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Glossary of EFB-101 Exam 3 Ch31-36

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LEARNING OUTCOMES Why aren't fungi classified as plants?
1. Fungi are non-photosynthetic. Plants are photosynthetic.

2. Fungi only have mitochondria. Plants have mitochondria and chloroplasts.

LEARNING OUTCOMES What are 5 ways fungi are different from all other living organisms?
1. Externally digesting heterotrophs.
2. Hyphae.
3. Cell walls made of chitin.
4. Dikaryon stage.
5. Nuclear mitosis with spindle plaques.



LEARNING OUTCOMES What 4 terms best describe the reproductive uniqueness of fungi?
1. Karyogamy
2. Syngamy
3. Dikaryotic
4. Monokaryotic


LEARNING OUTCOMES How many species of fungi are there in how many phyla?
69200, 5
LEARNING OUTCOMES What fungus phylum has the most species?
Ascomycota, 45000
LEARNING OUTCOMES What are the 4 key characteristics of the fungal phylum Chytridiomycota?
1. Aquatic.
2. Flagellated.
3. Sexual reproduction: haploid gametes.
4. Asexual reproduction: diploid zoospores.


LEARNING OUTCOMES What are the 4 key characteristics of the fungal phylum Zygomycota?
1. Multinucleate hyphae w/o septa (except in reproduction structures).
2. Fusion of hyphae leads directly to zygote formation in the zygosporangium.
3. Zygote meiosis occurs just before germination.
4. Most common type of reproduction is asexual.


LEARNING OUTCOMES What are the 3 key characteristics of the fungal phylum Glomeromycota?
1. Multinucleate hyphae lack septa.
2. Form arbuscular mycorrhizae.
3. Reproduce asexually.

LEARNING OUTCOMES What are the 2 key characteristics of the fungal phylum Ascomycota?
1. Sexual reproduction: ascospores form within the ascus.
2. Asexual reproduction: common.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What are the 2 key characteristics of the fungal phylum Basidiomycota?
1. Sexual reproduction: basidiospores are formed on the basidia.
2. Asexual reproduction: occasional.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What are the 6 basic stages of reproduction in fungi and are the cells haploid (n) or diploid (2n) in each?
1. Spore formation (n+n).
2. Karyogamy (2n).
3. Meiosis (n).
4. Mitosis (n).
5. Germination (n).
6. Syngamy/Fertilization (n+n).




LEARNING OUTCOMES Define MONOKARYOTIC and DIKARYOTIC.
MONOKARYOTIC: One nucleus per cell.
DIKARYOTIC: Two nuclei per cell.
LEARNING OUTCOMES Define HOMOKARYOTIC and HETEROKARYOTIC.
HOMOKARYOTIC: Multinucleate cell where multiple genetically identical nuclei share a common cytoplasm.
HETEROKARYOTIC: Multinucleate cell where genetically distinct nuclei share a common cytoplasm.
LEARNING OUTCOMES Define KARYOGAMY and SYNGAMY.
KARYOGAMY: Fusion of nuclei from two cells.
SYNGAMY: Fusion of gametes to produce a new organism.
LEARNING OUTCOMES How are yeasts different from other fungi?
Unicellular.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What are 3 ways fungi are important to ecosystems?
1. Decomposers.
2. Disease agents.
3. Symbiotes.

LEARNING OUTCOMES What fungus phylum is an obligate plant symbiont?
Glomeromycetes.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What fungus phylum is known to contain agents of disease?
Chytridiomycetes.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What fungus phylum contains Rhizopus (bread mold) and fruit diseases?
Zygomycetes.
LEARNING OUTCOMES TRUE/FALSE: Fungi contain organelles.
TRUE
LEARNING OUTCOMES TRUE/FALSE: Fungi are a type of plant.
FALSE
LEARNING OUTCOMES TRUE/FALSE: All fungi are unicellular.
FALSE
LEARNING OUTCOMES TRUE/FALSE: Fungi can reproduce sexually.
TRUE
LEARNING OUTCOMES TRUE/FALSE: Fungi do not produce eggs.
FALSE
LEARNING OUTCOMES TRUE/FALSE: Fungi produce zygotes.
TRUE
LEARNING OUTCOMES TRUE/FALSE: Yeast are not fungi.
FALSE
LEARNING OUTCOMES TRUE/FALSE: All fungi produce mushrooms.
FALSE
LEARNING OUTCOMES TRUE/FALSE: Mushrooms are the bodies of fungi.
FALSE
LEARNING OUTCOMES TRUE/FALSE: Not all fungi consume decaying matter.
TRUE
LEARNING OUTCOMES TRUE/FALSE: Some diseases are caused by fungi.
TRUE
LEARNING OUTCOMES TRUE/FALSE: Some fungal cells undergo meiosis.
TRUE
LEARNING OUTCOMES TRUE/FALSE: Hyphae grow by mitosis.
TRUE
LEARNING OUTCOMES TRUE/FALSE: Fungi only grow at night.
FALSE
31 - FUNGI TRUE/FALSE: Fungi are eukaryotes.
TRUE
31 - FUNGI What 2 characteristics distinguish Opisthokonta (including fungi) from Amoebozoa?
1. Shared amino acid sequence (elongation factor 1-alpha protein).
2. Flattened mitochondrial cristae.
31 - FUNGI TRUE/FALSE: Amoebozoa are paraphyletic.
TRUE
31 - FUNGI What are the 4 phyla of Amoebozoa?
1. Rhizopoda (true amoebas)
2. Actinopoda (radiolarians)
3. Foraminifera (shelled amoebas)
4. Slime molds


31 - Fungi TRUE/FALSE: Slime molds are fungi.
FALSE
31 - Fungi What are the 2 lineages of slime molds?
1. Plasmodial.
2. Cellular.
31 - Fungi What happens to cellular slime molds under stress?
Cellular slime molds under stress will aggregate to form a slug.
31 - Fungi TRUE/FALSE: Some fungi are carnivorous.
TRUE
31 - Fungi What are 6 common fungi from the phylum Ascomycota?
1. Yeasts.
2. Molds.
3. Morels.
4. Cup fungi.
5. Truffles.
6. Tree pathogens.




31 - Fungi What fungus phylum is Penicillin from?
Ascomycota.
31 - Fungi What are the 2 structures used in the asexual reproduction of Ascomycota?
1. Conidiophores.
2. Condia.
31 - Fungi What are the 2 ways yeast reproduce?
1. Asexual: fission.
2. Asexual: budding.
31 - Fungi What was the 1st eukaryote to have its genome sequenced?
S. cerevisiae, yeast
31 - Fungi What are 2 plant pathogens from the phylum Basidiomycota?
1. Rusts.
2. Smuts.
31 - Fungi What 3 common fungi occur in the phylum Basidiomycota?
1. Mushrooms.
2. Puffballs.
3. Jelly fungi.

31 - Fungi The primary mycelium of a basidiocarp is ___ and ____.
Monokaryotic, homokaryotic.
31 - Fungi The secondary mycelium of a basidiocarp is ___ and ____.
Dikaryotic, heterokaryotic.
31 - Fungi Why are Deuteromycetes called "imperfect fungi?"
Sexual reproduction has not been observed in these fungi.
31 - Fungi TRUE/FALSE: Deuteromycetes are monophyletic.
FALSE
31 - Fungi What are 2 economically important Deuteromycetes?
1. Penicillium.
2. Aspergillis.
31 - Fungi Define MYCORRHIZAE.
Mutualistic symbiotic relationship between a fungus and the roots of a plant.
31 - Fungi How does a plant benefit from having a mycorrhizae?
Increased surface area for mineral uptake.
31 - Fungi How does a fungus benefit from having a mycorrhizae?
Gains a source of carbon.
31 - Fungi What is the difference between arbuscular mycorrhizae and ectomycorrhizae?
Arbuscular mycorrhizae penetrate plant cells (glomeromycetes), ectomycorrhizae only surround plant cells (basidiomycetes, ascomycetes).
31 - Fungi Define LICHEN.
Symbiotic relationship between an ascomycete fungus and either cyanobacteria or green algae.
31 - Fungi In what 2 ways do lichens indicate ecosystem health?
1. Primary successional colonizers.
2. Indicators of air quality.
31 - Fungi What are 2 fungal toxins that affect human foods?
1. Ergot (St Anthony's Fire)
2. Aflatoxin (affects peanut butter).
31 - Fungi What is the largest living organism?
Armillaria.
31 - Fungi What fungus phylum has a pathogenic fungus causing amphibian decline?
Chytridiomycetes.
31 - Fungi What are 2 human conditions brought about by Candida yeasts?
1. Vaginal infections.
2. Thrush (in babies).
LEARNING OUTCOMES What are the 9 general features of animals?
1. Diverse forms.
2. Diverse habitats.
3. Heterotrophic.
4. Multicellular.
5. Actively mobile.
6. No cell walls.
7. Sexual reproduction.
8. Similar pattern of embryonic development (mitosis > morula > blastula > blastopore > gastrula).
9. Tissue cell structure (incl. unique muscle and nervous tissues).







LEARNING OUTCOMES How does body symmetry compare between Parazoa and Eumetazoa?
Parazoa: asymmetric.
Eumetazoa: radial, bilateral, etc.
LEARNING OUTCOMES How does cell organization compare between Parazoa and Eumetazoa?
Parazoa: no true tissues.
Eumetazoa: tissues.
LEARNING OUTCOMES Define DIPLOBLASTIC and TRIPLOBLASTIC.
DIPLOBLASTIC: Ova with 2 germ layers (endoderm and ectoderm).
TRIPLOBLASTIC: Ova with 3 germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm).
LEARNING OUTCOMES Define ACOELOMATE.
ACOELOMATE: Has a gut, but no coelom (body cavity).
LEARNING OUTCOMES Define PSEUDOCOELOMATE and COELOMATE.
PSEUDOCOELOMATE: Endoderm forms a gut and a pseudocoelomic cavity.
COELOMATE: Endoderm forms a gut. Mesoderm forms a coelom (body cavity) that surrounds the gut and other organs.
LEARNING OUTCOMES Define ASYMMETRY.
The body cannot be cut in any direction to produce symmetrical halves.
LEARNING OUTCOMES Define RADIAL SYMMETRY.
The body can be cut in any direction to produce symmetrical halves.
LEARNING OUTCOMES Define BILATERAL SYMMETRY.
The body can only be cut top-to-bottom or side-to-side to produce symmetrical halves.
LEARNING OUTCOMES Define PROTOSTOME and DEUTEROSTOME.
PROTOSTOME: "First mouth" - single opening on blastopore forms a mouth.
DEUTEROSTOME: "Second mouth" - two openings form on the blastopore, the first becomes the anus and the second becomes the mouth.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What is an example of a protosome?
Platyzoa (platyhelminthes/flatworms, platyzoa/planaria), lophotrochozoa, ecdysozoa.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What is an example of a deuterosome?
Homo sapien.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What taxon do Platyzoa and Lophotrochozoa fall under, and are they protostomes or deuterostomes?
Spiralia, protostomes.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What differentiates Ecdysozoan protostomes from Spiralians?
Ecdysozoan protostomes have a cuticle/exoskeleton. Spiralian protostomes have spiral cleavage.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What are the 2 characteristics of Lophotrochozoa?
1. Lophophore (U-shaped mouth surrounded by tentacles).
2. Trochozoan larvae.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What superphylum do earthworms, oysters, snails, and bryozoans belong to?
Lophotrochozoa.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What superphylum do flatworms, tapeworms, planaria, flukes, and rotifers belong to?
Platyzoa.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What superphylum do tardigrades, insects, nematodes, and velvet worms belong to?
Ecdysozoa.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What are Onychophorans?
Velvet worms.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What organisms belong to Arthropoda?
Insects, spiders, etc.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What organisms belong to Mollusca?
Snails, clams, oysters, etc.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What organisms belong to Chordata?
Birds, fish, reptiles, amphibians, mammals.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What organisms belong to Platyhelminthes?
Flatworms, flukes, tapeworms, planaria, etc.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What organisms belong to Nematoda?
Pinworms, hookworms, Ascaris, Filaria, etc.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What organisms belong to Annelida?
Earthworms, polychaetes, tube worms, leeches.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What organisms belong to Cnidaria?
Jellyfish, corals, sea anemones, Hydra.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What organisms belong to Echinodermata?
Sea stars, sea urchins, sand dollars, sea cucumbers.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What organisms belong to Porifera?
Sponges.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What organisms belong to Bryozoa?
Sea mats, sea moss, Bowerbankia, etc.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What organisms belong to Rotifera?
Rotifers.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What organisms belong to Chaetognatha?
Sagitta (arrow worms).
LEARNING OUTCOMES What organisms belong to Hemichordata?
Ptychodera (acorn worms).
LEARNING OUTCOMES What organisms belong to Onychophora?
Peripatus (velvet worms).
LEARNING OUTCOMES What are 3 advantages of segmentation?
1. Each segment can develop a complete set of adult organs.
2. Damage to one segment is less fatal to the whole organism.
3. When segments can move independently, locomotion becomes easier.

LEARNING OUTCOMES Define SEGMENTATION.
SEGMENTATION: When the body of an animal is assembled from a succession of similar segments.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What is a segmented organism in Arthropoda?
Dragonfly.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What is a segmented organism in Annelida?
Earthworm.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What is a segmented organism in Chordata?
Homo sapien.
LEARNING OUTCOMES Define MOLECULAR SYSTEMATICS.
MOLECULAR SYSTEMATICS: Classification scheme that utilizes unique genomic sequences to indicate the relatedness of groups.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What happened during the Cambrian explosion, and how long ago did it happen?
Rapid evolution of multiple complex organisms and diversification of existing phyla; 530 m.y.a.
LEARNING OUTCOMES TRUE/FALSE: Sponges are animals.
TRUE
LEARNING OUTCOMES TRUE/FALSE: Animals only reproduce sexually.
FALSE
LEARNING OUTCOMES TRUE/FALSE: If you discovered a new animal, you would classify it by its genetic similarities with other animals.
TRUE
32 - ANIMAL DIVERSITY Describe the 4 stages of embryonic development in animals.
1. Zygote undergoes cleavage (mitotic divisions).
2. Zygote becomes a morula (solid ball of cells).
3. Zygote becomes a blastula (hollow ball of cells).
4. Zygote folds at one end to form a blastopore (opening), becoming a gastrula.


32 - ANIMAL DIVERSITY TRUE/FALSE: Cell development varies widely between animal phyla after the gastrula stage.
TRUE
LEARNING OUTCOMES What are the 3 steps of sponge development?
1. Parenchymula larva settles, becomes sessile.
2. Excurrent osculum form.
3. Incurrent ostia forms.

LEARNING OUTCOMES TRUE/FALSE: Sponges are symmetrical.
FALSE
LEARNING OUTCOMES In what 2 ways do sponges reproduce?
1. Asexual: fragmentation.
2. Sexual: egg & sperm.
LEARNING OUTCOMES TRUE/FALSE: Sponges are monoecious.
TRUE
LEARNING OUTCOMES TRUE/FALSE: Cnidarians have radial symmetry.
TRUE
LEARNING OUTCOMES How does the reproductive strategy of Cnidarians differ from other animals?
Cnidarians have both a sexual and asexual phase of reproduction.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What is the free-swimming larva of a Cnidarian called?
Planula.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What are the 2 body forms of Cnidarians?
1. Polyp.
2. Medusa.
LEARNING OUTCOMES Define CNIDOCYTE and NEMATOCYST.
CNIDOCYTE: The shell of a carnivorous Cnidarian's "spear."
NEMATOCYST: The tip of a carnivorous Cnidarian's "spear."
LEARNING OUTCOMES What are the 4 subphyla of phylum Platyhelminthes that are notable human parasites?
1. Turbellaria. 2. Trematoda (digenetic flukes). 3. Monogenea (monogenetic flukes). 4. Cestoda (tapeworms).
LEARNING OUTCOMES What are 4 structual adaptations of parasitic worms in phylum Platyhelminthes?
1. Penetration glands.
2. Adhesion organs.
3. Absorb through skin.
4. High rate of reproduction.


LEARNING OUTCOMES What is the superphylum of Nematoda?
Ecdysozoa.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What are 2 infectious nematodes?
1. Pinworms.
2. Hookworms.
LEARNING OUTCOMES Define INTERMEDIATE HOSTS and DEFINITIVE HOSTS.
INTERMEDIATE HOSTS: Where young develop.
DEFINITIVE HOSTS: Where reproduction occurs.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What are 2 examples of intermediate hosts?
1. Snails.
2. Fish.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What are 2 examples of definitive hosts?
1. Dogs.
2. Humans.
LEARNING OUTCOMES TRUE/FALSE: All animals are mobile.
FALSE
33 - NONCOELOMATE INVERTEBRATES TRUE/FALSE: Rotifers have bilateral symmetry.
TRUE
33 - NONCOELOMATE INVERTEBRATES What are 3 physiological characteristics of rotifers?
1. Triploblastic.
2. Pseudocoelomate.
3. Bilateral symmetry.

33 - NONCOELOMATE INVERTEBRATES TRUE/FALSE: Rotifers have a brain.
TRUE
34 - COELOMATE INVERTEBRATES What 2 Mollusca groups have veliger larvae?
1. Gastropods.
2. Bivalves.
34 - COELOMATE INVERTEBRATES What are the 5 physiological characteristics of phylum Mollusca?
1. Bilateral symmetry.
2. Coelomate.
3. Visceral mass.
4. Mantle.
5. Muscular foot.



34 - COELOMATE INVERTEBRATES What are mollusk shells made from?
Calcium carbonate.
34 - COELOMATE INVERTEBRATES What is located in the mantle cavity of mollusks?
Gills/lung.
34 - COELOMATE INVERTEBRATES What class are chitons in?
Polyplacophora.
34 - COELOMATE INVERTEBRATES What 3 traits distinguish animals in class Cephalopoda from other animals in phylum Mollusca?
1. Unique brains.
2. Complex eyes.
3. Chromatophores.

34 - COELOMATE INVERTEBRATES What are the 6 physiological chracteristics of phylum Annelida?
1. Bilateral symmetry.
2. Coelomate.
3. Setae.
4. Metameres.
5. Closed circulatory system.
6. Nerve cord.




34 - COELOMATE INVERTEBRATES What do earthworms use the clitellum for?
Reproduction.
LEARNING OUTCOMES Define ECDYSIS.
ECDYSIS: The necessary moulting of the inflexible cuticula as an arthropod grows.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What 3 characteristics distinguish Arthropods from other animals?
1. Chitinous exoskeleton w/articulated appendages.

2. 1 pair of antennae.
3. Compound eyes.


34 - COELOMATE INVERTEBRATES What 3 characteristics distinguish Crustacea and Hexapoda from Myriapoda and Chelicerata?
1. Shared derived DNA sequences.
2. Tripartite brain.
3. All head appendages except 1st antennae used for feeding sometime in life.

34 - COELOMATE INVERTEBRATES What 3 characteristics distinguish Hexapoda from Crustacea?
1. 6 legs.
2. Unique tracheal system.
3. Tagmata: head, thorax, abdomen.

34 - COELOMATE INVERTEBRATES What are the 2 tagmata of Myriapoda?
1. Head.
2. Trunk.
34 - COELOMATE INVERTEBRATES What are the 2 tagmata of Chelicerata?
1. Cephalothorax.
2. Abdomen.
LEARNING OUTCOMES TRUE/FALSE: Most Arthropods are herbivores.
TRUE
LEARNING OUTCOMES Horseshoe crabs, spiders, and mites belong to what subphylum?
Chelicerata.
LEARNING OUTCOMES Define CHELICERA.
CHELICERA: Fangs/Pincers in spiders.
LEARNING OUTCOMES How many pairs of legs per segment do millipedes have?
2.
LEARNING OUTCOMES How many pairs of legs per segment do centipedes have?
1.
LEARNING OUTCOMES Shrimp, lobsters, crabs, and daphnia belong to what subphylum?
Crustacea.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What are 4 physical characteristics of Crustaceans?
1. Cuticle w/calcium salts.
2. Biramous appendages.
3. 2 pairs of antennae.
4. Gills.


LEARNING OUTCOMES What are the larvae of Crustaceans called?
Nauplius.
LEARNING OUTCOMES TRUE/FALSE: Subphylum Insecta is the most diverse group of animals on the planet.
TRUE
LEARNING OUTCOMES What are the 7 external physical characteristics of insects?
1. Tagmata: head, thorax, abdomen.
2. Antennae.
3. Compound eyes.
4. Ocelli.
5. 6 legs.
6. Wings.
7. Spiracles.





LEARNING OUTCOMES What 4 internal systems have notable features in insects?
1. Nervous (brain, ganglia).
2. Circulatory (open system, dorsal heart).
3. Excretory (Malphighian tubules).
4. Respiratory (spiracles, trachea).


LEARNING OUTCOMES Define AMETABOLOUS.
AMETABOLOUS: Life cycle with no metamorphosis or differences between offspring and adults (offspring are miniature clones).
LEARNING OUTCOMES Define HEMIMETABOLOUS and HOLOMETABOLOUS.
HEMIMETABOLOUS: Life cycle with 3 distinct stages (egg, nymph, imago).
HOLOMETABOLOUS: "Complete metamorphosis," life cycle with 4 distinct stages (egg, larva, pupa, imago).
LEARNING OUTCOMES Describe 4 ways insects are beneficial and 2 ways insects are harmful.
BENEFICIAL: pollinators, decomposers, predators of parasites, components of food chains.
HARMFUL: Disease vectors, agriculture pests.
LEARNING OUTCOMES TRUE/FALSE: Echinoderms are protostomes.
FALSE
LEARNING OUTCOMES TRUE/FALSE: Echinoderms only possess radial symmetry in their adult stage.
TRUE
LEARNING OUTCOMES TRUE/FALSE: Echinoderms have no gills.
TRUE
LEARNING OUTCOMES What are the 3 uses of the water vascular system in echinoderms?
1. Gas exchange.
2. Feeding.
3. Locomotion (secondary function).

LEARNING OUTCOMES What are "tube feet" in echinoderms extensions of?
The water vascular system.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What are the 2 purposes of regeneration in echinoderms?
1. Healing body damage.
2. Asexual reproduction.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What are the 4 characteristics of vertebrate chordates?
1. Endoskeleton (cartilage or bone).
2. Vertebral column.
3. Internal organs (heart, liver, kidneys).
4. Neural crest.


LEARNING OUTCOMES What are the 4 characteristics of chordates?
1. Notochord (at least one life stage).
2. Pharyngeal slits.
3. Post-anal tail.
4. Hollow dorsal nerve cord.


LEARNING OUTCOMES Why are tunicates (Urochordates) grouped with other chordates?
Larval tunicates have all chordate features.
LEARNING OUTCOMES Why are lancelets (Cephalochordates) grouped with other chordates?
Lancelets have chordate characteristics, and retain a notochord throughout their adult lives.
EXTRA CREDIT Define how multicellular green algae (Ulva) is ISOMORPHIC.
Multicellular green algae (Ulva) is ISOMORPHIC because the gametophyte stage is indistinguishable from the sporophyte stage.
EXTRA CREDIT What stage is reduced in mosses, and what is it reliant upon?
In mosses the SPOROPHYTE is REDUCED. It is reliant on the photosynthetic DOMINANT GAMETOPHYTE.
EXTRA CREDIT What stage is reduced in angiosperms, and what is it reliant upon?
In angiosperms the GAMETOPHYTE is REDUCED, and reliant upon the vertical DOMINANT SPOROPHYTE.
EXTRA CREDIT What are the 12 components and stages of the haplodiplontic plant life cycle and is each component haploid (n) or diploid (2n)?
1. Gametophyte (n). 2. Mitosis. 3. Egg (n) & Sperm (n). 4. Fertilization. 5. Zygote (2n). 6. Embryo (2n). 7. Sporophyte (2n). 8. Sporangia (2n). 9. Spore mother cell (2n). 10. Meiosis. 11. Spores (n). 12. 1 Spore Becomes 1 Gametophyte (n).
35 - Chordates What phylum do crinoids belong to?
Echinodermata.
35 - Chordates What are ossicles?
Calcium-rich plates covering species in the phylum Echinodermata.
35 - Chordates What are Echinoderm PAPULAE used for?
PAPULAE: Respiration/gill substitute.
35 - Chordates The MADREPORITE PLATE is part of what structure, in what phylum?
Water vascular system, Echinodermata.
35 - Chordates Define LARVAL-TRANSFER HYPOTHESIS.
LARVAL TRANSFER HYPOTHESIS: Some organisms have sequential expression of 2 fused genomes of 2 ancestral animals who hybridized, one becoming the larva of the other.
35 - Chordates What echinoderm has a bilaterally symmetrical larva with a juvenile radially symmetrical starfish inside?
L. sarsi.
35 - Chordates What characteristic distinguishes all fishes from more primitive phyla?
2 pairs of jaws.
35 - Chordates What characteristic distinguishes Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii from Chondricthyes?
Internal bony skeleton.
35 - Chordates What distinguishes Actinopterygii from Sarcopterygii?
ACTINOPTERYGII: ray-finned.
SARCOPTERYGII: Lobe-finned.
35 - Chordates What are 4 physical characteristics of fishes?
1. Internal gills.
2. Single-loop blood circulation.
3. Fins.
4. Scales.


35 - Chordates TRUE/FALSE: Fishes are the most diverse group of vertebrates.
TRUE
35 - Chordates TRUE/FALSE: Chondricthyes only fertilize externally and only lay eggs.
FALSE
35 - Chordates TRUE/FALSE: Most fishes are in Class Actinopterygii.
TRUE
35 - Chordates What class of fishes gave rise to land vertebrates?
Sarcopterygii.
35 - Chordates In Class Sarcopterygii, the swim bladder can be modified into what organ?
Lung.
35 - Chordates TRUE/FALSE: Some Chondricthyes have a swim bladder.
FALSE
35 - Chordates How many chambers does the heart of an amphibian have?
3.
35 - Chordates What are the 2 characteristics of larval amphibians?
1. Gills.
2. Tails.
35 - Chordates What are the 2 characteristics of adult amphibians?
1. Lungs.
2. Cutaneous gas exchange.
35 - Chordates What are reptile scales composed of?
Keratin.
35 - Chordates What does the scientific name Archaeopteryx lithographica translate to?
Ancient wing inscribed in stone.
35 - Chordates Crows, cardinals, and most songbirds belong to what order?
Passeriformes.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What characteristic separates amphibians, mammals, reptiles, and birds from fishes?
Legs with multiple digits.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What separates mammals, reptiles, and birds from amphibians?
Amniotic egg.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What 3 characteristics separate Mammalia from other Amniotes?
1. Mammary glands.
2. Synapsid skull.
3. Hair.

LEARNING OUTCOMES What 2 characteristics separate Testudines from other Amniotes?
1. Bony shell.
2. Anapsid skull.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What do Lepidosauria, Crocodilia, and Aves have in common?
Diapsid skull.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What characteristic differentiates Crocodilia and Aves from other Reptilia?
2 additional openings on diapsid skull.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What characteristic differentiates Aves from Crocodilia?
Feathers.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What differentiates Reptilia from other Amniotes?
Diapsid skull.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What organism belongs to Myxini?
Hagfish.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What organism belongs to Cephalaspidomorphi?
Lamprey.
LEARNING OUTCOMES TRUE/FALSE: Lampreys and hagfish are chordates, but not vertebrates.
FALSE
LEARNING OUTCOMES TRUE/FALSE: Mammalia have 4-chambered hearts.
TRUE
LEARNING OUTCOMES TRUE/FALSE: Aves have 4-chambered hearts.
TRUE
LEARNING OUTCOMES What are the 3 general characteristics of Amniotes?
1. 4 extraembryonic membranes (amnion, allantois, chorion, yolk sac).
2. Internal fertilization.
3. 4-chambered heart.

LEARNING OUTCOMES What are the 4 extraembryonic membranes of Amniotes and what is the purpose of each one?
1. AMNION: moist growth medium.
2. YOLK SAC: nutrient storage.
3. CHORION: respiration.
4. ALLANTOIS: excretion.


LEARNING OUTCOMES What 5 characteristics are necessary for movement onto land?
1. Lungs.
2. Legs.
3. Divided heart.
4. Protected eggs.
5. Dry skin.



LEARNING OUTCOMES TRUE/FALSE: Birds are reptiles.
TRUE
LEARNING OUTCOMES What are Monotremes?
Egg-laying mammals.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What are Marsupials?
Pouched mammals.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What are Placentals?
Mammals with a specialized placental organ.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What 2 characteristics distinguish Order Primate from other mammals?
1. Grasping fingers and toes.
2. Binocular vision.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What prosimian is not in Suborder Strepsirhines?
Tarsier.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What suborder of primates is the most primitive?
Strepsirrhines (prosimians).
LEARNING OUTCOMES What primates have prehensile tails, and flat noses?
Infraorder Platyrrhines (New World monkeys).
LEARNING OUTCOMES TRUE/FALSE: Strepsirhines are monkeys.
FALSE
LEARNING OUTCOMES What infraorder do marmosets, tamarins, capuchin monkeys, and spider monkeys belong to?
Platyrrhines.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What suborder do bush babies, aye ayes, lemurs, and lorises belong to?
Strepsirhines.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What family do gibbons and siamangs belong to?
Hylobatidae (lesser apes).
LEARNING OUTCOMES What is brachiation?
Swinging arm-by-arm in trees, practiced by Hylobatidae (lesser apes).
LEARNING OUTCOMES Do Hylobatidae build nests?
No.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What family do humans, orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, and bonobos belong to?
Hominidae (great apes).
LEARNING OUTCOMES What ancestral primate species was recently discovered that was bipedal and lived in a forest environment?
Ardipithecus ramidus.
LEARNING OUTCOMES What are the 5 major groups of primates from most to least primitive?
1. Suborder Strepsirrhines (prosimians).
2. Infraorder Platyrrhines (New World monkeys).
3. Superfamily Circopithecidae (Old World monkeys).
4. Family Hylobatidae (lesser apes).
5. Family Hominidae (great apes).



LEARNING OUTCOMES What superfamily do mandrills and langurs belong to?
Circopithecidae (Old World monkeys).
LEARNING OUTCOMES What are 3 physical characteristics of Superfamily Circopithecidae?
1. Nostrils close together.
2. Sitting pads.
3. Sexual swellings.

LEARNING OUTCOMES TRUE/FALSE: Deuterostomes evolved from protostomes.
FALSE

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