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Glossary of Culinary Test 2

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Created by eht

Emulsion
Stable distribution of droplets of one liquid in another liquid with which it normally does not mix.

To create a stable lasting emulsion, an emulsifying agent is required

Emulsifying Agent
An ingredient which holds two liquids together in an emulsion, which would normally separate.

Egg Yolk is the most common.

1 Egg yolk's emulsifying capability in a Cold Emulsion
150-200ml (5-7 oz.)
1 Egg yolk's emulsifying capability in a Warm Emulsion
100-150ml
Egg yolk's two properties which enable it to emulsify
1. Lipophilic- Affinity to fats
2. Hydrophilic- Affinity to water

Enable egg yolks o bind oil/fat based liquids to water based liquids


Warm Emulsified Sauce Procedure
1. Clarify butter
2. Whisk and cook sabayon (egg yolks, flavoring elements, and often water) over hot water bath
3. Remove from heat, slowly add warm butter while stirring with a whisk (if too thick add warm water)
4. Season, adjust acidity
5. Hold at 120˚F



Warm Emulsified Sauces
Hollandaise (and derivatives)
Bearnaise (and derivatives)
Sauce Hollandaise
Warm emulsified sauce containing
Sabayon of:
• egg yolks
• water
• lemon juice
Emulsified with:
• clarified butter
Seasoned with:
• salt
• cayenne pepper








Sauce Béarnaise
Warm emulsified sauce containing
Reduction of:
• w. wine/r. wine vinegar
• shallots, ciseler
• mignonette (crushed peppercorns)
• dried tarragon
• water
Sabayon of:
• reduction
• egg yolk
• water
Emulsified with:
• clarified butter
Seasoned with:
• tarragon
• chervil
• salt & pepper















Hollandaise Derivatives
Mousseline (3/4 Hollandaise, 1/4 Whipped Cream)

Moutarde (Hollandaise & Mustard)

Maltaise (Hollandaise, Orange Juice, Blanched Orange Zest)

Mikado (Hollandaise, Mandarin Orange Juice, Blanched Mandarin Orange Zest)





Mousseline
Hollandaise derivative.
Contains:
•3/4 Hollandaise
•1/4 Whipped Cream


Moutarde
Hollandaise Derivative.
Contains:
•Hollandaise
•Mustard


Maltaise
Hollandaise Derivative.
Contains:
•Hollandaise
•Orange Juice
•Blanched Orange Zest



Mikado
Hollandaise Derivative
Contains:
• Hollandaise
• Mandarin Orange Juice
• Blanced Mandarin Orange Zezt



Béarnaise Derivatives
Mnemonic Device: T. P. V/F. C. Tomatoes Plug Very Fine Chinois

Tyrolienne (Replace Clarified Butter with oil in Béarnaise)
Paloise (Replace Tarragon with Mint)
Valois/Foyot (Béarnaise & Meat Glaze)
Charon (Béarnaise & Tomatoes Concassée)




Tyrolienne
Béarnaise Derivative.
Replace clarified butter with oil.
Paloise
Béarnaise Derivative.
Replace tarragon with mint
Valoise/ Foyot
Béarnaise Derivative.
Béarnaise + Meat Glaze
Charon
Béarnaise derivative. Béarnaise with tomato concassée
Beurre Blanc
• Shallots, ciceler
• W. Wine Vinegar
• W. Wine
Reduced to a glaze

Monter à Beurre (whisk in cold butter cubes a little at a time)

Season with salt and pepper






Cold Emulsified Sauce
Mayonnaise and its derivatives

• Egg Yolks
• Mustard
• Vinegar/ Lemon Juice
• Salt
• Pepper

Emulsified with

•Oil









Mayonnaise Derivatives
Mnemonic Devise: R(eally) V(aluable) G(old) CAROT

Rémoulade (Mayo with Mustard, Capers, Minced Cornichons, Chervil, Tarragon, Parsley, & Anchovy essence)
Verte (Mayo with Green Herbs or Chlorophyll)
Gribiche (Hard-boiled egg yolks, Mustard, Chopped cornichons, Capers, Parsley, Chervil, Tarragon, Oil, Vinegar, & Julienned Egg White)
Chantilly (2/3 Mayo, 1/3 Whipped Cream)
Aïoli (Olive Oil, Egg yolk, Garlic, & Sometimes Saffron)
Rouille (White Bread/Cooked Potato, Garlic, Red Pepper (paprika), Saffron)
Andalouse (Mayonnaise, Tomato Coulis, Diced Peppers)
Tartar (Hard-Boiled Egg Yolks, Oil, Vinegar, Purée of Scallion or Chives








Types of Salad
1. Salades Simples (Simple Salads)
2. Salades Mixtes (Mixed Salads)
3. Salades Composée (Composed Salads)

Salades Simples
Simple Salads:
One main ingredient dressed.
e.g. Salade Digestive

Salades Mixtes
Mixed Salads:
A mixture of several ingredients, mixed and seasoned together
Salades Composées
Composed Salads:
Several Ingredients seasoned separately and served on a plate together

e.g. Salade Niçoise


Vinaigrette
classicly composed of:
Oil
Vinegar/Lemon Juice (or other acid)
Salt
Pepper

3-4 parts Oil : 1 part Vinegar

Optional:
Mustard
Chopped Herbs
Garlic/Shallots

•All flavoring ingredients shuld be added to vinegar before adding oil•












Salade Niçoise
Salade Composée

•New Potatoes
•Hard-Boiled Eggs
•Tomatoes
•Haricots Verts
•Bell Peppers
•Lettuce
•Tuna
•Anchovy Fillets
•Parsley or Chervil
•Niçoise Olives, Pitted
•Vinaigrette











Tournage/ Tourner
Turn; Cut vegetables into faceted oval shapes of specific demensions
Bouquetière
3cm long tournage
Cocotte
5 cm long tournage
Vapeur
6cm long tournage
Château
7.5cm long tournage
Fondante
8-9cm long tournage
Glacer
Glazing:
Similar to à l'étuvée, but not necessarily cooked à la minute and contains more water.

Vegetables are cooked in a sautoir with a pinch of salt, a pinch or sugar, water, and butter with a parchment paper lid with a cheminer until the vegetables are tender and the liquid sugar and salt has made a glaze. At the end of cooking, the parchment lid is removed and the vegetables are brought to the correct level of color.
Levels:
•Galcer à Blanc (no Color)
•Glacer à Blond (some color)
•Glacer à Brun (caramelized)








Rissoler (potatoes)
3-step method of cooking potatoes:
1. Blanch without salt (Air-dry)
2. Sauté
3. Roast

place peeled and shaped potatoes in a pot. Just cover with water. Bring to Boil. Drain immediately (do not shock). Let AIR DRY.
Heat oil in pan just large enough to fit potatoes in one layer. Add potatoes to very hot oil over high heat. Sauté quickly. When potaotes are almost cooked and are golden brown drain.
At service, add butter to pan toss and cook in 400˚ oven. Season while hot.






Three Methods of Deep-Frying Potatoes
One-Step
Two-Step
Three-Step

1-Step Frying
Potatoes are fried in one step at one temperature (generally 350˚)

e.g. Cheveux, Pailles, Gaufrettes, chips.

Dessecher
Dry out
Oil Smoke Points
Peanut Oil 450˚F

Canola Oil 435˚F

Sesame Oil 410˚F
Corn Oil 410˚F
Pure Olive Oil 410˚F

Sunflower Oil 390˚F

E.V.O.O. 250˚F
Unrefined Corn Oil 250˚F










Olive Oil
•Graded by level of acidity.
•Oleic acid content indicates degree to which fat has broken down into fatty acids.
•% of fatty acids determins smoke point.

E.V.O.O.
• 1st cold-pressed
• High-quality olives
• Acidity less that 1%
• S.P.=250˚F
Virgin Olive Oil
• Acidity of 3% or less
Pure Olive Oil
• 2nd or 3rd-press
• Acidity of 3-4%
• Up to 10% Virgin Olive Oil added
• Longer shelf life/ Less flavor
• S.P.= 410˚F















Vinegar
Vinaigre (Vin=wine Aigre=sour)
• Natural acid fermentation occurs in wine and other alcoholic liquids
• 1st fermentation converts sugars in liquid into alcohol
• 2nd fermentation converts alcohol into vinegar by acetous fermentation

•Must contain 4-7.5% Acetic Acid
• Often Marked in terms of "grains" (10 grains=1% acidity)

Examples
Red Wine, White Wine, Champagne, Cider, Balsamic, Sherry, Malt, Rice Wine, Infused








2-Step Frying
Potatoes are cooked in two steps.
1. Blanched in 300˚F oil (drained, dried)
2. Fried in 350-375˚F oil (seasoned while hot)

e.g. Allumettes, Frites, Pont-Neuf



3-Step Frying
1. Add potatoes to oil at 250-275˚F (drain)
2. Add potatoes to 350˚F (drain, Dry)
3. At service fry again at 350˚F

e.g. Pommes Souflées



Waxy Potatoes
Red Bliss
Fingerlings
New Potatoes (California Potatoes)

Mealy/Starchy Potatoes
Idaho
Purple Potato (Peru)
Yukkon Gold

Deep-Frying Potatoes
•Submerge entirely in hot oil or fat until cooked
•Obtain golden brown crust
•Surface must be dry
•Outer crust forms immediately, preventing potato from soaking up oil (thus dep-frying is a dry-heat method)


Deep-Frying Rules
• Oil must be fully preheated
• Temp. should never exceed 424˚F
•Cook in batches so that oil temp. does not drop too much
• Never pre-salt
• Dry surface of potatoes well
• Never poor water on grease fire (smother with lid)
• Don't fill more than 1/2 way
• Don't mix oils (different types or old and new)
• Strain oil between uses.







Paner à L'anglaise
to bread an item

1. flour
2. egg
3. bread crumbs



Pommes Darphin
Julienned potatoes (squeezed in cloth to remove excess starchy water), sautéed and baked in 1" layer in poêle (flip once while sauteing and once while baking) until golden brown.
Pommes Anna
Potoates trimmed into cylinders and then thinly sliced into 3mm thick rounds. layered in concentric circles in a poêle preheated with clarified butter. salt each layer. Seer on stove then cook until tender in oven. (flip once while sauteing and once while baking)
Gratin Dauphinois
1. Butter a casserole dish or sautoir (with pommade) sprinkle with finely diced garlic.

2. Make a mix of cream (or 1/2 cream, 1/2 milk), nutmeg, salt, & pepper. Whisk

3. Shred Gruyere

4. Thinly slice potaotes into 2mm rounds

5. pour a little liquid into bottom of casserole dish layer with potatoes
pour a little more liquid on top sprinkle with Gruyere

6. Repeat

7. Bake until golden brown on top












Pommes Campagnarde
Variation on Gratin Dauphinois.

Use veal stock instead of cream & add Bacon and onions

Pommes Croquette
Pommes Duchesse miture (Potatoes Purée + Yolk + Butter) piped into logs and panner à l'anglaise nd deep-fried
Pommes Duchesse
Pommes Purée + Yolks + Butter
Pommes Dauphine
1 Part Pommes Purée + 1 Part Pâte à Choux shaped and deep-fried.
Pommes Mont d'Or
Pommes Gratinée + Egg yolk liaison
Pommes Gratinée
Pommes Purée sprinkled with shredded cheese and melted butter in gratin dish. baked until cheese is golden brown.

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