Glossary of EAWS - Common Core - HSC3 - 2006

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First Aid Fundamentals:
State the three objectives of first aid.
1.) Save Life
2.) Prevent Further injury
3.) Prevent infection
First Aid Fundamentals:
State the methods of controlling bleeding.
1.) Direct Pressure
2.) Elevation
3.) Pressure points
4.) "As a last resort" Tourniquet
First Aid Fundamentals:
Identify an example of a preasure point.
1.) Superficial temporal artery - temple
2.) Facial artery - jaw
3.) Common carotid artery - neck
4.) Subclavian artery - collar bone
5.) Brachial artery - inner upper arm
6.) Brachial artery - inner elbow
7.) Radial/Ulnar artery - wrist
8.) Femoral artery - upper thigh
9.) Iliac artery - groin
10.) Popliteal artery - knee
11.) Anterior/posterior tibial artery - ankle
First Aid Fundamentals:
Describe the symptoms and treatment for shock.
Shock is a disruption of the circulatory system. Symptoms include vacant or lackluster eyes, shallow or irregular breathing, cold pale skin, nausea, and weak or absent pulse. Individuals usually faint do to the poor supply of exoygen to the brain. Treatment is to lay the victim down with the feet elevated 6-12 inches. Cover the to maintain body heat. Reassure and calm the vistim, if conscious.
First Aid Fundamentals:
Descrive the three classifications of burns.
First degree - mildest, producing redness, increased warmth, tenderness and mild pain.
Second degree - red and blistered skin; severe pain.
Third degree - destroyed tissue, skin and bone in severe cases. Severe pain may be absent due to nerve endings being destroyed.
First Aid Fundamentals:
State the symptoms and treatment for the following heat related injuries.
Heat exhaustion
Heat exhaustion: In heat exhaustion, there is a serious disturbance of blood flow to the brain, heart and lungs. The skin is cool, moist, and clammy and the pupils dilated and normal or subnormal body temerature. Usually the victim is sweating profusely. Treatment: Move the victim to a cool or air conditioned area; loosen clothing; apply cool wet cloths to the head, groin, and ankles; fan the victim; do not allow the victim to become chilled; if the victim is conscious, give a solution of one teaspoon salt dissolved in a liter of cool water and transport to a medical facility.
First Aid Fundamentals:
State the symptoms and treatment for the following heat related injuries.
Heat stroke
Heat stroke: a very serious condition caused by a breakdown of the sweating mechanism of the body. The victim is unable to eleminate excessive body heat build up. Symptoms may include hot and or dry skin, uneven pupil dilation and a weak rapid pulse. Treatment: reduce the heat immediately by dousing the body with cold water. Apply wet, cold towels to the ody and move the victim to the coolest possible place. Maintain an open airway. Place the victim on his/her back with shoulders raised slightly. Place cold packs or towels around the victim's shoulders and neck. Place an additonal cold packs on the ankles and groin area. Use a fan if available. A cold water bath is very helpful.
First Aid Fundamentals:
State the difference between an "open" and "closed" fracture.
A closed or simple fracture is one, which is internal, that is, the bone is broken but there is no break in the skin. An open or compound fracture is one in which there is an open wound in the tissue or skin. The bone may be protruding thru the skin.
First Aid Fundamentals:
State the following as applied to electric shock.
Personnel rescue: The rescue of a person who has received an electric shock is likely to be difficult and dangerous. Extreme caution must be used, or the rescuer may also be electrocuted. You must not touch the victims body, wire, or any other object that may be conducting electricity. Look for the switch, first, and turn off the current immediately. If you cannot find the switch, try to remove the wire from the victim with a dry broom, handle, branch, pole, oar, board or other non-conducting object. It may be possible to use a dry rope or dry clothing to pull the wire away from the victim.

Treatment: Administer artifical ventilation immediately after freeing the person from the wire if the electric shock casued breating to stop. Check the pulse since electric shock may cause the heart to stop. if you feel no pulse, start CPR immediately. Get the victim to a medical facility imeddiately.
First Aid Fundamentals:
Describe he methods for clearing an obstructed airway.
Your first action upon encountering a victim with this problem is to clear the mouth of any food particles, foreign objects, or loose dentures. If not effective use one of the following methods:

It is recommended 4 thrusts by the American Heart Association and 5 recommended by the American Red cross.
First Aid Fundamentals:
Describe the effects of the following cold weather injuries.
Hypothermia: A general cooling of the whole body caused by exposure to low or rapidly falling temperature, cold moisture, snow or ice. The victim may appear pale and unconscious, and may even be taken for dead. Breathing is slow and shallow, pulse faint or even undetectable. The body tissues feel semi-rigid, and the arms and legs may feel stiff. First aid consists of bringing the body temperature to normal. The patient should be wrapped in warm blankets in a warm room. Do not give him hot drinks or other stimulants until he has regained consciousness. Get medical attention immediately.
First Aid Fundamentals:
Describe Superficial frostbite and Deep frostbite.
Superficial frostbite: Ice crystals forming in the upper skin layers after exposure to a temperature of 32 degrees or lower.

Deep frostbite: ice crystals forming in the deeper tissues after exposure to a temperature of 32 degrees or lower. Treatment is to get the victim indoors, rewarn the area by placing them in warm water or with hot water bottles. Other methods include placing them under the armpits, against the abdomen, or between the legs of a friend. Never rub the frostbite area. Seek medical attention immediately.

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