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Glossary of David M. Buss Ch. 12

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Although Jane has no children of her own, she is actively involved in helping to raise her nieces and nephews. What would an evolutionary psychologist say about Jane?
Jane is increasing her inclusive fitness.
Evolutionary psychologists disagree with social biologists on which major assumption?
Our primary goal in life is to perpetuate our genes into the next generation.
What is the difference between Evolutionary Psychology and Sociobiology?
Sociobiologists believe that the major goal in life is to perpetuate copies of our genes into next generation.
Evol. Psychologits believe that adaptive behaviors are evolved because they solve specific problems, not because they perpetuate genes.
Struggle for Existence
Acc. to Darwin, this occurs when living organisms produce more offspring than environmental resources can support.
Survival of the Fittest
Refers to the fact that only those members of a species who are the best adapted to their environment survive and reproduce.
Xenophobia
Fear of strangers or of people who are different from us. Evolutionarily adaptive.
Spandrels
Unexpected byproducts or side effects of an adaptation.
Strategy
An evolved, multifaceted solution to a recurring adaptive problem, also called a Mechanism Circuit
Strategic Interference
Acc. to Buss, this occurs when a person employs a particular strategy to achieve a goal and another person interferes with successful enactment of that strategy.
Cheating
Occurs in an altruistic system when one accepts help from another but does not reciprocate or when one accepts more help than one gives
Adaptation
Any physiological structure, trait, or behavioral pattern that facilitates survival and reproduction.
Altruism
Behavior that risks resources of the actor in order to benefit a recipient. (Helping others w/no benefit to self)
Love
Acc. to Buss, an irrational but necessary emotion that evolved to maintain long-term mating relationships.
Social Science Model
As a theory of human nature, claims that experience, rather than innate factors, shapes the mind and its characteristics.
Error Management Theory
A proposal that humans are predisposed to make those types of errors for which costs are minimized.
Empirical Theory
As a theory of human nature, claims that the mind is blank at birth (tabula rasa). without inherited dispositions, experience, rather than innate factors, shapes the mind and its characteristics.
Panadaptationism
Attribution of all contemporary beliefs to evolved adaptations.
Phobias
Defined by Buss as fears that are wildly out of proportion to the realistic danger.
-typically beyond voluntary control
-lead to avoidance of the feared situation.

Evolutionary Psychology
Uses Darwinian and neo-Darwinian evolutionary psychology principles to generate hypotheses and explanations of psychological phenomena.
Naturalistic Fallacy
Mistaken belief that what naturally "is" is also what "ought" to be.
Self-Promotion
Attempting to attract a mate by displaying or exaggerating the characteristics desired by that mate.
Sex Differences
Differences between males and females attributed to biological rather than social factors.
Inclusive Fitness
Evolutionary fitness can be increased by
-reproducing
-by contributing to the fitness of those with whom we share genes
-or both.


Jealousy
The emotion experienced by
-males when they know, or suspect that their mate is sexually unfaithful
-females when they know or suspect that the resourced provided to her and her offspring by her mate are threatened by a rival.

Coolidge Effect
In most male mammals, a reduction or elimination of the post-ejaculatory refractory period when a novel female is introduced.
Fitness
Acc. to Darwin, the ability to produce viable offspring.
Kin Selection/Kin Altruism
Helping behavior extended to those to whom we are genetically related.
Competitor Derogation
A mating tactic in which one provides negative information about a rival.
Cost-benefit Analysis
In evol. psych, an intuitive or unconscious evaluation of the trade-off btwn costs of a behavior and the benefits that the behavior might accrue.
Effective Polygyny
Increased reproductive variability observed in males, rather than females fo a species.
(males can reproduce many more times than a female bc females carry offspring, etc)
Context Failure
Activation of an evolved mechanism or strategy by inappropriate stimuli or in an inappropriate context.
Includes:
-Suicide
-Murder
-Homicide within Families



Nomological Network
In development of a psychological construct, a relationship btwn
1. the theoretical framework for the construct
2. an empirical framework for how the construct is measured
3. empirical relationships btwn these two frameworks.


What is selected by Natural Selection?
Cosmides & Tooby (1997)
-Brain Circuitry (controls our behavior) influenced by evol processes at the neural level.
-Neural circuits that solve specific adaptive problems

Empirical Theory of Human Nature
TABULA RASA
Evolutionary Psychology of Human Nature
-Reject Tabula Rasa
-Nature or Nurture is a false dichotomy
-Although cultures differ widely, they demonstrate the existence of cultural universals.

Seeking Mates
Everyone wants a mate who is
-kind
-loving
-understanding
-intelligent



Long-Term Mating Strategies
(Women seeking Men)
Women prefer men who
-possess resources
-are slightly older than themselves
-are strong and possess a tall, athletic build
-display affection toward children



Long-term Mating strategies
(Men seeking Women)
Men prefer women who:
-are 18/5 years of age
-are attractive (WHR .67-80)
-show signs of fidelity




Long-term Mating Strategies
(Females attracting males)
Self-Promotion
-Make up and cosmetic surgery enhance youthful appearance
-Play "hard-to-get" to show that not promiscuous.
Competitor Derogation
-Point out competitors flaws and smear their reputation



Short-Term Mating Strategies
(Women seeking men)
Women prefer men who:
-are physically attractive
-are physically attractive to other women

Short-term Mating Strategies
(men seeking women)
Men prefer women who:
-consent to sex after a short period of time
-lack aversive characteristics such a low sex drive, physical unattractiveness, need for commitment and hairiness.

Short-term Mating Strategies
(Females attracting males)
Self-promotion
-wear sexy clothes
-make sexual advances
Competitor Derogation
-identify competitors as teases, STDs, gay/bi, frigid or rarely showering.



Short-term Mating strategies
(Males attracting females)
Self-promotion
-Brag about income, career, athleticism.
Competitor Derogation
-Identify competitors as gay/bi, STDs, or already in a committed relationship


Love vs. Jealousy
Love-helps to bind couples together through sickness, health, rich, poor, etc.

Jealousy- an evolutionary adaptation that helps to protect long term relationships.

Signal Detection Theory
Analyzes biases that affect performance on discrimination tasks.
-Strength of signal
-Consequences of making a mistake.

Error Management Theory
as applied to Mating strategies
Men are jealous and intolerant of sexual infidelity.
Women are jealous and intolerant of emotional infidelity.
We most likely act (help) for:
1. ourselves
2. our children and immediate family
3. more distant relatives
4. non-relatives


Dysfunctional Behavior
Occurs because evolved psychological mechanisms fail to activate appropriately.
Suicide
Cost-benefit analysis
-"I am a burden, financially etc. taking care of me takes away from them."
Theoretically
-women more than men because women run out of eggs but men always fertile.


Strategic Interference as applied to mating strategy
Evolutionary conflict
ex/male seeking short term mate attracted to a female who wants long-term commitment.
Deception
Men seeking short-term mates employ deceptive tactics to attract women who are seeking long-term mates.
Women deceive men about sexual availability.
Evolutionary mechanisms to detect deception because it is costly to fall for deception.

Anxiety Disorders
-Prepared Learning
-alternative behavioral explanation


Criticisms of Evolutionary Psychology
-NOT falsifiable
-Engages in adaptation
-Nomological
-Legitimizes the status quo (ex/commits naturalistic fallacy)
-Accepts a rigid biological determinism
-Is Racist
-Is Sexist





Adaptationism
If a structure or behavioral tendency exists now, it must have been conducive to survival.

Why is Adaptationism a criticized component of Evolutionary Psychology?
1. Factors other than adaptation cause evolutionary change (ex/genetic drift/mutation).
2. A trait is not necessarily adaptive today if it was in the past.
3. Exaptations-a characteristic may have evolved for a specific reason in the past but is used in totally different ways today.

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