.
- DCAP-BTLS stands for:
- Deformities, Contusions, Abrasions, Punctures and Penetrations - Burns, Tenderness, lacerations, and Swelling.
- SAMPLE stands for:
- Signs/Symptoms, Allergies, Medications, Pertinent Past History, Last Oral Intake and Events leading to call for assistance.
- Bone and Joint injuries can be one of two types:
- Closed or Open
- Injury in which the overlying skin is intact is _______ injury
- Injury in which an open wound is associated with the fracture; bone may or may not protrude through the wound.
- Signs and Symptoms of Bone and Joint Injury:
- Deformity or Angulation
Pain and Tenderness
Grating or Crepitus
Severe Weakness/loss of func.
Exposed bone ends
Joint locked into position.
- The sound or feeling of broken fragments of bone grinding against each other
- Pt reports he twisted his ankle while playing soccer, there is some swelling, however no extreme deformity or pertruding bones. What should you do?
- Treat the pt as if he has a sprain, strain, dislocation, or broken bone and provide appropriate medical treatment.
- List steps to properly immoblize a suspected fracture.
- 1. BSI
2. Adminster Oxygen if needed
3. In-line spinal stabilization
4. Splint bone/joint injury
5. Apply cold packs
6. Elevate the extremity
- Any device used to immobilize a body part is a ______
- Any splint can be commerically manufactured or it can be improvised from virtually any objects that can provide stability. True or False
- What are the two reasons for splinting a bone?
- 1. prevents movement of bone fragments, bone ends, or dislocated joints.
2. Reduce pain and minimize further complications from injury.
- PMS Stands for
- Pulse, Motor function, and sensation.
- PMS should be evaulated every _____ minutes after applying the splint.
- When in doubt, splint the injury.
True or False
- What are the Three phases of Trauma Care.
- How a person was injured is also known as...
- Mechanism of Injury
- The science of analyzing mechanisms of injury, predicts the kind and extent of injuries as a basis for your priority decisions regarding continuing assesment, care, and transport.
- Kinetics of Trauma
- The branch of mechanics dealing with the motions of material bodies.
- The energy contained in a moving body or bodies is called,...
- Kinetic Energy
- The amount of kinetic engergy a moving body contains depends on two factors:
- Mass x Velocity(squared)
Divided by 2
- Law of Inertia
- A body at rest will remain at rest, and a body in motion will remain in motion, unless acted upon by an outside force.
- The rate at which a body in motion increases is known as:
- The rate at which a body in motion decreases speed is known as:
- In regular vehicular collisions, there are 3 types of collisions:
- Vehicle Collision
- The fall is the most common and most deadly mechanism of injury.
True or False
- False, the fall is the most common, however, vehicle collisions attribute to 1/3 of all deaths of trauma.
- A brief period of unresponsiveness or disorientation followed by a return of alertness may be a sign of;
- Brain injury.
- 5 Classifications of Motor Vehicle Accidents:
Rotating and Rollovers
- Frontal Impacts (MVA):
- Open and over the steering wheel, or down and under the steering wheel.
- The chance of sustaining an injury is increased by ____% when an occupant is ejected.
- The chance of cervical spine injury is increased by _____% if an occupant is ejected.
- Up and Over Pathway or Full/partial ejection; you should look for what types of injuries:
- abdomen, chest, face, head and neck.
- Down and Under Pathway, you should look for injuries of the:
- knees, femurs, hips, acetabulum, and spine.
- A child who is about to be hit by a vehicle, whether walking or riding a bike turns toward the oncoming vehicle.
True or False
- An Adult pedestrian being struck by a vehicle turns toward the oncoming vehicle.
True or False
- False, the adult turns away from the vehicle, causing the injuries to generally be on the side of the body.
- Three types of Motorcycle collisions:
- Head On Impact
- In falls greater than ____ ft, internal organs are likely to be injured from deceleration forces; the liver, spleen, kidney and heart
- 20 feet
- Falls from ____ x the person's height, will most likely result in a spinal injury.
- 3 x the person's height.
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