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Glossary of EFB-101 Biology Exam 4 Ch 36-42

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36 - PLANT FORM What are 2 uses of the root system in plants?
1. Anchors the plant
2. Absorbs water and minerals
36 - PLANT FORM What are the 3 main structures of the shoot system and what is the basic purpose of each?
1. Stems (supporting)
2. Leaves (photosynthetic)
3. Flowers (reproductive)

36 - PLANT FORM APEX
The highest tip of a plant shoot
36 - PLANT FORM What does the primary cell wall of plants consist of?
Cellulose fibers
36 - PLANT FORM What 2 components make up the secondary cell wall of plants?
1. Cellulose
2. Lignin
36 - PLANT FORM What is the purpose of the secondary cell wall in plants?
Increases mechanical strength
36 - PLANT FORM MERISTEMATIC CELL
Undifferentiated cell found in plant growth zones (analogous to animal stem cells).
36 - PLANT FORM What are the 2 products of meristematic cell mitosis?
1. Meristematic cell
2. Differentiated cell
36 - PLANT FORM What are 3 types of differentiated cells that arise from meristematic cell mitosis?
1. Epidermal
2. Vascular
3. Storage

36 - PLANT FORM APICAL MERISTEM
Undifferentiated tissue in the buds and growing root tips of plants
36 - PLANT FORM What does the protoderm in an apical meristem become?
Epidermis
36 - PLANT FORM What does the procambium in an apical meristem become?
1st-degree vascular tissue
36 - PLANT FORM What does the ground meristem in an apical meristem become?
Ground tissue
36 - PLANT FORM What meristem is unique to woody plants?
Lateral meristem
36 - PLANT FORM What does cork cambium in a lateral meristem become?
Outer bark
36 - PLANT FORM What does vascular cambium in a lateral meristem become?
2nd-degree vascular tissue (secondary xylem/phloem)
36 - PLANT FORM From top to bottom in a woody plant, what is the order of stems and roots?
1. Primary stem
2. Secondary stem
3. Secondary root
4. Primary root


36 - PLANT FORM What is the direction of growth in the woody plant primary stem and primary root?
Apical (up/down)
36 - PLANT FORM What is the direction of growth in the woody plant secondary stem and secondary root?
Lateral (side-to-side)
36 - PLANT FORM What are the 4 structures of a woody plant primary stem?
1. Ground meristem
2. Procambium
3. Primary xylem
4. Primary phloem


36 - PLANT FORM What are the 6 structures of a woody plant secondary stem?
1. Cork cambium
2. Vascular cambium
3. Primary phloem
4. Secondary phloem
5. Primary xylem
6. Secondary xylem




36 - PLANT FORM What are the 5 structures of a woody plant secondary root?
1. Vascular cambium
2. Primary phloem
3. Secondary phloem
4. Primary xylem
5. Secondary xylem



36 - PLANT FORM What are the 4 structures of a woody plant primary root?
1. Ground meristem
2. Procambium
3. Primary phloem
4. Primary xylem


36 - PLANT FORM What are the 3 basic types of plant tissues?
1. Dermal
2. Ground
3. Vascular

36 - PLANT FORM What are the 2 main purposes of plant dermal tissue?
1. Protection
2. Water loss prevention
36 - PLANT FORM What are the 3 main purposes of plant ground tissue?
1. Storage
2. Photosynthesis
3. Secretion

36 - PLANT FORM What is the main purpose of plant vascular tissue?
Conduction
36 - PLANT FORM What are the 2 main structures in plant vascular tissue?
1. Phloem
2. Xylem
36 - PLANT FORM What are the 4 main structures of plant dermal tissue?
1. Epidermal cells
2. Guard cells
3. Trichomes
4. Root hairs


36 - PLANT FORM What are 2 components of plant epidermal cells?
1. Cutin
2. Wax
36 - PLANT FORM What are plant guard cells "guarding?" What is its function?
Stoma, transpiration
36 - PLANT FORM What is the plural of stoma?
Stomata
36 - PLANT FORM What are the 2 purposes of trichomes?
1. Reduce evaporation
2. Deter herbivory
36 - PLANT FORM What is the purpose of root hairs?
Increase root surface area
36 - PLANT FORM What are the 3 common cell types that make up plant ground tissue?
1. Parenchyma
2. Collenchyma
3. Sclerenchyma

36 - PLANT FORM What are the 3 functions of parenchyma cells?
1. Storage
2. Secretion
3. Photosynthesis

36 - PLANT FORM What are the most common cells in ground tissue?
Parenchyma cells
36 - PLANT FORM What 2 structures in parenchyma cells play a role in photosynthesis?
1. Chloroplasts
2. Chlorenchyma
36 - PLANT FORM TRUE/FALSE: Parenchyma cells are living.
TRUE
36 - PLANT FORM What is the function of collenchyma cells?
Provide support
36 - PLANT FORM TRUE/FALSE: Collenchyma cells are living.
TRUE
36 - PLANT FORM What is the function of sclerenchyma cells?
Strengthen tissues
36 - PLANT FORM What are the 2 forms of sclerenchyma cells?
1. Sclereids
2. Fibers
36 - PLANT FORM TRUE/FALSE: Sclerenchyma cells are living.
FALSE
36 - PLANT FORM What are 2 plants with sclereids?
1. Water lilies
2. Pears
36 - PLANT FORM What 3 materials are transported by the xylem in plants?
1. Water
2. Minerals
3. Dead cells

36 - PLANT FORM What structure is contained in a xylem vessel?
Perforation plate
36 - PLANT FORM What structure is contained in a xylem tracheid?
Pit
36 - PLANT FORM Water flows in what direction when it goes through a xylem perforation plate?
Upwards
36 - PLANT FORM TRUE/FALSE: Angiosperm xylems have both vessels and tracheids.
TRUE
36 - PLANT FORM TRUE/FALSE: Gymnosperm xylems only have tracheids, no vessels.
TRUE
36 - PLANT FORM What 2 materials are transported through plant phloem?
1. Hormones
2. Ucrose
36 - PLANT FORM TRUE/FALSE: Phloem cells have a nucleus.
FALSE
36 - PLANT FORM What structures make up the phloem in gymnosperms and seedless vascular plants?
Sieve cells
36 - PLANT FORM What structures make up the phloem in angiosperms?
Sieve tube members
36 - PLANT FORM What 2 components make up an angiosperm's sieve tube member?
1. Sieve plate
2. Companion cell
36 - PLANT FORM GIRDLING
Removal of a ring of outer bark (secondary phloem tissue, cork cambium, and cork), causing the death of a woody plant
36 - PLANT FORM What are the 2 types of root systems?
1. Fibrous (monocot)
2. Taproot (dicot)
36 - PLANT FORM What are the 2 parts of taproot systems?
1. Primary (tap) root
2. Lateral roots
36 - PLANT FORM What kind of root system do monocots have?
Fibrous
36 - PLANT FORM What kind of root system do dicots have?
Taproot
36 - PLANT FORM What 2 types of cells make up the root cap?
1. Root cap cells
2. Columella cells
36 - PLANT FORM What is the function of root cap cells?
Protection
36 - PLANT FORM What is the function of columella cells?
Perception of gravity (via amyloplasts)
36 - PLANT FORM What special structures in columella cells allow a plant to perceive gravity?
Amyloplasts
36 - PLANT FORM From top to bottom, what are the 4 zones of a root?
1. Zone of maturation
2. Zone of elongation
3. Zone of cell division
4. Root cap


36 - PLANT FORM What 2 root zones overlap?
Zone of elongation and zone of cell division
36 - PLANT FORM What 2 structures are located in a root's zone of cell division?
1. Apical meristem
2. Quiescent center
36 - PLANT FORM QUIESCENT CENTER
Inactive organizing cells surrounded by meristematic cells in a root's zone of cell division
36 - PLANT FORM From outside to inside, what are the 7 layers of a plant root?
1. Epidermis
2. Cortex
3. Endodermis (Casparian strip)
4. Pericycle
5. Xylem
6. Phloem
7. Pith





36 - PLANT FORM What is contained within the root endodermis and what is it composed of?
Casparian strip, suberin
36 - PLANT FORM What 4 structures are contained within the root stele?
1. Pericycle
2. Phloem
3. Xylem
4. Pith


36 - PLANT FORM Where do lateral roots originate?
Pericycle
36 - PLANT FORM What are the 8 types of adventitious roots?
1. Prop
2. Aerial
3. Pneumatophore
4. Contractile
5. Parasitic
6. Food storage
7. Water storage
8. Buttress






36 - PLANT FORM What are 2 plants with contractile roots?
1. Dandelions
2. Lilies
36 - PLANT FORM What plant has parasitic roots?
Dodder
36 - PLANT FORM What plant has food storage roots?
Carrot
36 - PLANT FORM What plant has water storage roots?
Pumpkin
36 - PLANT FORM What plant has buttress roots?
Fig tree
36 - PLANT FORM From top to bottom in a dicot plant stem, what are the 5 orders of primordia?
1. Young leaf primordium
2. Shoot apical meristem
4. Older leaf primordium
5. Lateral bud primordium


36 - PLANT FORM From top to bottom in a monocot plant stem, what are the 3 orders of primordia?
1. Shoot apical meristem
2. Young leaf primordium
3. Older leaf primordium.

36 - PLANT FORM PHYLLOTAXY
Arrangement of leaves to maximize sun exposure
36 - PLANT FORM From most to least common, what are the 3 types of phyllotaxy in plants?
1. Alternate
2. Opposite
3. Whorled

36 - PLANT FORM What plant has alternate phyllotaxy?
Ivy
36 - PLANT FORM What plant has opposite phyllotaxy?
Periwinkle
36 - PLANT FORM What plant has whorled phyllotaxy?
Sweet woodruff
36 - PLANT FORM From top to bottom, what are the 8 parts of an external plant stem?
1. Terminal bud
2. Axillary bud
3. Node
4. Bundle scars
5. Internode
6. Petiole
7. Blade
8. Terminal bud






36 - PLANT FORM How is vascular tissue arranged in dicots?
Ring with pith and cortex
36 - PLANT FORM How is vascular tissue arranged in monocots?
Scattered bundles
36 - PLANT FORM What develops from secondary growth of dicots?
Vascular cambium
36 - PLANT FORM TRUE/FALSE: Monocots have secondary growth and develop a vascular cambium.
FALSE
36 - PLANT FORM From outside to inside, what 2 structures make up a tree's annual growth rings?
1. Heartwood
2. Sapwood
36 - PLANT FORM Heartwood and sapwood are considered part of what vascular tissue?
Xylem
36 - PLANT FORM From outside to inside, what are the 6 layers of a woody plant?
1. Outer bark
2. Cork cambium
3. Phloem
4. Vascular cambium
5. Sapwood
6. Heartwood




36 - PLANT FORM LENTICEL
Structure in woody dicot and gymnosperm cork cambium that permits gas exchange
36 - PLANT FORM What are the 7 types of modified stems?
1. Bulb
2. Corm
3. Rhizome
4. Runner/Stolon
5. Tuber
6. Tendril
7. Cladophyll





36 - PLANT FORM Leaves are the main site of what?
Photosynthesis
36 - PLANT FORM What kind of veins do monocot leaves have?
Parallel
36 - PLANT FORM What kind of veins do dicot leaves have?
Netted/Reticulate
36 - PLANT FORM Leaves are ______ structures.
Determinate
36 - PLANT FORM What are the 3 possible shapes of simple leaves?
1. Teeth
2. Indentations
3. Lobes

36 - PLANT FORM What is the main structure of a compound leaf?
Blade
36 - PLANT FORM What are the 2 types of compound leaves?
1. Pinnate (opposite blades)
2. Palmate (circle of blades)
36 - PLANT FORM The upper surface of a leaf consists of what 2 structures?
1. Epidermal cells
2. Waxy cuticle
36 - PLANT FORM The lower surface of a leaf consists of what 3 structures?
1. Epidermal cells
2. Stomata
3. Guard cells

36 - PLANT FORM MESOPHYLL
The interior of a leaf, between the upper and lower surface
36 - PLANT FORM What are the 2 types of dicot mesophyll?
1. Palisade
2. Spongy
36 - PLANT FORM TRUE/FALSE: Monocots only have 1 type of leaf mesophyll.
TRUE
36 - PLANT FORM From the upper to the lower surface in dicot leaves, what are the 2 layers of mesophyll?
1. Palisade
2. Spongy
36 - PLANT FORM What are the 6 types of modified leaves?
1. Bracts (floral)
2. Spines
3. Reproductive
4. Window
5. Shade
6. Insectivorous




36 - PLANT FORM What are 3 examples of plants with insectivorous leaves?
1. Venus flytrap
2. Sundew
3. Pitcher plant

37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT What are the 3 products of a female plant gametophyte?
1. Egg (n)
2. 2 polar nuclei (n)
3. 2 synergids

37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT What are the 2 products of a male plant gametophyte?
1. 2 sperm (n)
2. Pollen tube
37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT What are the 2 structures involved in double-fertilization?
1. Zygote (2n)
2. Endosperm (3n)
37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT Double-fertilization involves a ______ zygote and a ______ endosperm.
diploid, triploid
37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT What are the 4 steps of plant embryogenesis?
1. Zygote undergoes mitosis
2. Root-shoot axis forms
3. Tissue systems form
4. Coyledons form


37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT What are the 2 products of mitosis by a plant zygote?
1. Embryo (small)
2. Suspensor (large)
37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT Dicots have __ cotyledon(s) and monocots have __ cotyledon(s). [number]
2, 1
37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT MORPHOGENESIS
Development of an organism's body form
37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT MORPHOGENS
Influence differentiation of nearby cells
37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT Developmental mutations in suspensors result in what?
Embryo-like development
37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT What are the 3 embryogenesis characteristics of angiosperms?
1. Storage of food
2. Formation of seed coat
3. Development of ovary into fruit

37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT What are 4 functions of seeds?
1. Protection
2. Facilitation of dispersal
3. Provision of food for the embryo
4. Creation of a dormant life cycle phase


37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT What are the 3 main structures composing seeds?
1. Seed coat
2. Endosperm
3. Dormant embryo

37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT What 3 structures exist within a seed's dormant embryo?
1. Basic tissue systems
2. Apical meristems
3. Cotyledons

37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT What simple fruit contains a single seed?
Drupe
37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT What 4 simple fruits contain multiple seeds?
1. Berry
2. Pepo
3. Hesperidia
4. Pome


37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT What are the 2 types of compound fruits?
1. Multiple
2. Aggregate
37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT A pineapple is what kind of fruit?
Compound: multiple
37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT A strawberry is what kind of fruit?
Compound: aggregate
37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT What are 2 dry fruits?
1. Legume
2. Samara
37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT PERICARP
Ovary wall
37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT From outside to inside, what 3 layers make up the plant ovary pericarp?
1. Exocarp
2. Mesocarp
3. Endocarp

37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT CARPEL
Developing fruit
37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT What are 5 methods of fruit dispersal?
1. Ingestion and transport
2. Clinging to animals
3. Cache burial
4. Wind dispersal
5. Drifting on water



37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT GERMINATION
Emergence of the first root (radicle) from a seed
37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT RADICLE
First root to emerge from a seed
37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT What 2 main signals determine germination?
1. Water content
2. Oxygen content
37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT Besides water and oxygen content, what 4 factors determine germination?
1. Specific light wavelength
2. Specific photoperiod
3. Number of days at specific temperature
4. Cold stratification


37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT What 2 hormones control germination?
1. Gibberellic acid
2. Abcisic acid
37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT Abcisic acid does what in seeds?
Maintains dormancy
37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT When gibberellic acid binds to cell membrane receptors, it signals the production of what?
a-amylase
37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT a-amylase production in a seed triggers the change of starch into what?
Sugars
37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT BENT HYPOCOTYL
Early stem of a germinating dicot
37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT The radicle of a monocot develops into what?
Primary root
37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT The radicle of a dicot develops into what?
Primary and secondary roots
37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT TRUE/FALSE: As a dicot develops its coyledons are drawn above-ground and wither.
TRUE
37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT The monocot coleoptile develops into what?
First leaf
37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT The monocot coleorhiza develops into what?
Primary root
37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT What part of the dicot stem develops after the hypocotyl?
Epicotyl
37 - PLANT DEVELOPMENT What are 3 adaptations of pine cones?
1. Open when exposed to fire
2. Leach inhibitory chemicals from seed coat
3. Pass through animal intestines

38 - PLANT TRANSPORT ADHESION
When water molecules stick to a surface
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT COHESION
When water molecules stick to each other
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT What 2 types of long-distance transport occur in plants?
1. Transpiration
2. Evaporation
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT ADHESION-COHESION-TENSION MODEL
Method of water transport from roots to leaves in plants
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT From root to leaf, what are the 4 steps of the adhesion-cohesion-tension model of water transport in plants?
1. Absorption of water by root hairs
2. Transportation of water through cortex/endodermis into the stele
3. Movement of water up the plant stem
4. Pulling of water into leaves by adhesion-cohesion forces


38 - PLANT TRANSPORT What adhesion-cohesion force pulls water into plant leaves from the stem?
Hydrogen bonding
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT What structure, containing what 2 components, is important in the transportation of water through the cortex and endodermis of a plant?
Xylem: vessels, tracheids
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT How much water potential exists in soils?
Close to 0
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT How much water potential exists in air?
Negative
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT How do plants use water potential to create upward water flow in their stems?
Close to 0 in soils ---> negative in air, water flows to "fill" the negative
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT What are 3 methods of water transport in plants?
1. Adhesion-cohesion-tension model
2. Water potential
3. Active transport

38 - PLANT TRANSPORT What are the 2 components of active water transport in plants?
1. Cations
2. Proton pump
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT DIFFUSION
Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT OSMOSIS
Diffusion of water
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT If a cell is dry (low water concentration inside), will water flow into or out of it?
Into
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT TURGOR PRESSURE
Pressure of cell contents against cell walls in plants
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT TURGID
Full of water
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT PLASMOLYSIS
When the plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall due to water loss in a plant cell
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT What are the 2 materials carried by short-distance transport in plants?
1. Water
2. Molecules/Ions
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT Interactions of what 2 components are used by plants to transport water over short distances?
1. Bulk flow
2. Aquaporins
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT AQUAPORIN
Structure in cell membrane that admits bulk flows of water
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT In what 3 ways do plants transport molecules/ions over short distances (diffusion)?
1. Membrane proteins
2. Active transport
3. Passive transport

38 - PLANT TRANSPORT TRUE/FALSE: Active transport requires ATP.
TRUE
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT TRUE/FALSE: Passive transport requires ATP.
FALSE
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT What are the 3 transport routes for water/minerals?
1. Apoplast (between 2 adjacent cell walls)
2. Symplast (cell network)
3. Transmembrane (over cell membranes)

38 - PLANT TRANSPORT APOPLAST
Region between 2 adjacent cell walls
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT SYMPLAST
Network of cells interconnected by plasmodesmata
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT TRANSMEMBRANE
"Over" the cell membrane
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT Proton pumps help determine the directional flow of water by altering what gradient?
Water potential
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT TRANSPIRATION
Evaporation of water from the aerial parts of plants
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT GUTTATION
Appearance of xylem sap on leaves
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT TRUE/FALSE: Dew comes from guttation.
FALSE
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT CAVITATION
Formation of vapor bubbles in flowing liquids where the liquid pressure falls below the vapor pressure
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT If an air bubble blocks water from progressing up a xylem vessel, where does the water go?
To the adjacent xylem vessel
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT What 4 factors affect transpiration rate?
1. Temperature
2. Humidity
3. Wind velocity
4. CO2 concentration


38 - PLANT TRANSPORT What goes in and what goes out of plant stomata?
In: CO2
Out: H2O
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT When a stoma is open, are its guard cells flaccid or turgid?
Turgid
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT Guard cells operate on what principle?
Turgor pressure
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT What are 4 ways plants react to water stress?
1. Modify leaves
2. Regulate opening/closing of stomata
3. Form aerenchyma (airy spaces)
4. Produce pneumatophores (aerial roots)


38 - PLANT TRANSPORT PNEUMATOPHORE
Aerial root with lenticels
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT AERENCHYMA
Airy compartment formed in response to water stress
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT What process does a plant phloem use to transport photosynthate and hormones?
Translocation
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT What 2 materials are translocated by the phloem?
1. Photosynthate
2. Hormones
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT What are 3 sieve structures in the phloem?
1. Sieve cells
2. Sieve tube member cells
3. Companion cells

38 - PLANT TRANSPORT PRESSURE-FLOW HYPOTHESIS OF PHLOEM TRANSLOCATION
High concentrations of organic contents in phloem cells at a source creates a diffusion gradient that pulls water into the source
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT Is a leaf a source or a sink?
Source
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT Is a shoot tip a source or a sink?
Sink
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT Is a root cortex a source or a sink?
Sink
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT SYMPORT
Membrane protein integral to phloem-loading
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT The pressure-flow hypothesis operates on what principle?
Turgor pressure
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT Phloem-feeding organisms have what type of mouthparts?
Piercing-Sucking
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT Photosynthate is transported by what method?
Pressure-flow
38 - PLANT TRANSPORT Photosynthate travels through what 3 parts of a plant?
1. Chlorenchyma (palisade mesophyll parenchyma cells)
2. Symport
3. Phloem

38 - PLANT TRANSPORT Water/Minerals travel through what 3 parts of a plant?
1. Xylem
2. Mesophyll
3. Leaf (and out from there)

39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS SOIL
Highly weathered outer layer of earth's crust
39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS What are the 3 components of soil?
1. Solids (clay,silt,sand,rocks,humus)
2. Pore space (water & air)
3. Organisms

39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS What 5 materials make up the solid component of soil?
1. Clay
2. Silt
3. Sand
4. Rocks
5. Humus



39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS What 2 materials make up the pore space component of soil?
1. Water
2. Air
39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS What are 5 examples of soil parent material?
1. Limestone
2. Sandstone
3. Shale
4. Granite
5. Serpentine



39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS What 2 influences does a parent material exert on resulting soil?
1. Composition
2. Chemistry
39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS What are the 4 layers of soil?
1. A (topsoil)
2. B (subsoil)
3. C (soil base)
4. Bedrock


39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS What are the 3 components of topsoil?
1. Mineral particles
2. Humus
3. Organisms

39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS In what soil layer are most plant roots found?
Topsoil
39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS Why do soils tend to pull positive ions out of root cells?
Soil particles have negative charges
39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS How does a root keep surrounding soils from leeching out its K+ and other positive ions?
Active transport
39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS What are the 3 influences affecting mineral availability?
1. Parental material
2. Soil pH
3. Soil composition (texture)

39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS Soil composition affects mineral availability in what 2 ways?
1. Water drainage speed
2. Nutrient binding
39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS In what way does soil pH affect mineral availability?
Low pH = certain minerals released from rocks
39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS Acidic soil causes rocks to release what toxic mineral?
Al
39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS What parent material creates Ca-rich soil?
Limestone (CaCO3)
39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS What are the 3 main sources of plant energy?
1. Light
2. H2O
3. CO2

39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS MACRONUTRIENT
Needed in large amounts
39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS MICRONUTRIENT
Needed in small amounts
39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS What are the 9 macronutrients of plants?
1. Carbon
2. Oxygen
3. Hydrogen
4. Nitrogen
5. Potassium
6. Calcium
7. Magnesium
8. Phosphorus
9. Sulfur







39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS Nitrogen helps plants create what?
Amino acids
39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS Potassium helps plants create what?
Proteins (also stomata function use)
39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS Phosphorus helps plants create what 5 materials?
1. ADP
2. ATP
3. Nucleic acids
4. Phospholipids
5. Coenzymes



39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS Magnesium helps plants create what?
Chlorophyll
39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS HYDROPONICS
Growth of plants in water (not soil) to observe the effects of single-nutrient removal
39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS What are the 4 special nutritional strategies of plants?
1. N-fixing bacteria
2. Carnivorous plants
3. Parasitic plants
4. Mycorrhizae (most common)


39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS TRUE/FALSE: Plants can use the abundant N2 in the atmosphere.
FALSE
39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS What bacteria fixes Nitrogen for plants?
Rhizobium
39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS What 3 things do plants provide for N-fixing bacterial partners?
1. Nodules (habitat)
2. Carbohydrates
3. Leghemoglobin (regulates O2)

39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS What are 2 structures unique to carnivorous plants?
1. Modified leaves
2. Digestive enzymes
39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS 90% of vascular plants have what kind of symbiotic relationship?
Mycorrhizae
39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS What 2 parts of the host do parasitic plants invade?
1. Vascular tissue (dodder)
2. Mycorrhizae (indian pipie)
39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS What are 2 examples of parasitic plants?
1. Dodder
2. Indian pipe
39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS What are 3 causes of soil loss and nutrient depletion?
1. Erosion
2. Cultivation
3. Salinization

39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS Plowing/Harvesting causes what type of soil loss?
Erosion
39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS Cultivation causes depletion of what?
Nutrients
39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS What are 2 causes of salinization?
1. Irrigation
2. Draining of wetlands
39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS What are 3 agricultural management strategies that minimize soil loss and nutrient depletion?
1. Crop rotation (intercropping)
2. Conservation tillage
3. Biochar

39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS How can the nutritional value of crops be improved?
Genetic modification
39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS PHYTOREMEDIATION
Use of plants to concentrate or break down pollutants
39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS What are the 3 courses of phytoremediation?
1. Phytovolatilization
2. Phytoaccumulation
3. Phytodegradation

39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS TCE
Trichloroethylene (CO2 + Cl)
39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS What plant is used to phytodegrade TCE?
Poplar tree
39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS What are 2 advantages and 1 disadvantage of poplar trees as phytoremediators?
ADVANTAGES:
1. Large size
2. High transpiration rate
DISADVANTAGES:
1. Some phytovolatilization



39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS What 2 plants can effectively phytodegrade low levels of TNT?
1. Poplar
2. Bean
39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS TNT
Trinitrotoluene
39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS What species is commonly used to phytoaccumulate heavy metals?
Brassica juncea
39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS After a B. juncea has become concentrated with phytoaccumulations of heavy metals, what should be done with it?
Harvest and dry
39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS What are disadvantages of heavy metal phytoaccumulation?
1. Uses small plants which are quickly saturated
2. Grazed on by animals
39 - PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS What are 3 heavy metal targets of phytoaccumulation?
1. Arsenic
2. Cadmium
3. Lead

40 - PLANT DEFENSES The coevolutionary arms race between plants and herbivores was described by what 2 scientists?
1. Peter Raven
2. Paul Ehrlich
40 - PLANT DEFENSES What are the 4 steps of the coevolutionary arms race?
1. Plant evolves defense
2. Plant survives to pass on genes
3. Herbivore experiences mutation that allows it to breach defense
4. Herbivore survives and passes on genes


40 - PLANT DEFENSES What are the 2 groups of plant defenses?
1. Morphological
2. Chemical
40 - PLANT DEFENSES What are the 2 states of plant defenses?
1. Constitutive
2. Induced
40 - PLANT DEFENSES What are the 6 threats to plants?
1. Bacteria
2. Fungi
3. Viruses/Viroids
4. Nematodes
5. Herbivores
6. Other plants




40 - PLANT DEFENSES Why are non-native organisms a significant threat to native plants?
No time to evolve new defenses
40 - PLANT DEFENSES What 3 features make dermal tissues the first line of plant defense?
1. Trichomes
2. Prickles
3. Silica inclusions

40 - PLANT DEFENSES Modified stems and modified leaves produce what kind of dermal defenses?
Modified stems: thorns
Modified leaves: spines
40 - PLANT DEFENSES Bark is a ____ tissue.
Dermal
40 - PLANT DEFENSES In what 3 ways can dermal defenses be breached?
1. Mechanical wounds
2. Penetration
3. Fungal infections of stomata

40 - PLANT DEFENSES SECONDARY METABOLITES
Byproducts of normal chemical processes within plants, not needed for life
40 - PLANT DEFENSES Chemical defenses are composed of _______ _____.
Secondary metabolites
40 - PLANT DEFENSES What are the 2 groups of chemical defenses?
1. Qualitative (low conc)
2. Quantitative (high conc)
40 - PLANT DEFENSES QUALITATIVE CHEMICAL DEFENSE
Defense present at low concentrations, effective against specialists and generalists
40 - PLANT DEFENSES QUANTITATIVE CHEMICAL DEFENSE
Defense present at high concentrations, effective against generalists
40 - PLANT DEFENSES What are the 2 types of qualitative chemical defenses?
1. Toxins
2. Growth regulators
40 - PLANT DEFENSES What are 4 qualitative toxins?
1. Cyanide
2. Caffeine
3. Nicotine
4. Rotenone


40 - PLANT DEFENSES What are 2 qualitative growth regulators?
1. Juvenile hormone
2. Phytoestrogens
40 - PLANT DEFENSES In what 3 ways do quantitative chemical compounds defend plants?
1. Unpalatable/Illness-causing
2. Interferes with digestion
3. Repellent

40 - PLANT DEFENSES What quantitative chemical compound interferes with digestion of plant material by binding proteins?
Tannin
40 - PLANT DEFENSES Most plant repellents are ____.
Oils
40 - PLANT DEFENSES What is an example of a repellent quantitative chemical compound used by plants?
Menthol
40 - PLANT DEFENSES Socrates was forced to drink a solution containing the toxin of what plant?
Hemlock
40 - PLANT DEFENSES What plant toxin has historically been used for assassinations?
Ricin
40 - PLANT DEFENSES Castor bean plants produce what toxin?
Ricin
40 - PLANT DEFENSES What are 5 beneficial plant toxins?
1. Phytoestrogens
2. Taxol
3. Quinine
4. Morphine
5. Salicylic acid



40 - PLANT DEFENSES Where does salicylic acid come from?
Willow bark
40 - PLANT DEFENSES ALLELOPATHY
Process by which plants block seed germination and inhibit growth in order to minimize resource competition
40 - PLANT DEFENSES What are 3 plants that practice allelopathy?
1. Black walnut
2. Juniper
3. Spotted knapweed

40 - PLANT DEFENSES Small armies of ants protect what kind of tree in exchange for food and shelter?
Acacia
40 - PLANT DEFENSES How does a plant signal to parasitoid wasps where a caterpillar is?
Volatile compounds released when caterpillar bites into leaf material
40 - PLANT DEFENSES How are induced defenses induced?
Leaf injury
40 - PLANT DEFENSES What are the 2 types of induced defenses?
1. Local
2. Systemic
40 - PLANT DEFENSES What 2 acids are involved in induced defenses?
1. Jasmonic
2. Salicylic
40 - PLANT DEFENSES PROTEINASE INHIBITORS
Bind to herbivore digestive enzymes to make plant material undigestable
40 - PLANT DEFENSES What are the 4 steps of the induced defense biochemical pathway?
1. Wounded leaf releases systemin
2. Systemin attaches to cell membrane receptor
3. Cell produced jasmonic acid
4. Jasmonic acid presence signals production of proteinase inhibitors


40 - PLANT DEFENSES HYPERSENSITIVE RESPONSE
Induced defense: rapid cell death
40 - PLANT DEFENSES PHYTOALEXINS
Antimicrobial agents
40 - PLANT DEFENSES What are 2 examples of phytoalexins?
1. Hydrogen peroxide
2. Nitric oxide
40 - PLANT DEFENSES SYSTEMIC ACQUIRED RESISTANCE (SAR)
Induced defense: temporary broad resistance to a pathogen
40 - PLANT DEFENSES What are the 2 defenses of conifers?
1. Constitutive: resin canals
2. Induced: hypersensitive lesions
40 - PLANT DEFENSES What is the defense of deciduous trees?
Induced: callus overgrowth
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS
Light-controlled morphological change
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS PHOTOTROPISM
Light-controlled directional growth
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS What are 2 examples of photomorphogenesis?
1. Flowering
2. Shoot elongation
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS PHYTOCHROME
Light-absorbing pigment
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS TRUE/FALSE: Phytochrome is present in all plants.
TRUE
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS What are 3 plant growth responses involving phytochrome?
1. Seed germination
2. Shoot elongation
3. Plant spacing detection

41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS What are the 2 parts of phytochrome?
1. Chromophore
2. Apoprotein
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS What is the function of chromophore in phytochrome?
1. Light-sensitive
2. Conformational change
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS What is the function of apoprotein in phytochrome?
Initiates signal-transduction pathway
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS What are the 2 interconvertible forms of phytochrome?
1. Pr (inactive)
2. Pfr (active)
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS Pr
Inactive form of phytochrome that absorbs red light @ 660 nm
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS Pfr
Active form of phytochrome that absorbs far-red light @ 730nm, and enters nucleus to cause gene transcription
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS What happens to far-red light absorbed by Pfr?
Converted back to Pr and tagged by ubiquitin for degradation
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS UBIQUITIN
Phytochrome degradation tag applied to Pr
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS Does increasing red light stimulate or inhibit seed germination?
Stimulates
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS Does increasing far-red light stimulate or inhibit seed germination?
Inhibits
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS Why does a closed canopy inhibit seed germination?
Leaf chlorophyll absorbs red light and only far-red light reaches the seed
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS When a shoot lacks red light, what process occurs?
Etiolation (elongation)
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS ETIOLATION
Elongation of pale, slender shoot in response to an absence of red light
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS What are the 5 steps that bend a growing stem toward blue light?
1. Phototropin 1 (membrane receptor protein) absorbs blue light
2. Conformational change
3. Phosphate attaches
4. Signaling pathway initiates
5. Stem bends



41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS PHOTOTROPIN 1
Membrane receptor protein that absorbs blue light
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS TRUE/FALSE: Both plants and eukaryotes have circadian rhythms.
TRUE
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS CIRCADIAN RHYTHM
Day-night cycle
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS What are 3 results of circadian rhythms in plants?
1. Leaf/Flower petal movements
2. Stomatal opening
3. Fragrance release

41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS What are the 4 characteristics of circadian rhythms?
1. Continue in absence of external inputs
2. 24-hour duration
3. Can be reset
4. Compensate for differences in temperature


41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS GRAVITROPISM
Plant response to gravity
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS Shoots exhibit ___ gravitropism, roots exhibit ___ gravitropism.
Negative, positive
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS In what 3 steps does a plant stem curve upward?
1. Auxin accumulates on lower side
2. Asymmetrical cell elongation
3. Stem curves upward

41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS In what 3 steps does a plant root grow downward?
1. Lower cells less elongated
2. Upper side cells grow rapidly
3. Root grows downward

41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS THIGMOMORPHOGENESIS
Permanent form change due to mechanical stresses
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS What is 1 stressor that can cause thigmomorphogenesis?
Constant wind
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS THIGMOTROPISM
Directional plant growth due to contact
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS What is 1 example of a thigmotropism?
Curling of tendrils around objects
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS What are 2 examples of reversible changes in turgor pressure?
1. Venus flytrap leaf snapping 2. Mimosa pudica leaf closing
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS TRUE/FALSE: Both water leaving a turgid cell and water entering a flaccid cell can cause plant movement.
TRUE
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS What is an example of light-triggered turgor movement?
Sunflower following sun
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS What are 2 plants that experience circadian turgor movement?
1. Four o'clocks
2. Primrose
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS What are 2 functions of nyctinastic turgor movement?
1. Reduce nightly water loss
2. Maximize daytime photosynthesis
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS What is typically the first step in deciduous plant dormancy?
Leaf abcission
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS What are the 2 layers of a leaf abcission zone?
1. Protective layer (suberin)
2. Separation layer
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS What 2 compounds are reduced at the start of leaf abcission?
1. Cytokinins
2. Auxin
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS HORMONE
Chemical produced in one part of an organism that are transported to another part, where they exert a response
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS What are the 5 most important major plant hormones?
1. Auxin
2. Cytokinins
3. Gibberellins
4. Ethylene
5. Abcisic acid



41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS 5 functions of AUXIN
1. Promotes cell elongation
2. Promotes cell division
3. Promotes bud dormancy
4. Promotes formation of adventitious and lateral roots
5. Inhibits leaf abcission



41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS Where is AUXIN produced?
Apical meristems
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS What 2 scientists discovered AUXIN?
1. Charles Darwin
2. Francis Darwin
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS 6 functions of CYTOKININS
1. Promotes cell division/differentiation
2. Promotes growth of lateral buds into branches
3. Promotes chloroplast development
4. Promotes bud formation
5. Inhibits lateral root formation
6. Delays leaf aging/abcission




41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS Crown gall tumors form when a plant pathogen induces increased production of what 2 plant hormones?
1. Auxin
2. Cytokinins
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS 2 functions of GIBBERELLINS
1. Promotes shoot elongation
2. Promotes seed germination enzyme production
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS GIBBERELLINS can restore what?
Normal growth to dwarf mutants
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS What commercial use does GIBBERELLINS have?
Larger grapes
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS 3 functions of ETHYLENE
1. Inhibits stem/root elongation
2. Controls leaf/flower/fruit abcission
3. Hastens fruit ripening

41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS Transgenic tomatoes can be ripened by the addition of what hormone?
Ethylene
41 - PLANT SENSORY SYSTEMS 5 functions of ABSCISIC ACID
1. Induces dormant winter bud formation
2. Inhibits bud growth/elongation
3. Promotes senescence
4. Promotes seed dormancy
5. Regulates stoma opening/closure



42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION What are the 7 stages of the angiosperm life cycle and is each one haploid or diploid?
1. Gametes produced (n)
2. Fertilization (2n)
3. Embryo development (2n)
4. Seed and fruit maturation (2n)
5. Seed dispersal and germination (2n)
6. Plant body development (2n)
7. Maturation and flowering (2n)





42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION A COMPLETE flower contains what 4 whorls (structures)?
1. Calyx
2. Corolla
3. (male) Androecium
4. (female) Gynoecium


42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION INCOMPLETE flowers lack 1 or more of what 4 whorls (structures)?
1. Calyx
2. Corolla
3. (male) Androecium
4. (female) Gynoecium


42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION ANDROECIUM
All stamens
42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION GYNOECIUM
All carpels
42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION COROLLA
All petals
42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION CALYX
All sepals
42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION What are the 2 parts of a stamen?
1. Anther
2. Filament
42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION What are the 3 parts of a carpel?
1. Stigma
2. Style
3. Ovary (w/ovule)

42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION POLLEN GRAIN
Male gametophyte
42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION EMBRYO SAC WITH HAPLOID NUCLEIC
Female gametophyte
42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION Angiosperms have __ sporophytes and __ gametophytes. [n]
Diploid (2n), haploid (n)
42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION In what 2 ways is plant reproduction generally different from animal reproduction?
1. Monoecious
2. Reproductive structures are not permanent
42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION POLLINATION
When pollen reaches the stigma
42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION What are the 4 pollination strategies of plants?
1. Self-pollination
2. Cross-pollination/Outcrossing
3. Pollinator attraction
4. Pollinator coevolution


42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION What are 3 ways a plant can attract a pollinator?
1. Nectar
2. Fragrance
3. Colors

42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION What are the 2 features of flowers attractive to insect pollinators?
1. Yellow color
2. UV designs (bullseye, landing strip)
42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION What feature makes a flower attractive to butterflies?
Flat landing platform
42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION What 2 features make a flower attractive to moths?
1. White/pale
2. Heavily scented
42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION What feature makes a flower attractive to flies?
Scent like rotting meat
42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION What color is a flower that attracts animal pollinators?
Red
42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION Is a red flower obvious or inconspicuous to insects?
Inconspicuous
42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION Monkeys are attracted to fruits of what 2 colors?
1. Orange
2. Yellow
42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION How do flowers attract bats and small rodent pollinators?
Species-specific signals
42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION What are the 5 characteristics of plants that utilize wind pollination?
1. Small, green, odorless flowers
2. Reduced/absent corollas
3. Flowers grouped in pendants/tassels
4. Dioecious
5. Large pollen output



42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION Wind pollination greatly promotes what?
Outcrossing
42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION What do the flowers of self-pollinating plants look like?
Small, inconspicuous
42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION Why is self-pollination favored in stable environments?
1. No need for pollinators
2. Uniform offspring best adapted to environment
42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION What are 3 pollination strategies that promote outcrossing?
1. Separation of male/female structures in space
2. Separation of male/female structures in time (dichogamy)
3. Self-incompatibility

42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION DICHOGAMY
Stamens and pistils reach maturity at different times
42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION What are the 2 types of self-incompatibility?
1. Gametophytic (block occurs after pollen tube germination)
2. Sporophytic (pollen tube does not germinate)
42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION Gametophytic self-incompatibility is determined by what genotype?
Haploid pollen genotype
42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION Sporophytic self-incompatibility is determined by what genotype?
Diploid pollen parent genotype
42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION DOUBLE-FERTILIZATION
When 2 sperm enter the ovary, 1 fusing with the egg to form a 2n zygote, the other forming with 2 polar nuclei to form a 3n endosperm
42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION Double-fertilization is unique to what group of plants?
Angiosperms
42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION What are the 7 steps of double-fertilization?
1. Pollen lands on stigma
2. Pollen forms pollen tube that pierces the style
3. Pollen forms 2 sperm cells
4. Pollen tube grows and enters one of the synergids
5. Both sperm cells travel down pollen tube
6. One sperm cell fuses with the egg to form a 2n zygote
7. One sperm cell fuses with two polar nuclei to form a 3n endosperm





42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION What are the 3 forms of asexual reproduction in plants?
1. Adventitious stems
2. Suckers
3. Modified leaves

42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION What are 2 types of adventitious stems used in asexual plant reproduction?
1. Runners/Stolons
2. Rhizomes
42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION Is asexual reproduction by plants common in stable or harsh environments?
Harsh
42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION TRUE/FALSE: Herbaceous plants live longer than woody plants.
FALSE
42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION How long can a bristlecone pine live?
4000+ years
42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION PERRENIAL
Indefinite number of growing seasons, herbaceous or woody plants
42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION DECIDUOUS
Perrennial plant with yearly leaf fall
42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION EVERGREEN
Perennial plant with leaves falling throughout the year
42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION ANNUAL
One-year growing season, herbaceous plants
42 - PLANT REPRODUCTION BIENNIAL
Two-year growing season, 1st year - energy storage, 2nd year - flowering

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