Glossary of Digestive System - Class Notes
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- Three sections of small intestine
- 4 layers of intestine
- Serosa (outside, thin layer)
Tunica muscularis (smooth muscle)
Mucosa (Houses specialized epithelial cells)
- Monosacrides (carbohydrates) that can be absorbed by the gut.
- What is leptin and what does it do?
- Hormone secreted by fat cells.
Decrease food intake
Increase energy expenditure:
Increase O2 consumption
- What two sugars comprise Lactose?
- Glucose and galactose
- Propulsion through the digestive system is also called ____
- Effect of distention in
- Lower: Vigorous contraction
Upper: relaxation of resevoir
- What activates pepsinogen? What does it become after activation?
Pepsin itself (autocatalytic)
- What are the three activator receptors on a parietal cell?
- acetycholine (Nervous system)
- 3 phases of gastric function
- cephalic phase
- What hormone is secreted by the gut when acidic chyme is detected? What is the effect of this hormone on the stomach?
Slows down the digestion in the stomach.
- What enzymes are secreted by the pancreas which digest protein?
- chymotrypsinogen => chymotrypsin when activated
trypsinogin => trypsin when activated
- What enzyme is secreted by the pancreas to convert starch to maltose?
- What class of enzymes is released by the pancreas to digest protein. What are two members of this class?
- What activates the pancreas to secret HCO3-?
To secret enyzmes?
- What activates trypsinogen?
- The brush boarder enzyme enterokinease
- Give the steps for digesting lactose
- Brush boarder enzyme lactaid breaks lactose into free glucose and galactose molecules. Na+ and then Glucose binds to Na+ dependent hextose transporter. Glucose transported into cell. Transporter flips back and galactose is transported into cell in the same manner.
- Four Pregastric "processes"
- Prehension - Food intake
Mastication - Chewing. Fracture into
smaller pieces so enzymes can attack.
Salivation - Lubrication, Solubilize
- What are two ways to reduce the production of stomach acid? They involve a___ of h____ and elimination of P___ P____.
- Antagonists for Histamine.
Elimation of proton pump.
- If the gut looses its lactaid brush boarder enzyme, what will be the result when lactose is ingested?
- The lactose will result in a high os molarity in the gut and water will diffuse into the gut => diarrhea.
- The folds in the gut consist of the v___ and the c___
- villus, crypt
- Method for removing Na+ from an epithelial cell of the gut
- Na+/K+ ATPases (pumps) in the basolateral surface. Na+ is pumped into the region between two cells. It then moves to a nearby blood vessel.
- Hepatocytes secrete B___ into the B____
- Bile consists of
- H2O, Na+Cl-, HCO3-,
cholesterol, bile salts,
bilribubin (bile pigment)
- Show the two chief components of bile acids and indicate which part is hydrophobic, lipohillic, etc.
cholesterol amino acid
- Two types of motion in the gut
- peristalsis - propulsive
segmentation contractions - mixing
- What enzyme digests triglcerides? What are the resultant molecules?
monoclyceride + 2 fatty acids
- What hormone is secreted by the gut when fat and proteins are detected? What is the effect on the stomach? On the pancreas? On the gallbladder?
- CCK (cholecystokinin)
Slows down the action in the stomach.
Stimulates pancreas to secrete enzymes into the gut.
Stimulates the gall bladder to contract and release bile to the gut.
- ___ from the ____ breaks a glob of trigylceride into small droplets. ___ from ____ digests these droplets into monoglyceride plus two free fatty acids.
- Bile Salts, Liver
- Give the steps for digesting and absorbing starch
- 1) Amylase from pancreas breaks starch into maltose.
2) Maltase (brush boader enzyme) breaks maltase into glucose and glucose
3) Na+ binds to Na+ dependent hexose transporter...opens glucose receptor
4) Glucose binds
5) molecule flips (Na+, G inside cell)
6) Na+ falls off
7) Glucose falls off
8) Molecule flips back to face lumen of gut.
- Four main types of cells in the gastric pit of the stomach and what they secrete. Also give the order in which they are found in the pit - top to bottom.
- Mucus cell - mucus
Parietal cell - HCL (and intrinsic factor)
Chief cell - Pepsinogen
G cell - Gastrin (stimulates parietal cell)
- Where are mature absorptive cells found in the gut? How often do epithelial cells slough off and get replaced?
Where are stem cells found?
- Top portion of the villa.
Every few days
Bottom of the crypt.
- Effect of distention of gut - due to entrance of chyme - on the stomach. What mechanism is used to deliver the message to the stomach?
- Slow down signal sent to gut by the enteric nervous system when distention is sensed in the gut.
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