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Glossary of EFB-385 CVA Lecture Review (Comprehensive)

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EVOLUTIONARY EMBRYOLOGY
Timing of development
HETEROCHRONY
A change in developmental timing such that features occur earlier or later than in an ancestor


Name the 4 parts of the ecomorphological clock.
What are the 2 types of paedomorphosis?
  • 1. Progenesis (maturing earlier than ancestor)
  • 2. Neoteny (retaining larval shape)
What are the 2 types of peramorphosis?
  • 1. Hypermorphosis (maturing later than ancestor)
  • 2. Acceleration (having older shape than ancestor @ maturity)
What organism is an example of neoteny?
Axolotl
RECAPITULATION
Sequential appearance of ancestral features during ontogeny
Who proposed "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny" and used artistic license in the production of evidence? In what year?
Ernst Haeckel, 1866
What is one reason embryos look similar?
Trying not to modify basic components due to energetic costs and likelihood of failure in experimentation
The integument is the largest ____ and exists side-by-side with the ____ system.
largest, nervous
EPIDERMIS
Layer of the integument closest to the environment
What are the 6 layers of the integument (distal to medial)?
Stratum....
  • 1. Corneum
  • 2. Lucidum
  • 3. Granulosum
  • 4. Spinosum
  • 5. Basale
  • 6. Dermis


  • (Cat Labs Give Students Bad Dreams)
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Name the pink structure.
Unguis
Name the 6 structures that support a fingernail.
What is the function of the stratum corneum?
Sheds water
What does the stratum granulosum consist of?
Keratohyalin granules
DERMIS
Deepest layer of the integument containing collagenous tissue (leather)
COLLAGEN
Basic structural fiber of the animal kingdom
What are 4 glands arising from the dermis?
  • 1. Apocrine gland
  • 2. Melanophore
  • 3. Sebaceous gland
  • 4. Eccrine gland
CHROMATOPHORES
Neural crest derivatives in fishes and invertebrates that contain pigment and reflect light
ENAMEL
Hardest material in the vertebrate body
Label the 4 structures associated with the deeper cutaneous layers.
Caroline M. Pond studied the mechanics of what?
Fat deposition
Who classified the structural derivatives of the integument? In what year?
Melvin Moss, 1972
What are the 3 Structural Derivatives of the Integument?
  • 1. Epidermal (exclusively epidermal cells)
  • 2. Epidermal-Dermal (structural contributer)
  • 3. Mesodermal (exclusively mesodermal cells)
Hair, nails, and beaks result from what structural derivative of the integument?
Epidermal
Fish scales and teeth result from what structural derivative?
Epidermal-dermal
The operculum and clavicle result from what structural derivative?
Mesodermal
Who described the processes by which structural derivatives of the integument create unique features like feathers and hair?
Richard Krejsa
What are the 3 processes by which structural derivatives of the integument create unique features like scales or hair?
  • 1. Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions (EMI)
  • 2. Delamination (DEL)
  • 3. Functional Epithelial Extinction (FEE)
Feathers and hair result from two variants of what structural derivative process?
Epithelial mesenchymal interactions (EMI)
Guppy skin results from what structural derivative process?
Delamination (DEL)
Name this process, its components, and its results.
Name this process, its components, and an example result.
What causes integumental patterns?
Embryonic basement lamellae
What are 4 hard tissue derivatives?
  • 1. Enamel
  • 2. Ganoin
  • 3. Dentine
  • 4. Bone
What is the primary component of enamel?
Hydroxyapatite (mineral)
What percent of enamel material is organic?
3%
Can enamel be altered once it is laid down?
No.
Enamel arises from the ______.
ectoderm
Ganoin is a ____ enamel that is ____.
laminar, layered
What kind of enamel is dentine?
Soft
What percent of dentine material is organic?
30%
Is it possible to alter dentine after it is laid down?
Yes
Before bones were placed in skeletons, where were they placed?
Armor
How many bone layers did ancient dermal armor have?
4
Who proposed that an active lifestyle facilitates the formation of hydroxyapatite? In what year?
Rubin and Bennett, 1987
Name the components of bone armor on a Paleozoic Agnathan.
In the musculoskeletal system, bone serves as ______ tissue.
connective
What are the 2 types of bone development?
  • 1. Intramembranous (membrane bone)
  • 2. Cartilage replacement (endochondral bone
What 2 specialized cell types do mesenchymes become within an intramembranous bone?
  • 1. Fibrocytes
  • 2. Osteoblasts
Name the 6 components of this generic intramembranous bone.
CARTILAGE
Sulphated polysaccharide gel organized into a network of collagenous fibers
What are 2 characteristics of hyaline cartilage fibers?
  • 1. Sparse numbers
  • 2. Thin
Name the 5 components of hyaline cartilage.
FASCIA
Connective tissue that envelops muscle; product of mesenchyme
What do mesenchyme cells do before they differentiate?
Aggregate in sheets
HAVERSION SYSTEM
Osteon; fundamental functional unit of compact bone; consists of several lamellae (layers of compact bone tissue) around a central canal, the Haversion canal
OSTEOCLAST
Resorb bone; multinucleate with many vesicles and vacuoles; result from stromal cells in the presence of osteoblasts
ICONOCLAST
"Breaking an icon"; related to the word osteoclast
Name the 5 components of a diarthrosis. Which one is filled with synovial fluid?


The joint cavity is filled with synovial fluid.
The backbone is generated from _______, a subdivision of the _______.
sclerotome, mesoderm
Name the 7 components of a generic vertebra.
What 2 groups of organisms have rachitomous vertebrae?
Crossopterygians, (some) labyrinthodonts
What group of animals have stereospondylus vertebrae?
Temnospondyls (large aquatic amphibians)
CONDYLE
Rounded articular area (ex. occipital condyle)
How many condyles does a fish skull have?
1
How many condyles does an amphibian skull have?
2
Between what 2 vertebrae is the framework enabling a "no" (side-to-side) head motion?
Atlas, axis
GILL ARCH THEORY
The vertebrate limb is derived from branchial arches
Who proposed the gill arch theory?
Carl Gegenbaur
FIN-FOLD THEORY
Vertebrate paired limbs are derived from ventrolateral skin folds in basal fishes
P1 COMPLEX
Shoulder girdle
Name 5 features of the P1 complex in bony fishes.
Cleithrum = dermal Scapula = endochondral
Name the 6 features of the P1 complex in monotremes.
Clavicle = dermal Scapula = endochondral


What are these structures? What group of organisms is each one from? What does the difference between the structures tell you about vertebrate evolution?
P1 complex (shoulder girdle)
Left: bony fish
Right: monotreme

Moving forward in vertebrate evolution, there is less dermally-derived bone and more endochondrally-derived bone.



BASAL HYPOTHESIS
Proximal limb elements are derived from basal pterygiophores
BRACHIUM
Humerus
ANTEBRACHIUM
Radius and ulna
MANUS
Carpals/Metacarpals/Phalanges
STYLO-
Upper hand
ZEUGO-
Lower hand
AUTO-
Hand
RADIALE
Carpal on the side of the hand closest to the radius
ULNARE
Carpal on the side of the hand closest to the ulna
What are the 8 carpals?
  • 1. Scaphoid
  • 2. Lunate
  • 3. Tripisciform
  • 4. Pisciform
  • 5. Trapezium
  • 6. Trapezoid
  • 7. Capitulate
  • 8. Hammer


Students Like The Prof To Teach Complex Hypotheses
What 3 changes occurred during the evolution of the P2 complex (pelvic girdle)?
  • 1. Simple plate --- 3 bones
  • 2. No contact --- Broad contact
  • 3. Minor element --- Major element
P2 COMPLEX
Pelvic girdle
In reptiles the ilium rotates _____.
forward
GAIT
How legs move relative to the body and other legs
ZEUGOPODIUM
Lower hind leg
CALCONEUM
Heel bone
ASTRAGALUS
Bone foot rolls on
TIBIALE
Tarsal on the side of the foot closest to the tibia
FIBULARE
Tarsal on the side of the foot closest to the fibula
CENTRALIA
Tarsal around the center of the foot
What part of the skeleton is the most diagnostic? What are its 4 diagnostic components?
Skull

  • 1. Braincase
  • 2. Facial bones
  • 3. Upper jaw
  • 4. Gill arches
What are 2 animals that exhibit noble mobility?
  • 1. Snake: swinging maxilla
  • 2. Rabbit: cranial kinesis
What are the 3 bones of the head?
  • 1. Chondrocranium (endo-, neuro-, braincase)
  • 2. Dermatocranium (dermal covering)
  • 3. Splanchnocranium (gill arches + derivatives)
The dermatocranium covers the braincase, but what else can it cover?
Lower jaw
What are the 4 regions of the chondrocranium (rostral to caudal)?
  • 1. Ethmoid
  • 2. Optic
  • 3. Otic
  • 4. Occipital
Name the 6 elements of the developing braincase in the chick embryo (left). Name the 6 regions of the braincase that develop (right).
What are 3 derivations of the visceral arches?
  • 1. Hyoid apparatus
  • 2. Laryngeal skeleton
  • 3. Jaw and ear ossicles
Tracing evolution forward from MLRs to mammals, what integration of functions has the skull evolved toward?
Being able to chew, listen and breathe simultaneously
The excavation of the dermatocranium in mammal evolution is associated with what?
Origins of large jaw muscles
What are the 4 musculoskeletal components in a kick-off motion of the human leg?
  • 1. Vastus lateralis
  • 2. Rectus femoralis
  • 3. Sartorius
  • 4. Patella
QUADRATUS
Four muscles involved in the extension of the leg and movement of the femur:

  • 1. Vastus lateralis
  • 2. Rectus femoralis
  • 3. Sartorius
  • 4. Patella
SUPRACORACOIDEUS (bird)
Raises wing

Sternum-humerus

SUPRASPINATUS
Abducts arm at shoulder joint

Supraspinous fossa-Greater tubercle

Inn. C5/C6



INFRASPINATUS
Adducts arm, rotates glenohumeral joint

Infraspinous fossa-Greater tubercle

C5/C6



The puboischiofemoraus internus of reptiles becomes the _____ complex of mammals.
ilipsoas
ILIOPSOAS
Hip flexor

Combination: psoas major, psoas minor, iliacus

Vertebrae-lesser trochanter



The _____ of reptiles becomes the gluteal muscles of mammals.
iliofemoralis
What are the 3 groups of muscles in the Kardon hind/ventral section of reptile limbs?
  • 1. Puboischiofemoralis externus (rotates femur), adductor femoris (adducts femur)
  • 2. Flexor tibialis (flexes tibia)
  • 3. Gastrocnemius (adducts foot)
What are the 3 groups of muscles in the Kardon hind/ventral section of mammal limbs?
  • 1. Obturator externus/quadratus femorus (rotates femur), adductor longus/adductor magnus (adducts femur)
  • 2. Gracilis/semimembranosus/semitendinosus/biceps femoris (flexes tibia)
  • 3. Gastrocnemius (adducts foot
ZONE OF COMPLEXITY AND DANGER
Palate/throat
BUCCAL CAVITY
Region from the lips to the start of the Eustachian tube
STOMODEUM
Embryonic depression between the brain and the pericardium; becomes the mouth
LIPS
Outer margin of epidermis and connective tissue around the mouth
What is a feature of lips unique to fishes, birds/turtles, and humans respectively?
  • Fishes: barbels
  • Birds/Turtles: keratin
  • Humans: no stratum corneum
What are the 5 functions of buccal secretions?
  • 1. Maintain oral membranes
  • 2. Lubricate food
  • 3. Neutralize prey toxins
  • 4. Initiate chemical digestion
  • 5. Create venom for toxification and digestion
What 4 cranial nerves innervate the tongue?
V, VII, IX and XII
What are the 5 functions of the tongue?
  • 1. Taste
  • 2. Speech
  • 3. Manipulation
  • 4. Capture
  • 5. Regulation of Temperature
Fish buccal secretions are ____, while tetrapod buccal secretions can be mucous or ____. Bird buccal secretions can produce ___-_____ ___.
mucous, serous, nest-building glue
What are 3 characteristics of the tetrapod tongue?
  • 1. Derived from arches 1, 2, 3
  • 2. Sac-like and muscular
What are the 3 glands responsible for buccal secretions?
  • 1. Parotid (above mouth)
  • 2. Sublingual (below mouth)
  • 3. Mandibular (jaw)
What cranial nerve innervates teeth?
V
What are the 3 levels of a mature tooth? What are the 3 compositional layers?
What are the 2 classes of tooth shape in vertebrates?
  • 1. Homodont
  • 2. Heterodont
What are "the 4 Cs" of mammal molars?
  • 1. Crucial to lifestyle
  • 2. Complex
  • 3. Costle to repair
  • 4. Cusps occlude
OCCLUSION
Cusps (esp. in molars) fitting together with indents on opposing teeth when the mouth is closed
Label the 6 components of the crossopterygian middle ear. Which component arises from the dermatocranium? What overlays the middle ear?
Angular arises from the dermatocranium. The middle ear is covered by the operculum.
What are the 2 processes that occur in the middle ear during the transition from crossopterygians to labyrinthodonts?
  • 1. Autostyli develops
  • 2. Hyomandibula becomes columella (still occupying spiracular pouch/middle ear)
What do the columella, quadrate, and articular develop into during the transition from labyrinthodonts to mammals?
Stapes, incus, and malleus respectively
Name the 7 components of the mammalian middle ear.
FENESTRA OVALIS
"Oval window"; membrane-covered opening connecting the middle ear to the inner ear
LOAD
Force applied
STRESS
Force/Area
STRAIN
Change in shape
MODULUS
Stress/Strain
COMPRESSION
Force moving into a bone, or compressing it
TENSION
Force pulling out on a bone
Compact Bone - Compressive Strength
1330-2100 kg/cm^2
Compact Bone - Tensile Strength
620-1050 kg/cm^2
Compact Bone - Shear Strength
500-1176 kg/cm^2
RESISTANCE
R = constant X width X height^2

Greater on-edge

TORQUE
T = force X lever arm; twisting force about a pivot
In what 3 ways can F(out) be increased?
  • 1. Increase F(in)
  • 2. Increase lever arm length
  • 3. Shorten output arm length
TENDON
Living tissue that connects muscle to bone; fiber matrix laid down by fibryocytes
APONEUROSIS
Flat sheet of connective tissue (tendons)
SESAMOID BONE
Bone inserted in tendons, ex. patella
TRUE/FALSE:
Tendons contain proprioceptors.
TRUE
Tendon - Strength
900 kg/cm^2
LIGAMENT
Collagenous, often elastic fibers that bind or tie muscle and bone
What are 2 examples of how animal bodies utilize ligaments?
  • 1. Retracted cat claws
  • 2. Lifted horse head (no muscles used)
What are 3 methods biologists use to determine muscle function?
  • 1. Electromyography
  • 2. Electrical stimulation
  • 3. Anatomical examination
What are 7 types of muscles?
  • 1. Flexors
  • 2. Adductors
  • 3. Levators
  • 4. Protractors
  • 5. Sphincters
  • 6. Supinators
  • 7. Antagonists
KINESIOLOGY
Study of muscles/muscular movement
ISOTONIC CONTRACTION
Contraction without a change in tone (muscle shortens)
ISOMETRIC CONTRACTION
Contraction without a change in length
What are the 5 scales of muscle (largest to smallest)?
  • 1. Muscle
  • 2. Fascicle (bundle of muscle fibers)
  • 3. Fiber (long multinucleate cells)
  • 4. Myofibrils (~1um)
  • 5. Myofilaments
SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM (SR)
Thin tubules within a muscle cell that open outside the cell
What are the 4 steps of the sliding filament model of muscle contraction?
  • 1. Ca++ released from SR
  • 2. Ca++ binds to troponin
  • 3. Tropomyosin changes orientation, exposing actin active sites
  • 4. Myosin heads attach and swivel
What are the 5 characteristics of red muscle?
  • 1. Aerobic
  • 2. Slow, sustained contraction
  • 3. Densely vascularized
  • 4. High myoglobin and fat content
  • 5. Many mitochondria
What are 2 examples of red muscle?
  • 1. Turkey thigh
  • 2. Trout lateral band
What are the 3 characteristics of white muscle?
  • 1. Anaerobic
  • 2. Rapid, brief contraction
  • 3. Sparsely vascularized
What is an example of white muscle in the minnow?
Myomotal muscle
SARCOMERE
Contraction segment of a myofibril
What happens to a sarcomere in the sliding filament model?
H gets smaller, I-band surrounds the Z-line, and A rests between I-bands
PROPRIOCEPTORS
Sensors that monitor and coordinate muscle fibers
Where are proprioceptors gathered in birds and mammals?
Muscle spindle, Golgi tendon organs
What does the alpha motor neuron do in muscles?
Stimulates extrafusal muscle fibers
What does the gamma motor neuron do in muscles?
Stimulates intrafusal fibers
What are the 2 epimere components associated with muscle?
  • 1. Dermatome (smooth)
  • 2. Myotome (striated)
What are the 6 striated muscle groups?
  • 1. Epaxial
  • 2. Hypaxial
  • 3. Hypobranchial
  • 4. Eye muscles
  • 5. Branchiomeric
  • 6. Appendicular
What changed and what persisted in striated muscles during the transition from crossopterygians to labyrinthodonts?
Striated muscles became less massive, but remained segmented (incl. up to reptiles)
HYPAXIAL
Striated muscle that supports viscera and moves ribs
In fishes the hypaxial muscle is ____ in size, while in tetrapods it is _____ ___ _____.
massive, divided into sheets
What nerve innervates the epaxial muscles?
Spinal
What nerve innervates the hypaxial muscles?
Spinal
What 3 nerves innervate the branchiomeric muscles?
IV, X, VII
What 3 nerves innervate the eye muscles?
III, IV, VI
BRANCHIOMERIC
Striated muscle that operates gill arches, esp. the hyoid and mandibular arches
What is the branchiomeric muscle in the shark?
Cucillaris
What are the 3 branchiomeric muscles in humans?
Trapezius, sternomastoid, cleidomastoid
DORSAL HYOID CONSTRICTOR
Striated muscle that moves the operculum in bony fishes
What 2 muscles in tetrapods arise from the dorsal hyoid constrictor?
Depressor mandibular, sphinctor colli
In mammals the hyoid constrictor becomes the _____, while the hyoid levator becomes the ____.
platysma, stapedius
In mammals the _____ _____ ______ becomes the digastric muscle and the stylohyoid.
ventral hyoid constrictor
Name 1 key facial muscle involved in making each expression.
What are the 3 embryonic tongue cartilages (from tongue-tip to root)?
  • 1. Lateral lingual
  • 2. Tuberculum impar
  • 3. Copula
Visualize the occlusion of these teeth.
BUNODONT
"Rounded peak" tooth; primates, pigs
LOPHODONT
"Ridged cusp" tooth; rhinoceros
SELENODONT
"Crescent cusp" tooth; cow
HYPSODONT
"High crown" tooth; horse
CARNISSIAL
Large flesh-shearing tooth in mammals
FANGS
Recurved teeth
POLYPHYDONT
Animal that continually replaces teeth, ex. shark
DIPHYODONT
Animal with two successive sets of teeth, a "deciduous" set and a "permanent" set, ex. humans
In general, mammal teeth arise in the pattern ____/____ (upper/lower), but in cats the teeth can arise in the pattern ____/____.
3143/3143, 3131/3121
What is another name for the cuspids in humans?
Canines
What is another name for the bicuspids in humans?
Premolars
What are the 3 roles/derivatives of pharynx pouches?
  • 1. Pouch 1 (spiracular): middle ear canal, Eustachian tube
  • 2. Pouches 1-2: thyroid gland
  • 3. Pouhces 2-5: thymus, tonsils, parathyroid
What are the gill derivatives of the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm?
  • Endoderm: inner surface
  • Mesoderm: skeleton septum, vessels, muscles
  • Ectoderm: outer surface, lamellae
How many breaths do humans take in one year?
(4 to 10) X 10^6 breaths/year
PULMONARY ARTERIOLE
Artery carrying deoxygenated blood to the lungs
PULMONARY VENULE
Vein carrying oxygenated blood from the lungs
What is the type of respiration used by amphibians? By amniotes?
  • Amphibians: force-pump
  • Amniotes: suction-pump
TRUE/FALSE: Snakes only have one lung, which runs along the right side of their body.
TRUE
What cartilage lifts the ribs when we take a breath (inspire)?
External intercostals
What 2 muscles involved in inspiring can you see when you do a pull-up exercise?
Sternocleidomastoid, scalenus
What cartilage depresses the ribs when we release a breath (expire)?
Internal intercostals
What muscle depresses the ribcage during expiration?
Rectus abdominus
What happens to the diaphragm during expiration?
Diaphragm relaxes
Who wrote about mammalian diaphragm origins as an evolution toward longer bursts of sustained activity? In what year?
John Ruben, 1987
What is the lung capacity of a bird compared to an equal-size mammal?
1/10
How many wingbeats per second does the average bird take?
12-20 wingbeats/sec
In frogs the vocal cords are stretched between and protected by 2 ________ __________.
arytenoid cartilages
What evolved first: swim bladders or lungs?
Lungs
VENTILATION
Breathing
What is retained in mammalian lungs after exhalation?
Tidal air
INSPIRE
Ribs rocked forward (cat) or up (human) with inhalation
What nerve innervates the diaphragm?
Phrenic nerve
GLOTTIS
Opening to the lungs
What are the 2 types of muscle in the larynx?
Extrinsic and intrinsic
STERNOHYOID
Pulls larynx posteriorly

Clavicle-Sternum

Inn. Ansa cervicalis



THYROHYOID
Draws larynx anteriorly

Thyroid cartilage-Hyoid bone

C1



LATERAL CRICEARYTNEOID
Holds vocal cords together
LATERAL CRICOARYTENOID
Holds vocal cords together

Cricoid cartilage-Arytenoid cartilage

C10



POSTERIOR CRICOARYTENOID
Pulls vocal cords apart

Cricoid cartilage-Arytenoid cartilage

C10



CRICOTHYROID
Tenses vocal cords

Cricoid cartilage-Thyroid cartilage

Inn. superior laryngeal



THYROARYTENOID
Relaxes vocal cords

Thyroid cartilage-Arytenoid cartilage

Inn. recurrent laryngeal



What nerve are the superior laryngeal and recurrent laryngeal nerves branches of?
C10, vagus
Name the 2 extrinsic muscles and 4 intrinsic muscles of the larynx.
Extrinsic:
  • 1. Sternohyoid (pulls larynx posteriorly)
  • 2. Thyrohyoid (draws larynx anteriorly)
Intrinsic:
  • 1. Lateral cricoarytenoid (holds vocal cords together)
  • 2. Posterior cricoarytenoid (pulls vocal cords apart)
  • 3. Cricothyroid (tenses vocal cords)
  • 4. Thryoarytenoid (relaxes vocal cords)
TRUE/FALSE:
Birds have a larynx.
FALSE
SYRINX
Bird equivalent to the larynx, but placed much lower in the body
What are the 4 processes of digestion?
  • 1. Transportation
  • 2. Physical treatment
  • 3. Chemical treatment
  • 4. Absorption
PERISTALSIS
Rhythmic muscle movement that transports food toward the stomach
Digested large molecules are absorbed by the ____ _______.
small intestine
Digested sugars and amino acids are transported through what tissue pathway?
Capillaries to veins to the liver
Describe the processing of fatty acids and glycerols during digestion.
FAs+Gs cross gut lining and are reconstructed into fat with H2O. The fat enters the lymphatic system, then veins carry it to the liver.
Name the 6 visible elements of the gut.
Name the 4 elements of the gut visible in a cross-section.
ESOPHAGUS
"Carry-eat"; tube connecting the buccal cavity to the stomach, distensible, lined with stratified epithelium, associated with smooth and striated muscle

Fishes: short
Amphibians/Reptiles: cilia transport
Mammals: peristalsis transport



What is a unique characteristic of the esophagus in: fishes, amphibians/reptiles, and mammals?
  • Fishes: short
  • Amphibians/Reptiles: transports with cilia
  • Mammals: transports with peristalsis
PIGEON MILK
Birds: cells sloughed off esophagus used to nourish young
What is a unique function of the esophagus in birds? What bone supports the esophagus in birds?
Temporary storage; furcula (wishbone)
What 2 specialized cells exist in the fundic region of the stomach?
  • 1. Parietal (creates HCl)
  • 2. Chief (creates pepsin, lipase)
Name the 3 regions of the stomach (anterior-to-posterior).
  • 1. Cardiac
  • 2. Fundic
  • 3. Pyloric
What are the 2 specializations of the stomach in birds?
Proventriculus, gizzard
Name the 4 elements of the ruminant stomach.
What 2 groups of animals have gizzards, besides birds?
Dinosaurs, crocodilians
Where does most nutrient absorption take place?
Small intestine
What are the 4 functions of digestive enzymes in the small intestine?
  • 1. Prepare sugars
  • 2. Split starches, fats
  • 3. Activate trypsin
  • 4. Convert proteins to amino acids
What 3 tissues are stimulated by small intestine hormones?
Pancreas, gall bladder, other intestinal glands
Name the 3 regions of the intestines (anterior-to-posterior).
  • 1. Duodenum ("twelve fingers")
  • 2. Jejunum ("empty")
  • 3. Ileum
LOBULE
Segment of the liver
What are the 3 general functions of the liver?
Digestion, metabolism, storage
BILE
Decomposition product of proteins and hemoglobin
What do bile salts help with?
Bile salts help pancreatic enzymes in splitting/absorbing fats
What are fats and proteins converted into by the liver?
Carboyhydrates
Who discovered insulin? In what year?
Bunting and Best, 1921.
Name 2 functions of insulin.
  • 1. Increases plasma membrane permeability in muscles and adipose tissue.
  • 2. Activates enzymes that convert glucose into glycogen and fat.
GLUCAGON
Pancreas product that activates enzymes which convert glycogen to glucose, acting on liver cells when glucose stock is low
What are 2 endocrine products of the dorsal pancreatic lobe?
Insulin, glucagon
What are the products of the ventral pancreatic lobe?
Exocrine "pancreatic juice," 12 enzymes
Each lobule of the liver has a _____ vein.
central
ENDOCRINE
Gland without a duct (hormone enters bloodstream directly)
EXOCRINE
Gland with duct
The dorsal pancreas sits near the spleen, while the ventral pancreas sits near the _______.
duodenum
Who first observed the circulation of blood? In what year?
William Harvey, 1628
Who observed blood circulation in frog lungs? In what year?
Marcello Malpighi, 1661
What direction does stimulation of the heart proceed in (which way does the blood flow)?
Anteriorly
What are the 4 components of the heart? What surrounds them?
  • 1. Sinus venosus
  • 2. Atrium
  • 3. Ventricle
  • 4. Conus arteriosus


These components are surrounded by a muscular, non-compliant pericardium.
PERICARDIUM
Non-compliant muscular sac that surrounds the heart
RIMSDERCENS
  • Reproductive
  • Integumentary
  • Muscular
  • Skeletal
  • Digestive
  • Excretory
  • Respiratory
  • Circulatory
  • Endocrine
  • Nervous
  • Sensory
A pacemaker rests in the _________ node, sends signals to the _________ node, which in turn stimulates contraction of the ________.
sinoatrial, atrioventricular, ventricle
In the mammalian heart, what delivers deoxygenated blood to the right atrium?
Cranial and caudal vena cavae
The _____ nerve stimulates the heart, while the _____ nerve slows it down.
cardiac, vagus
Who proposed the heart as an endocrine gland? In what year?
Cantin and Genest, 1986
Name the 5 waves of an electrocardiogram. What 4 events does an electrocardiogram depict?
What group of animals have "single-barreled" hearts with 4 cylinders?
Fishes
Name 12 important structures that arise in the development of an embryonic chick heart over hours 25-30 (top-to-bottom: 3 in stage one, two, 4 in stage three, 2 in stage four).
Name 7 key structures that arise in the development of the embryonic chick heart from hours 30-56.
Name the 5 structures/layers present in these drawings of blood vessels. What type of vessel is each drawing depicting?
Label the 17 notable features observed during the development of the pericardial and pleural cavities in a mammalian embryo.
Mammals have a massive partition in the heart called the ____ _____.
media stinum
BULBUS CORDIS
Lies ventral to the primordial ventricle in a developing heart, first appearing after the heat makes its S-shaped form; comprises part of the mature ventricle
CONUS ARTERIOSUS
Conical pouch in the upper left angle of the right ventricle of the developing heart; gives rise to the pulmonary artery
TRUNCUS ARTERIOSUS
Tube that lies cranial to the bulbus cordis in the developing heart; gives rise to the pulmonary trunk and the ascending aorta
What body cavity contains the heart?
Pleuropericardial?
What body cavity contains the stomach?
Peritoneal
What separates the pleuropericardial and the peritoneal cavities?
Transverse septum
What are the 2 components of the mammal pericardium?
Parietal pericardium, parietal pleura
Is blood a tissue?
Yes
BLOOD
Tissue consisting of cells in a fluid matrix
What are the 3 types of blood cells?
Red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets/thrombocytes
PLASMA
Blood fluid without cells
SERUM
Blood fluid without clotting proteins
What are 2 embryonic blood-forming tissues?
Yolk sac, chorion
What are 5 tissues that form blood at some point during development (besides the yolk sac and chorion)?
  • 1. Liver
  • 2. Intestine
  • 3. Kidney
  • 4. Spleen
  • 5. Thymus
What 3 structures/networks form blood in adults?
Red bone marrow, spleen and lymphatic system
Where does blood form in a vertebra?
Centrum
Where does blood form in a rib?
Center of the bone
Where does blood form in a femur?
Ends of the bone
ERYTHROCYTE
Red blood cell
What are the 2 types of white blood cells?
  • 1. Granulocyte (bacteriophagus)
  • 2. Monocyte (phagocytic)
Embryonic blood vessels form near ____ __ ______ _____ (such as the ____ ____ and the ____).
centers of metabolic activity, yolk sac, liver
TRUE/FALSE:
Blood vessel networks are simpler in adults than in embryos.
TRUE
Circulatory patterns in embryos reflect their _____, but ________ ______ _________.
heritage, accomodate special requirements
What are 3 key events in human circulatory development that happen at birth?
  • 1. Placental circulation stops
  • 2. First breath: ductus arteriosus closes (becomes ligamentum arteriosum)
  • 3. Foramen ovale closes
Fishes have ____-loop circulation and reptiles have ___-loop circulation.
single, double
ATRIOVENTRICULAR PLUG
Raised cushion in the ventricle of a lungfish heart
TRABECULAE
Separate deoxygenated/oxygenated blood in the undivided frog ventricle
PULMOCUTANEOUS ARTERY
Retrieves oxygenated blood from the lungs and skin in amphibians
Stem reptiles and amphibians have the same _____ of vessels leaving the heart.
pattern
Tetrapods other than stem reptiles and amphibians have ____ ___ ____ artery leaving the heart.
more than one
What are the 3 vessels that leave the heart in reptiles?
  • 1. Right systemic, large (body, forelimbs, carotids)
  • 2. Left systemic, small (body)
  • 3. Pulmonary trunk
FORAMEN OF PANIZZA
Crocodiles: connects left/right aortic arches to enable the reversal of blood flow when diving
AORTIC ARCH
The bend between the ascending and descending portions of the aorta
PARIETAL ARTERY
Artery supplying blood to the head
ILIAC ARTERY
Artery carrying blood to the pelvis and lower limb
VENAE CAVAE
Veins that return deoxygenated from the body to the heart
LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
Recirculates fluid from tissues back into the cardiovascular system
LYMPH HEART
Striated muscle used by some animals to move lymph
In the lymphatic system, high pressure in ______ promotes ____ ____, while low pressure in _______ promotes ____ ____.
arteries, fluid loss, veins, fluid return
In fishes and birds, lymphatic system vessels terminate near the ____, centrally along the ___ ___ or ___ ___ ___, and posteriorly along the ____ ____ ____.
heart, post cardinal, post vena cava, pelvic region veins
In birds and mammals, what 5 structures do not tend to carry lymphatic vessels?
  • 1. central nervous system
  • 2. liver
  • 3. cartilage
  • 4. teeth
  • 5. bone
In birds and mammals, lymphatic vessels are especially prevalent in the gut because of...
Capillary pressure, molecular size
CHYLE
Fatty lymph formed in small intestine
LACTEALS
Lymph vessels along mesentaries containing chyle
CYSTERNA CHYLI
Dilated sac at the end of the thoracic duct
HEMOPOIETIC
Blood-forming
What are the 2 types of hemopoietic tissues?
Myloid, lymphoid
What are the 4 types of T-cells?
  • 1. Killer (attach to invaders)
  • 2. Helper (boost antibody production)
  • 3. Suppressor (reduce killer secretions)
  • 4. Memory (recognize/remember invaders)
What are the 3 layers of blood vessels (outside-to-inside)?
  • 1. T. externa (adventitia/loose connective tissue)
  • 2. T. media (longitudinal muscle, circular muscle)
  • 3. T. interna (epithelial cells, fibrous sheets, elastic membrane)
MAXILLARY RETE MIRABILE
Network of external skull arteries surrounding the optic canal
CAROTID RETE MIRABILE
Network of intercranial arteries arising from the carotid artery
How many capillaries do humans have? What is their diameter?
1.2 million, 0.008 mm in diameter
What are the 2 types of blood pressure?
  • 1. Hydrostatic (ventricular contraction, vessel-to-tissue)
  • 2. Osmotic (unequal protein concentration, tissue-to-vessel)
What do surface veins do to conserve and dissipate heat?
Constrict and dilate, respectively
What are 2 ways whales use blood flow to control their buoyancy?
  • 1. Shallow/low density water whale blushes to heat spermaceti oil in melon, increasing buoyancy
  • 2. Whale more than 600m deep cools blood by expelling heat from nostril, decreasing buoyancy
ANASTOMOSES
Network that connects (shunts) arteries, veins, other vessels
MIRABILE
Network of anastomoses (vessel connections)
What are 4 locations of excretion?
Gills/lungs, sweat gland, rectal gland (shark), salt gland (sea birds/reptiles)
What is the purpose of excretion?
To regulate salt/water concentrations in the body
Name 5 key structures in the developing tripartite kidney. What are the 3 regions of the kidney called?
ARCHINEPHROS
Ancestral vertebrate kidney; retained by vertebrate embryos and larval hagfish
PRONEPHROS
First kidney form to develop in vertebrate embryos; paired organ; retained by lamprey and hagfish
OPISTHONEPHROS
Adult kidney in amphibians and fishes
MESONEPHROS
Temporary kidney of reptiles, birds, mammals; Wolffian duct + mesonephric tubules
METANEPHROS
Adult kidney primordium for birds, reptiles and mammals; complex network of secreting and collecting ducts
NEPHROTOME
Mesoderm that gives rise to the pronephros
NEPHRIC RIDGE
First instance of the kidney; protrudes from the dorsal cavity wall
Describe the 3 generations of amniotic kidney tubules in reptiles/birds and mammals.
  • 1. Pronephros

    R/B: similar to fishes M: rudimentary tubules-- solid cord grows to cloaca and hollows to form duct


  • 2. Mesonephros

    R/B: well-developed in embryo M: highly variable (pigs = huge, primates+rats = hemochorial/non-functional)


  • 3. Metanephros

    R/B: N/A M: arises from archinephric duct as diverticulum near cloaca
PROXIMAL CONVOLUTED TUBULE
Resorps glucose, amino acids, and salts in kidney
DISTAL CONVOLUTED TUBULE
Adjusts pH, secretes NH3, H+, K+ and creatine (kidney)
The structure of the nephron is common to all _______.
vertebrates
What 3 functions are reflected in the structure of the nephron?
Filtration, resorption, secretion
What are 2 other names for the archinephric duct?
Wolffian duct, mesonephric duct
In aminote females the _____ ___ generally persists to carry urine.
archinephric duct
How does the oviduct form in sharks?
Splitting of archinephric duct
How does the oviduct form in most teleosts?
Folding
MULLERIAN DUCT
Oviduct
How does the oviduct form in amniotes?
Arises from kidney peritoneum
When is the archinephric duct of an amniote female reduced to tiny remnants?
As the uretur forms
D^3
Sex organ development terms:

  • 1. Determination (destined)
  • 2. Development (elaboration + movement of tissues)
  • 3. Differentiation (gonads,ducts,from indistinct form to sexual form)
PITUITARY GLAND
Produces sexual development hormones
What are 3 products of the adenhypophysis?
  • 1. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
  • 2. Leutenizing hormone (LH)
  • 3. Steroids (sex hormones)
What 3 structures produce estrogens?
Ovary, testes, adrenal cortex
If testosterone is introduced during development, what happens to the Mullerian and Wolffian ducts?
Mullerian disappears, Wolffian stays
If testosterone is not introduced during development, what happens to the Mullerian and Wolffian ducts?
Mullerian stays, Wolffian disappears
What are 4 reactions to female development that occur in the sex cords?
  • 1. Primary cords degenerate
  • 2. Secondary cords develope
  • 3. Meiosis at secondary cords produces eggs
  • 4. Follicle cells/connective tissue surround eggs
What are the 4 forms of the uterus?
  • 1. Duplex (2 distinct uteri)
  • 2. Bipartite (some division, occurs in carnivores)
  • 3. Bicornuate (no division, but uterus has "horns," occurs in primates)
  • 4. Simplex (complete merger with no horns, occurs in humans)
What are 3 structures that contribute fluid to semen composition?
  • 1. Seminal vesicle (60% of total, thick, contains fructose, increases sperm viability)
  • 2. Prostate gland (
E^3
Sexual intercourse terms:

  • 1. Erection (touch receptors + parasympathetic impulses from sacral region -- dilate + stimulate release of lubricant)
  • 2. Emission (sympathetic impulses from lumbar vertebrae 1-2 -- peristalsis of testis ducts, epididymis and vas deferens)
  • 3. Ejaculation
What are 3 functions of the cloaca?
Defecation, urination, copulation
What 2 organs are intromittant with the cloaca?
Claspers (sharks), gonopodium (teleosts)
What 4 organs are accessories to the cloaca?
  • 1. Corpus cavernosum
  • 2. Glans penis
  • 3. Ductus deferens
  • 4. Bladder
Name the 6 regions of a reptile cloaca.
What is the Latin word for "sewer?"
cloaca
YOLK
Substance composed of proteins, fats and phosphates important to the growth of embryos; synthesized by the liver
ISOLECITHAL
Small, holoblastic egg with uniform yolk distribution
TELOLECITHAL
Medium-sized holoblastic egg with unequal yolk distribution
MICROLECITHAL
Extremely small egg relative to body size (human, mouse, deer, amphioxus)
How big is a mouse egg?
150 micrometers
MESOLECITHAL
Medium-size egg heavily concentrated on the end with the "animal pole" (lamprey, lungfish, frogs)
MACROLECITHAL
Egg with a large yolk (turtle, dinosaur, chicken)
What is one presumed reason behind why birds have a vestigial right ovary?
Flight constraint
What are some characteristics of amphioxus reproduction?
Separate sexes, microlecithal eggs released from atrium, external fertilization, development within egg case
Visualize the development of an amphioxus (esp. planes of division) from 0.5 hours to 2.5 hours.
Name the 5 germinal layers and visualize their movement over the development period between 6 hours and 13 hours.
INVOLUTION
Flowing in/over internal surface (as in germinal layer development)
EPIBOLY
Flowing over external surface (as in germinal layer development)
CONVERGENCE
Movement toward midline (as in germinal layer development)
INVAGINATION
Pushing in (as in germinal layer development)
In a neurala somites develop from ____ to ____.
front, rear
ARCHENTERON
Primordium of the gut; forms from the gastrocoel
How does a chick begin developing over the yolk?
Cytoplasm with a cleavage furrow forms a blastodisc. The blastodisc spreads over the surface of the yolk (epiboly) then rises up, remaining attached at either end via fibrous periblasts.
ANGLE OF INCIDENCE
Angle at which a bird wing attaches to the body
MAGNUS EFFECT
When an object is thrown over an air flow moving in the opposite direction, its speed is closest near (but not in) the air flow
As velocity increases, induced drag ____ and parasite drag ____.
decreases, increases
1 knot = ? km/hr
1 knot = 1.852 km/hr
GLIDE POLAR
Sinking speed required to achieve a particular horizontal speed
GLIDE POLAR (equation)
Z = (C[drag]/C[lift]) X horizontal speed
WING LOADING (equation)
mass/wing area
Goose wing load is _x duck wing load.
2
Velocity as Determined by Wing Loading (equation)
square root (mass/wing area)
ALLOMETRY
Study of shape and size
SURFACE AREA (equation)
4*pie*r^2
VOLUME (equation)
4/3*pie*r^2
Does pterosaur wing loading scale with size?
No.
Does bird wing loading scale with size?
Yes.
What are the characteristics that contribute to the paleontological definition of a mammal?
Jaw, ossicles (3), pelvis, growth, homeothermic, hair, live birth
When did mammals first appear?
Upper Triassic
HADROCODIUM WUI
Early mammal (195mya/Early Jurassic)
CASTOROCAUDA LUTRASIMILIS
Early mammal (164mya)
EOMAIA SCANSORIA
"Dawn mother who climbs"; early mammal with wrist shape ideal for arboreal life, 10cm (125mya)
KRYORYCTES CADBURY
Early mammal, size of large cat, toothless, covered in quills (106mya)
PTILODUS MONTANUS
Early mammal, once widespread/relict (54-66mya)
Name 5 notable early mammals (early-to-late).
  • 1. Hadrocodium wui (195 mya)
  • 2. Castorocauda lutrasimilis (164)
  • 3. Eomaia scansoria (125)
  • 4. Kryoryctes cadburyi (106)
  • 5. Ptilodus montanus (54-66)
PROTOTHERIA
Subclass containing order Monotremata (platypus, spiny anteaters)
MONOTREMATA
Platypus and spiny anteaters
ORNITHORHYNCHUS
Platypus
TACHYGLOSSUS
Spiny anteaters
HOLOTHERIA
Subclass containing order Marsupialia (kangaroo) and Infraclass Eutheria (humans)
MARSUPIALIA
kangaroo
EUTHERIA
humans (infraclass)
Where did placentals originate and migrate to?
Europe to Africa/North America
Where did marsupials originate and migrate to?
North America to South America to Antarctica to Australia, and North America to Europe/North Africa
Name the 3 germinal layers visible in a whole mount of a 13-hour chordate.
What did early tetrapods have that suggests they were still tied to an aquatic lifestyle?
Lateral line
Urogenital Homology - Gonad:

INDIFFERENT: secondary cords
FEMALE:
MALE:



Urogenital Homology - Gonad:

INDIFFERENT: secondary cords
FEMALE: ovarian follicles
MALE: degenerates



Urogenital Homology - Gonad:

INDIFFERENT: primary cords
FEMALE:
MALE:



Urogenital Homology - Gonad:

INDIFFERENT: primary cords
FEMALE: degenerates
MALE: seminiferous/rete tubules



Urogenital Homology - Gonad:

INDIFFERENT: primordial germ cells
FEMALE:
MALE:



Urogenital Homology - Gonad:

INDIFFERENT: primordial germ cells
FEMALE: ova
MALE: spermatozoa



Urogenital Homology - Mesonephric Tubules:

INDIFFERENT: anterior group
FEMALE:
MALE:



Urogenital Homology - Mesonephric Tubules:

INDIFFERENT: anterior group
FEMALE: degenerate to rudiments
MALE: vasa efferentia



Urogenital Homology - Mesonephric Tubules:

INDIFFERENT: posterior group
FEMALE:
MALE:



Urogenital Homology - Mesonephric Tubules:

INDIFFERENT: posterior group
FEMALE: degenerate to rudiments
MALE: degenerate to rudiments



Urogenital Homology:

INDIFFERENT: Wolffian duct
FEMALE:
MALE:



Urogenital Homology:

INDIFFERENT: Wolffian duct
FEMALE: degenerates
MALE: vas deferens



Urogenital Homology - Urogenital Sinus:

INDIFFERENT: vesicourethral division
FEMALE:
MALE:



Urogenital Homology - Urogenital Sinus:

INDIFFERENT: vesicourethral division
FEMALE: bladder, urethra
MALE: bladder, upper urethra



Urogenital Homology - Urogenital Sinus:

INDIFFERENT: definitive division
FEMALE:
MALE:



Urogenital Homology - Urogenital Sinus:

INDIFFERENT: definitive division
FEMALE: vestibule
MALE: lower urethra



Urogenital Homology:

INDIFFERENT: genital tubercle
FEMALE:
MALE:



Urogenital Homology:

INDIFFERENT: genital tubercle
FEMALE: clitoris
MALE: penis



Urogenital Homology:

INDIFFERENT: urethral folds
FEMALE:
MALE:



Urogenital Homology:

INDIFFERENT: urethral folds
FEMALE: labia minora
MALE: penis



Urogenital Homology:

INDIFFERENT: labioscrotal folds
FEMALE:
MALE:



Urogenital Homology:

INDIFFERENT: labioscrotal folds
FEMALE: labia majora
MALE: scrotum



What is the fate of the primary sex cords in a male?
Primary sex cords become medial testes
RETE TESTIS
Tube that conducts sperm from testes; formed from kidney tubules
TUNICA ALBUGINEA
Protective tissue that surrounds testes
VAGINAL VESTIBULE
Equivalent to the embryonic urogenital sinus
FALLOPIAN TUBE
Oviduct
ROUND LIGAMENT
Suspends uterus; homolog to gubernaculum in the male
GUBERNACULUM
Suspends testes; homolog to the round ligament in the female
What 3 urogenital structures are NOT formed from mesodermal tissue?
Urogenital sinus, bladder and cloaca
LINGUAL HERNIA
Tear in the weak lining between the visceral cavity and the scrotum
SEMINALPLASMIN
Component of ejaculate containing antibiotics, clotting enzymes and prostaglandins
VENT
Caudal cloaca opening (opening to environment)
Where do ganglia and sensory nerves arise from?
Neural crest
Where do motor cells arise from?
Spinal cord
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
Spinal and cranial nerves
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
Visceral motor components of the peripheral nervous system
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
Brain and spinal cord
Inside the central nervous system, a bundle of axons is called a ____ and a group of nerve cell bodies is called a ____.
tract, nucleus
SPONGIOBLAST
Gives rise to neuroglia and ependymal cells
NEUROBLAST
Gives rise to neurons
In what 3 ways are neurons classified?
  • 1. # of processes
  • 2. Pattern of dendrites
  • 3. Function


Name 14 developments that occur during the embryonic growth of a male.
Name 12 developments that occur during the embryonic growth of a female.
Visualize the differentiation of the indifferent mammal cloaca into the male sexual form. What structures are involved?
Visualize the differentiation of the indifferent mammal cloaca into the female sexual form. What structures are involved?
Where do ganglia arise from?
Neural crest
Where do sensory nerves arise from?
Neural crest
Outside the CNS, what is a bundle of axons called?
Nerve
Outside the CNS, what is a group of nerve cell bodies called?
Ganglion
Inside the CNS, what is a bundle of axons called?
Tract
Inside the CNS, what is a group of nerve cell bodies called?
Nucleus
WHITE MATTER
Tract; bundle of axons in the CNS
GRAY MATTER
Nucleus; group of nerve cell bodies in the CNS
SPONGIOBLASTS
Primordial nerve cells that give rise to neuroglia and ependymal cells
NEUROBLASTS
Primordial nerve cells that give rise to neurons
What are the 3 characteristics by which neurons are classified?
  • 1. Number of processes
  • 2. Pattern of dendrites
  • 3. Function
Name the 5 primary senses, and 4 other senses that occur in animals.
PRIMARY: sight, sound, hearing, touch, taste

SECONDARY: infrared, lateral line, electric, magnetic

Parasympathetic impulses tend to ______ muscle action.
slow down
Sympathetic impulses tend to ______ muscle action.
accelerate
What are 3 shapes (based on process number) that nerve cells can take? What is 1 dendritic pattern used for classification? What are 2 function types for nerve cells?
SHAPES: bipolar, unipolar, multipolar

PATTERN: idiodendritic

FUNCTION: sensory, motor



Sensory nerves are ______, while motor nerves are ________.
afferent, efferent
TRUE/FALSE:
Some neurons can have projections that extend 1+ meters.
True
SYNAPSE
Neurotransmitter released from synaptic vesicles
Synapses were theorized by ____ in ____, and confirmed to exist in ____.
Sherrington, 1890, 1954
NEUROGLIA
Support/Nourish/Insulate nerve cells
What are the 5 types of neuroglia?
  • 1. Ependymal
  • 2. Astrocyte
  • 3. Microglial
  • 4. Oligodendroglia
  • 5. Schwann cells
EPNDYMAL
Neuroglial cell in spinal lumen, uses cilia to propel cerebral spinal fluid; arises from neural tube
ASTROCYTE
Regulates ion balance and nutrition; arises from neural tube
MICROGLIAL
Neuroglial brain macrophages, phagocytic; arises from mesoderm
OLIGODENDROGLIA
Myelinate neuroglial cells within CNS that form a fatty protective shield; arises from neural tube
SCHWANN CELLS
Myelinate neuroglia outside CNS, surround axons and form nodes of Ranvier; arises from neural tube and neural crest
NODES OF RANVIER
Accelerate ATP conduction
SS
Somatic Sensory
VS
Visceral Sensory
VM
Visceral Motor
SM
Somatic Motor
From the cranial to caudal ends of the spinal cord, what is the general organization of nerves?
  • 1. Somatic sensory
  • 2. Visceral sensory
  • 3. Visceral motor
  • 4. Somatic motor
SPINAL NERVE
Ancestral nerve (modern lampreys also carry it) with separate dorsal and ventral roots
In spinal nerves, the dorsal root carries ___, ___ and __ nerves, while the ventral root carries ___ __ _____. The dorsal and ventral roots arise _____ ____ ____.
Dorsal: SS, VS, VM

Ventral: SM to myotomes

alternately along CNS (dorsal trails ventral)



What are two characteristics that differentiate a modern spinal nerve from an ancestral one?
  • 1. Dorsal and ventral roots join together
  • 2. Sympathetic chain of ganglia parallel spinal cord
What does the dorsal root carry in fishes/amphibians? In amniotes?
Fishes/Amphibians: SS, VS, VM

Amniotes: SS, VS

What does the ventral root carry in fishes/amphibians? In amniotes?
Fishes/Amphibians: VM, SM

Amniotes: VM, SM

BRACHIAL PLEXUS
Nerves C5-T1; innervates upper limb
LUMBOSACRAL PLEXUS
Innervates lower limb
Visceral motor fibers are part of the _____ nervous system.
autonomic
Thoracolumbar nerves generate _____ impulses.
sympathetic
Craniosacral nerves generate ____ impulses.
parasympathetic
ENTERIC AUTONOMIC SYSTEM
Other spinal/cranial nerves modify its effects
What are the 11th and 12th cranial nerves? What special characteristic do they have?
Spinal accessory, hypoglossal; only occur in amniotes
What are the 3 groups of cranial nerves?
Ventral root, head sensory, dorsal root
What cranial nerves compose the ventral root?
  • oculomotor (3)
  • trochlear (4)
  • abducens (6)
  • hypoglossal (12) [amniotes only]
What cranial nerves compose the head sensory nerves?
  • olfactory (1)
  • optic (2)
  • acoustic (8)
What cranial nerves compose the dorsal root?
  • trigeminal (5)
  • facial (7)
  • glossopharyngeal (9)
  • vagus (10)
  • spinal accessory (11) [amniotes only]
What is the special sensory (SS) nerve in the head sensory nerve group?
Nervus terminalis
TERMINAL NERVE
Nervus terminalis
NERVUS TERMINALIS
Terminal nerve; arises from olfactory/neurogenic placode; provides olfaction and vision impulses; does not occur in birds

  • 1878 shark
  • 1894 lungfish
  • 1913 rabbit/human
Who first described the cranial nerves? In what year?
Galen, 129-210 CE
CRIBIFORM PLATE
Extension of the ethmoid bone that supports the olfactory bulb, perforated to allow passage of olfactory nerves
VOMERONASAL NERVE
Embryonic nerve that disappears from the human fetus before birth, passes through the cribiform plate
JACOBSEN ORGAN
Vomeronasal organ discovered in 1813, auxiliary olfactory organ in many animals; arises from the nasal placode
OPTIC NERVE
CN2, sensory tract of the brain; arises from the prosencephalon
INDUCTION
Interaction of 2 tissues (as in the optic vesicle and optic placode)
What is the result of induction of the optic vesicle and optic placode?
Differentiation of the lens and a 2x layered optic cup
ACOUSTIC NERVE
CN8, auditory, octaval nerve
What are the 2 components of the acoustic nerve? What structures are associated with them?
Vestibular and cochlear nerves, with ganglia derived from neurogenic placodes
TRIGEMINAL NERVE
CN5, innervates the jaw region with 3 branches
What 3 muscles are innervated by the visceral motor component of the trigeminal nerve?
Masster, temporalis and pterygoids
FACIAL NERVE
CN7, loops around shark spiracle and is associated with the hyoid arch, has geniculate (bent) ganglion and SS, VS and VM components
What are the 3 nerve types associated with the facial nerve?
  • 1. SS (pinna)
  • 2. VS (taste buds)
  • 3. VM (facial/digastric/stapedius/salivary/lacrimal)
GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE
CN9, forks around 1st gill slit, has petrosal (rock-like) ganglion and VS and VM components
What 2 nerve types are associated with the glossopharyngeal nerve?
  • 1. VS (taste buds/pharynx lining)
  • 2. VM (throat/larynx/salivary)
VAGUS NERVE
CN10, branchial nerves that unite beyond CN9 (glossopharyngeal), has SS, VS, and VS/VM components
What 4 nerve types are associated with the vagus nerve?
  • 1. SS - jugular ganglion (skin)
  • 2. VS - Nodose ganglion (taste buds/soft palate)
  • 3. VS/VM (pharynx/larynx/heart/lungs/gut)
SPINAL ACCESSORY NERVE
CN11, visceral motor fibers of CN10 (vagus), innervates trapezius, sternomastoid and cleidomastoid
What 3 muscles are innervated by the spinal accessory nerve?
Trapezius, sternomastoid and cleidomastoid
HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE
CN12, ventral nerve group that innervates the tongue (SM)
What SM nerve innervates the tongue? What VS nerves innervate the tongue?
SM: 12
VS: 5, 7 and 9
Spinal reflexes provide _____/____ responses (_____ neurons in gray matter are important).
somatic/visceral, association
What is an example of a spinal reflex?
Tapping the knee causes it to jerk
ASCENDING
Signals moving toward brain
DESCENDING
Signals moving away from brain
What are the 4 components of the trigeminal nerve?
How is the grey matter of this thoracic vertebra (cross-section) organized? What are the 5 visible nerve components outside the grey matter?
LATERAL FUNICULUS
"Little column," most lateral bundle of the dorsal nerve root
What 2 blood vessels supply the brain?
Internal cartoid artery and vertebral artery
How many synapses do humans have?
700 trillion (7 x 10^4)
The human brain occupies __% of our body mass, and consumes __% of our O2 intake.
2%, 20%
CIRCLE OF WILLIS
Circle of arteries that supply blood to the brain
What man changed personalities after having a railroad spike driven through his head?
Phineas P. Gage
When were skull fractures first written about?
17th century BCE
Who received the Nobel prize for inventing a method of staining nerve cells? In what year?
Camillo Golgi and Santiago Cajal, 1906
2,3,5
Pattern of brain development (2 segments, then 3, then 5)
Name the segments that arise in the 2,3,5 pattern of brain development. What vesicle arises?
BRAINSTEM
Mesencephalon, metencephalon, and myelencephalon (no cerebellum or colliculi)
VENTRICULAR SYSTEM
Set of structures containing the cerebrospinal fluid in the brain, continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord
What are the 4 ventricles of the ventricular system?
  • 1. Left lateral (telencephalon)
  • 2. Right lateral (telencephalon)
  • 3. Third (diencephalon)
  • 4. Fourth (medulla oblongata)
What are the 4 foramina connecting the ventricular system?
  • 1. Foramen of Monroe (lateral-third)
  • 2. Aquaduct of Sylvius (third-fourth)
  • 3. Median aperture (fourth-subarachnoid)
  • 4. Lateral aperture (fourth-cistern of cerebral vein)
What is characteristic of CNS-surrounding meninges in fishes?
Single membrane
What is characteristic of CNS-surrounding meninges in amphibians/reptiles/birds?
Dura mater (tough mother) and secondary meninx
What is characteristic of CNS-surrounding meninges in mammals?
"Pad" pia, arachnoid and dura mater
CEREBROSPINAL FLUID
Fluid produced by choroid plexuses, has nutritional and blood/brain barrier functions
In general what 4 structures does cerebrospinal fluid flow through?
  • 1. Choroid plexuses
  • 2. Pore in 4th ventricle
  • 3. Subarachnoid spaces
  • 4. Arteries
MYLENCEPHALON
B1; most posterior segment of the brain containing most of the medulla oblongata and the anterior of the 1st spinal nerve
What cranial nerves emerge from the mylencephalon (B1)?
CN6 and onward
What lies on the roof of the mylencephalon (B1)?
Choroid plexus
What is special about the catfish mylencephalon (B1)?
Conspicuous facial/vagal lobes
What is special about the rayfin/urodele myencephalon (B1)?
Giant cells of Mauthner (escape response)
MEDULLA OBLONGATA
"Switchboard" for signals to/from head, pharynx and viscera, contains nuclei associated with hearing, respiratory rhythm, salivary glands and taste
METENCEPHALON
B2; anterior portion of the medulla oblongata and dorsal cerebellum
What lies ventral to the medulla oblongata? What cranial nerve emerges there?
Pons, trigeminal (CN5)
The circuits of the _____ pass through the metencephalon.
cerebellum
CEREBELLUM
Integrates balance, proprioceptive input, positional equilibrium and motor memory
What do mammals have that allows them to control distal appendage muscles?
Cerebellar hemispheres
MESENCEPHALON
B3; roof above the cerebral aqueduct, optic lobes and the 4 eminences of the corpora quadrigemina
TECTUM
Roof above the cerebral aqueduct that receives sensory data from olfactory organs (via diencephalon) and acousticolateral organs (via cerebellum), sends signals to appropriate motor columns
What two components of the brain send olfactory and acousticolateral data to the tectum?
Diencephalon and cerebellum, respectively
CORPORA QUADRIGEMINA
Four eminences in the mammal mesencephalon
CEREBRAL PEDUNCLES
Ventral structures of the corpora quadrigemina that relay signals between the cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla oblongata
What 2 structures are located in the dorsal corpora quadrigemina?
  • 1. Superior colliculi (vision reflex, ex. look at distant light)
  • 2. Inferior colliculi (hearing reflex, ex. duck when twig cracks)
DIENCEPHALON
B4; major relay center containing the parietal/pineal bodies, optic paraphysis and thalamus "couch"
THALAMUS
Contributor to the limbic system and papes circuit
The reticular formation projects into the cerebrum through the _____.
thalamus
TELENCEPHALON
B5; most anterior segment of the brain, olfactory center
CORPUS CALLOSUM
Structure that coordinates the two hemispheres of the brain, larger in females
NEOPALLIUM
Outer layer of the cerebral hemispheres
PALLIUM
"Cloak"; evolutionary precedent of the cerebrum
ARCHIPALLIUM
Oldest region of the evolutionary precedent to the cerebrum
PALEOPALLIUM
Region within the telencephalon first appearing in amphibians, corresponds with human olfactory cortices
CORPUS STRIATUM
Pair of nucleate masses which form the basal ganglia in the telencephalon
Vertebrates have always had a ____ pallium and ____ subpallium.
dorsal, ventral
SUBPALLIUM
Basal nuclei, corpus striatum
HIPPOCAMPUS
Medial pallium, archipallium
SOMATOSENSORY IMPULSE
Cutaneous impulse (tacticle, thermal, pain)
SPINOTHALMIC TRACT
Sensory pathway in the spinal cord that transmits somatosensory impulses to the thalamus
Name the 4 components of the telencephalon visible in cross-section.
Visualize the flow of cerebrospinal fluid through the brain.
Identify 4 cerebral meninges. What 3 layers lie above the meninges?
Name the 7 structures that arise and change in amniote cerebellar evolution.
TENTORUM
Extension of the dura mater that separates the cerebellum from the occipital lobes
DENDRITE
Branched neuron projection that conducts electrochemical stimuli
AXON
Nerve cell projection that conducts electrochemical stimuli away from the nerve cell body
MYELIN
Electricity-insulating material that forms a sheath around nerve cell axons
FORAMEN OVALE
Fetal opening between the atria of the heart that allows blood to bypass nonfunctional lungs, becomes fossa ovalis after first breath
DUCTUS VENOSUS
Embryonic circulatory structure that allows blood to bypass the liver, becomes ligamentum venosum at birth
View heart circulation:

http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animations/content/human_heart.html

Good job, you are amazing!

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