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Glossary of EDUC226 CHTR 1-6

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Name and describe the 5 types of guided reading?
INDEPENDENT READING
BUDDY READING
GUIDED READING
SHARED READING
READ ALOUD READING



What are the components of a balanced literacy?
READING
PHONICS+OTHER LIT SKILLS
READING+WRITING STRATEGIES
VOCABULARY
COMPREHENSION
LITERATURE
CONTENT-AREA STUDY
ORAL LANGUAGE
WRITING
SPELLING








WHAT IS THE SMALLEST UNIT OF SOUND?
PHONEME
HOW DO READERS CONSTRUCT MEANING?
READERS CONSTRUCT MEANING USING A COMBINATION OF TEXT-BASED INFORMATION (INFORMATION FROM THE TEXT) AND READER-BASED INFORMATION (INFORMATION FROM STUDENTS' BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE)
WHAT IS THE WRITTEN REPRESENTATION OF A PHONEME USING ONE OR MORE LETTERS?
A GRAPHEME
WHICH OF THE FOUR CUEING SYSTEMS DEALS WITH THE SOCIAL ASPECT OF LANGUAGE USE?
THE PRAGMATIC SYSTEM
WHAT ARE THE COMMERCIALLY PRODUCED READING PROGRAMS THAT ARE ALIGNED WITH GRADE LEVEL STANDARDS?
BASAL READING PROGRAMS
WHICH INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM ALLOWS STUDENTS TO CHOOSE BOOKS THEN READ AND RESPOND TO THEM INDEPENDENTLY?
READING AND WRITING WORKSHOP
WHICH INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM HAS STUDENTS ALL READING THE SAME LEVEL BOOK AND USUALLY HAS STUDENTS CREATE PROJECTS WHEN DONE?
LITERATURE FOCUS UNITS
HOW DOES A TEACHER USE "BOOK TALKS" BEFORE STARTING LITERATURE CIRCLES?
IN LITERATURE CIRCLES, TEACHERS USE BOOK TALKS TO INTRODUCE THE BOOKS THE STUDENTS MAY CHOOSE FROM TO READ.
WHAT IS ONE STRENGTH AND ONE WEAKNESS OF EACH OF THE INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS
BASAL: +students read selections at grade level. -selections may be too difficult for some.
LITERATURE FOCUS UNITS: +students develop projects to extend reading. -all students read same book, irregardless if it's appropriate reading level.
LITERATURE CIRCLES: +students choose the books they read. -teachers often feel loss of control because students reading different books.
READING + WRITING WORKSHOP: . +activities are student directed and students work at their own pace. -to be successful, students must learn to be task oriented and to use time wisely.


Which of the cueing systems focuses on the meaning system of english and if applied would use dictionaries or thesaurus?
Semantic system
Which learning theory challenges students to confront social injustices and inequities in society?
SOCIOLINGGUISTICS
Which learning theory recommends integrating reading and writing and uses building graphic organizers as an application of learning.
Cognative-Information Processing
What is scaffolding and how can it be used to assist students in reading and writing?
Scaffolding is a support mechanism that teachers use as they teach. For example, when teachers assist students in reading a book they couldn't read independently, they are scaffolding.
Be able to write about how parents and home-literacy connections can be made.
Encourage parents to read aloud, keep a family journal, have family reading/writing nights, explore online programs together, have a family book club; encourage families to talk about the book together. Encourage parental collaboration.
At which stage of reading would students write in reading logs or participate in discussion?
Stage 3: RESPONDING
Which stage in the reading process uses examining the author's craft and rereading the selection?
STAGE 4: EXPLORING
What are the strengths and limitations of guided reading?
+Teacher teaches reading strategies and skills/teacher provides scaffolding/teacher monitors student's reading.
-Multiple copies of texts at the appropriate reading level needed. Teacher controls the reading experience.
Name the 5 stages of the Writing Process.
PRE-WRITING
DRAFTING
REVISING
EDITING
PUBLISHING



Name and describe 2 qualities of good writing.
IDEAS
ORGANIZATION
VOICE
WORD CHOICE
SENTENCE FLUENCY
MECHANICS




Why is it important for students to prewrite?
Pre-writing is the "getting ready to write" stage. It's talking, reading, brainstorming.
What is the focus of the drafting stage?
Students get their ideas down on paper and write a first draft of their compositions in this stage.
What are some strengths of reading aloud to students?
Students have access to books they can't read themselves. Teacher models fluent reading and reading strategies.
Name one genre of writing and the purpose of teaching that genre.
Descriptive Writing: Students observe carefully and choose precise language. They take notice of sensory details and create comparisons. (metaphors and similes) to make their writing more powerful.
What is an example of a student directed assessment tool?
choral readings, reading logs, graphic organizers.
Name 2 benefits of portfolio assessments?
Students feel ownership of their work.
Students become more responsible for their work.
Students make connections between learning and assessing.

What reading level is a student at if they are reading between 90-94%.
INSTRUCTIONAL READING LEVEL.
AT WHICH READING LEVEL CAN A STUDENT READ BOOKS AND UNDERSTAND WITH SUPPORT?
INSTRUCTIONAL READING LEVEL
What are the 3 reading levels that take into account student's ability to recognize words automatically, read fluently and comprehend.
INDEPENDENT
INSTRUCTIONAL
FRUSTRATION

Teacher's categorize miscues during Running Records to examine what word identification strategies students are using. The teacher codes the miscues as M, S, V. What do the letters M,S,V stand for?
MEANING
VISUAL
SYNTAX


What is it called when a teacher calculates the percentage of words the student reads correctly and analyzes the miscues or errors.
RUNNING RECORD
Why do teachers use running records and informal reading inventories?
To assess a students ability in word identification and reading fluency.
In which stage of reading do children develop book handling skills and acquire concepts about print?
BEGINNING
In which stage do readers recognize hundreds of words automatically and read with expression and fluency?
FLUENT
Why do teachers use shared reading?
Teachers use shared reading to read aloud books that are appropriate for children"s interest level but too difficult for them to read for themselves.
What can teachers use to assess children's concepts about print?
Teacher's use Marie Clay's Concepts About Print (CAP) Test to assess young children's understanding of these written language concepts.
What is Interactive Writing?
In Interactive Writing, children and the teacher create a text together and "share the pen" as hey write the text on chart paper. Afterwards, children read and reread the text together with classmate4s.
At which stage of spelling development do students learn how to make letters?
EMERGENT SPELLING
Name some Phonemic Awareness strategies.
IDENTIFYING SOUNDS IN WORDS
CATEGORIZING SOUNDS IN WORDS
SUBSTITUTING SOUNDS TO MAKE NEW WORDS
BLENDING SOUNDS TO FORM WORDS
SEGMENTING A WORD INTO SOUNDS



What are the stages of spelling development?
STAGE 1: EMERGENT SPELLING
STAGE 2: LETTER NAME-ALPHABETIC SPELLING
STAGE 3: WITHIN-WORD SPELLING
STAGE 4: SYLLABLES AND AFFIXES SPELLING
STAGE 5: DERIVATIONAL RELATIONS SPELLING



What has been found to be the most powerful predictor of later reading achievement?
THE TWO BEST PREDICTORS OF EARLY READING SUCCESS ARE ALPHABET RECOGNITION AND PHONEMIC AWARENESS.
What concept provides the foundation for phonics and spelling?
PHONEMIC AWARENESS
Describe a "word wall" and what it is used for?
One type features "important" words from books students are reading or thematic units.
2nd type displays high-frequency words.
How is spelling best learned?
SPELLING IS BEST LEARNED THROUGH READING AND WRITING.
What is the difference between phonics and phonemic awareness?
PHONEMIC AWARENESS is children's basic understanding that speech is composed of a series of individual sounds, and it provides the foundation for phonics and spelling.
PHONICS is the set of relationships between phonology (the sounds in speech) and orthography (the spelling patterns of written language)
What is the name of an activity that uses sound segmentation with boxes and discs to teach phonemic awareness?
ELKONIN BOXES
When teaching high frequency words, how should teachers introduce the words?
Teachers should choose words that students are familiar with and use in conversation but can't read or write.
Name the 4 word identification strategies.
PHONIC ANALYSIS
DECODING BY ANALOGY
SYLLABIC ANALYSIS
MORPHEMIC ANALYSIS


HOW ARE FLUENCY AND COMPREHENSION CONNECTED?
FLUENCY IS THE ABILITY TO READ EFFICINCENTLY AND IT'S A BRIDGE TO COMPREHENSION. FLUENT READERS ARE BETTER ABLE TO COMPREHEND WHAT THEY READ BECAUSE THEY AUTOMATICALLY RECOGNIZE MOST WORDS AND CAN APPLY WORD IDENTIFICATION
What 3 components are included in fluency.
ACCURACY
READING SPEED
PROSODY (THE ABILITY TO ORALLY READ SENTENCES EXPRESSIVELY, WITH APPROPRIATE PHRASING AND INTONATION.

Describe one method for developing writing fluency.
QUICKWRITING: STUDENTS WRITE RAPIDLY AND WITHOUT STOPPING AS THEY EXPLORE AN IDEA.
What explanation given for why some students are dysfluent readers
THESE STUDENTS REGULARLY READ BOOKS THAT ARE TOO DIFFICULT.2ND:THEY DO VERY LITTLE ACTUAL READING.

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