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Glossary of Cosmo 2 Study Guide Part 1

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ACNE
Skin disorder by chronic inflammation of the sebaceous glands from retained secretions.
ALBINISM
Congenital leukoderma or absence of melanin pigment of the body, including the skin, hair, eyes.
ANHIDROSIS
Dificiency in perspiration, often result of fever or certain skin diseases
ASTEATOSIS
Condition of dry , scaly skin due to deficiency or absence of sebum; cuased by old age and by exposure to cold
VASAL CELL CARCINOMA
Most common and lest severe type of cancer; often characterized by light or pearly nodules
BROMHIDROSIS
Foul-smelling perspiration, usually noticeable in the armpits or on the feet
BULLA
Large blister containing a watery fluid, similar to a vesicle but larger.

CHLOASMA
Condition characterized by increased pigmentation on the skin, in spots that are not elevated.
COLLAGEN
Fibrous protien that gives the skin form and strength
COMODENES
Blackheads
CRUST
Dead cells that form over a wound or blemish while it is healing; an accumulation of sebus and pus, sometimes mixed with epidermal material.
CYST
Abnormal sac containing fluid above and below the skin.
ECZEMA
Inflammatory, painful itching desease of the skin , acute or chronic in nature, presenting many forms of dry or moist lesions.
ELASTIN
Protien base similar to collagen that forms elastic tissue.
EXCORIATION
Skin sore or abrasion produced by scratching or scraping.
FISSURE
Crack in the skin that penetrates the dermis, such as chapped hands or lips.
Herpes Simplex
Fever blister or cold sore.
HYPERHIDROSIS
Excessive sweating, caused by heat or general body weakness.
HYPERTROPHY
Abnormal growth of skin
KELOID
Thick scar resulting from excessive growth of fibrous tissue
KERATOMA
Acquired, superficial, thickned patches of epidermis comonly known as callus, caused by pressure or friction on hads and feet.
LENTIGNES
Freckles
LEUKODEMA
Skin disorder characterized by light abnomal patches; caused by burning or congenital disease that destroys the pigment producing cells.
MACULA
Small, discolored patch, freckle.
MALIGNANT MELANOMA
Most serious form of skin cancer, often characterized by black or dark brown patches on the skin that may appear uneven in texture, jagged, or raised
MELANIN
Tiny grains of pigment deposited in the stratum germinativum of the epidermis and the papillary layers of the dermis.
WHEAL
Itchy, swollen lesion that last only a few hours; caused by a blow, insect bite, urticaria, or sting of the nettle.
VITILIGO
MILKY-white sports (leaukoderma) of the skin , acquired condition
VESICLE
Small blister or sac contaning clear fluid, lying within or just beneath the epidermis
ULCER
Open lesion on the skin or mucous membrane of the body, accompanied by pus and loss of skin depth.
TUMOR
Abnormal cell mass, varying in size, shape, and color
TUBERCLE
Abnormal rounded. solid lump above, within, or under the skin.
Tan
Change in pigmentation of skin caused by exposure to the sun or ultraviolet rays.
STEATOMA
Sebaceous cyst or fatty tumor
STAIN
Abnormal brown or wine- colored skin discoloration with circular and irregular shape.
SKIN TAG
Cutaneous outgrowth of the skin
SEBORRHEA
Skin condition caused by an abnormal increase of secretion from the sebaceous glands
SCAR
Light colored slighly raised mark on the skin formed after an injury or lesion
SCALE
Any thin plate of epidermal flakes, dry or oily, such as abnormal or excessive dandruff
ROSACEA
Chronic congeston appearing primarily on the cheeks and nose, characterized by redness, dilation of the blood vesseles and the formation of papules and pustules.
PUSTULE
An inflamed pimple contianing pus
PSORIASIS
Skin disease characterized by red patches; covered with whitesilver scales usually found on scalp, elbows, knees, ches, and lower back.
PAPULE
Pimple
NEVUS
Small or large malformation of the skin due to abnormal pigmentation or dilated capillaries.
MOLE
Small brownish spot or blemish on the skin
MILIARIA RUBRA
Prickly heat; acure imflammatory disorder of the sweat glands
MILIA
Whiteheads
Roud shpaed bacteria that appear singly (alone) or in a group.
Cocci
Pus-forming bacteria that grow in clusters like a bunch of grapes. the cause abscesses, pustules, and boils.
Staphylococci
Pus-forming bacteria arranged in curved lines resembling a string of beads. They cause infections such as strep thought and blood poisoning.
Streptococci
Spherical bacteria that grow in pairs and cause diseases such as pneumonia.
Diplococci
Rod shaped bacteria. They are the most common bacteria and produce diseases such as tetanus (lock-jaw), Typhoid fever, tuberculosis, and diphteria.
Bacilli
Spiral or corkscrew shaped bacteria. they are subdivided into subgroups such as treponema papillida, which causes syphillus, a sectually transmitted disease (STD), or Borrelia burgdorderi, which causes lyme disease.
Spirilla
The Study of the functions and activities performed by the body structures.
Physiology
The Study of the tiny structures found in living tissue, that is , microsopic anatomy.
Histology
Is a protective covering on body surfaces.
Epithelial Tissue
A chemical process tha takes place in living organisms, whereby the cells are nourished and cary out the activites.
Metabolism
Is constructive metabolism, the process of building up larger molecules from smaller ones. During this process the body stores water, food, and oxygen for the time when these substances will be needed for cell growth.
Anabolism
Is the phase of metabolism that isbolbes the breaking down of cmolex compounds wihin the cell into smaller ones, This process releases energy thta has been stored,
Catabolism
A specialist in the cleaning preservation of helath, and beautification of the skin and body.
Esthetician
The outer most layer of the skin. AKA the Cuticle, also the thinnest layer of skin.
Epidermis
THe deepest layer of the epidermis, composed of seveal layers of differently shaped cells. produces new epidermal skin cells and is responsicle for the growth of the epidermis. Contains mlanocytes.
Stratum Germinativum
the Basal cell layer.
A temporary side bond between one element ajfacent polypeptide chains that is broken by changes in pH
Salt Bonds
An exampole of an ammonia compound that is used to raise the pH of hair
Ammonium Hydroxide
A carbuncle is an of the subcutaneous tissue caused by
Staphylococci
hair flowing in the same dirrection, the result of follicles slping in the same direction form a
Hair Stream
Current research confims that dandruff is the result of a fungus called
Malassezia
Chemical compund that holds together amino acids molecules are
Peptide Chain
The term used to measure the strenght of an electric current
AMP
The layer that consists of transparent, scale like cells that look like shingles on a roof
Cuticle Layer
A severy type of dandruff characterized by an accumultion of greasy or waxy scalp scales mised with sebum
Pityriasis Steatoides
Electricity does not occupy space or have physical or chemical properties; it is, however a form of
Energy
The Melanin that provides brown or black color to hair is
Eumelanin
Hydroxide chemical relaxers break sidulofide bonds and covert them to
Lanthionine bonds
The cortes is responsible for the natural color of hair, 90 percent of the total wight and hair
Elasticity
Current thta shold not be used on clients who are pregnant, have high blood pressure, or have a pacemaker
Tesla high frequency
An infestation of the hair and scalp with head lice is
Pediculosis Capitis
The avarage growth of healthy scalp hair is about
1 inch per month
The unit that measures the pressure or force that pushes the fow of electrons forward through a conductor is
Volt
A small coned shapted are located at the base of the hair follicle thta fits into thto hair bulb is the
Dermal Papilla
The electrical appliance connection that supplies currento the circuit is the
live connection
The fibrous protien core formed by elongated cells that contains melanin pigment is the
Cortex Layer
The hair shaft that emerges from the scalp is a nonliving fiber composed of
Karatinezed Protien
Thermal or heat producing current with a high rate of oscillationo or Vibration is
Tesla Current
Introducing water soluble products into the skin with the use of electric current is a process known as
Iontophoresis
A condition that is characterized by brittleness and the formation of nodular swelings along the hair shaft is
Trichorrhexis Nodosa
Infered lanps used during hair treatments and to process hair color should be operated at a distance of at least
30 inches
The tpe of fungal infedction that is characterized by red papules or spots at the opening of the hair follicle is
Tinea Capitis
A combination light of all the visible rays of the spectrum is refrred as
White light
Cordless electric clippers and battery chargers convert AC currents from a wall unit to DC Current needed to recharge the DC batteries with the use of
A Rectifier
A highly contagious skin disease caused by a parasite called a mite is
Scabies
The most commonly used modality is
Galvanic Current
A sweet,colorless, oily substance that is used as a moisturizer in skin and body creams is
Glycerin
Susbsance that acts as a bridge to allow oil and water to mix are
Surfactants
The specail device that prevents excessive current from passing through a circuit and overloading the Circuit is a
Fuse
The Three different types of cross linkis that form bonds between the polypeptide chains in the cortex are
Hydrogen, salt and disulfide bonds
A substance usually liquid that dissovles another substance to form a solution is
Solute
Tthe current for facil and scalp treatments is measured in
Milliamperes
A mesurement of how much electricity is being used in one second is
Watt
Rays with short wavelengts that are the least penetrating, produce chemical effects and kill germs are
Blue LIght
Dry hair and scalpt should be treated with products that contian moistureziers and
Emollients
Substances used to neutrulize acids or raise the pH of many hair products
Alkanolamines
The Tickened,club like shaped structure that forms the lower part of the hair root is the
Hair Bulb
There are how many naturally occuring elements each with its own distinctive physical and chemical properties
90 elements
The resting or final phase of the hair cycle that last until the fully grown hiar is shed is the
Telogen Phase
Suspension diffre from solutions in that suspensoins contian particles that are
Emulsified
The term used to descrive the shape of the hair stand is the
Wave pAttern
Tinea is characterized by itching sclaes and sometimes painful circulation lesions and is cused by
Fungal Organism
The even flowing elcric current that travels in one direction only
Direct Current
Liquids that are not capableof being mixed into stable solutions are
Immiscible
The melanin produced by the body that is red to yellow in color is
Pheomelanin
The degree of tension used on hairlines with strong growth patterns or around the ear is
Minimum Tention
Another term that is used to describe the medulla of the hair structure is the
Core

Medulla is the core of the hair follicle.

A violet base color will deliver cool results and will minimize unwanted
Yellow Tones
In a one step color service, 40 volume hydrogen peroxide is used to provide
Maxumum Lift
The Fatty layer of the dermis is the
Subcutaneous Layer
Total immersion of impliments while they are disinfecting is a requirement of the
EPA
Enviroment Protection Agency.
The Facial skeleton is composed of how many bones.
14 bones.
Demipermanent color are also known as
Deposit only Colors
During a retouch relaxer applicatoin, to avoid overprocessing or hair breakage, do not
Overlap the Relaxer.
The Living skin at the nail plate covering the matrix are is the
Eponychium
The double rod technique is also called the
Piggyback Wrap
The wrap that is used on endpaper folded in half over the hair ends like an envolope is
Bookend Wrap.
Chemical services performed on hair with low porosity require a solution that is
More Alkaline
A simple two starnd braid in which the hair is picked up from the sides and added to stands as they are
Fisthtail
A small scooper shaped implement used to remove debvris in fail folds and cuticle area is a
Curette
The Thickened, clublike structure that forms the lower part of the hair root is the
Hair Bulb
Hair that is best braided slightly damp or very lightly coated with a wax or pomade to make it more pliable is
Straight, Resistant Hair.
Theh treatment that passes water through a porous substance, such as charcoal or a filter, to be purified.
Filtration
The Romans used hair color to indicate their class in society.
Noble women tinted their hair red. Middle class women colored thier hair blond. And poor women colored thier hair black.
Middle Ages
Women wore makeup on thier cheeks and lips but not on thier eyes
Steam distillation was founded by the
Persians
VIctorian Age
Victorean women are said to have pinched their cheeks and bitten their lips to induce natrual color rather than used cosmetics such as rouge or lip color.
Hair removal by means of an electrical current that destroys the growth cells of the hair is
Electrolysis
Alkali substances used to temporarily remove superflous hair at the skin level are
Depilatories
When tweezing the skin should be held taut and hair pulled using a quick motion
in the direction of the hair growth.
During an analysis procedure, claning milk is applied to the skin using
upward circular movements
Obvious pores on the surface of the skin indicate
oily skin ares.
Dry skin that is not producing enough sebun is also known as
alapidic
The difference between closed and open comedones is the size of the follicle opeing or
the Ostium
Acne bacteria that cannot survive inthe presence of oxygen is called

pustules
acids
ampoule
anaerobic




Anaerobic
Foaming wash off type clansers contain a detergent tha is also known as

Astrigent
Enzyme
Tonic
Surfactant




Surfactant
Products that are designed to lower the pH of the skin after claning and aid in the removal of excess claning products are:

Disinfectants
Toners
Surfactnats
Exfoliants




Toners
Cosmetology professionals are only allowed to use products that remove dead skin from the:

Stratum Lucidum
Stratum Corneum
Stratum Keratoma
Stratum Granulosum




Stratum Corneum
Exfoliating Chemical that dissolve or lossen dead cell buildup are:

Sodium Chloride
Tonic Lotions
Alpha Hydroxy Acids
Ammonia Hydroxide




Alpha Hydroxy Acids
A popular type of enzyme peel that does not dry and ca be used during a steam treatment is the:

Liquid Form
Gommage
Emulsifying Form
Powder Form




Powder Form
Skin products that have a higher concentration of ingridients are :

Mask
Washes
Serums
Tonics




Serums
Oil absorbing masks that have an exfoliation and astringent efect, making large pores appear smaller are:

Clay based
Serum Based
Enzume Based
Astrigent Based




Clay Based
Masks that contain special crystal and dry to a plaster like consistency are:

Alginate Masks
Gel Masks
Medium Masks
Modelage Masks




Modelage Masks
The manual or mechanical manipulation of the body by rubbing, kneading, or other movements is called:

Metabolism
massage
absorption
physiology




Massage
The directoin of movement in massage should always be from insertion of the muscle toward the:

Origin
External surface
internal surface
ligaments




Origin
Every massage should begin and end with the massage movements of

Stroking
friction
effleurage
kneading




Effleurage
A Kneeding movemet that is perfomed by lifting, squeezing, and pressing tissue with light, firm pressure is

petrissage
fulling
effluerage
tapotement




Petrisage
A deep rubbing movement in which pressure is applied to the skin while moving ove an underlying structure:

Kneading
friction
rubbing
tapotement








Friction
An applicator used to direct electric current from a machine to the clients skin is a:

apparatus
charger
electrode
extractor




Electrode
LIght therapy using a light emitting diode uses blue light to treat skin that is

Acne prone
too smooth
dry
sensitive




Acne Prone
A mechanical exfoliation that uses a closed vacuum to shoot crystals onto the skin is:

micrograhphs
desincrustation
microdermabrasion
enzyme peels




Microdermabrasion
OSHA
Occupationla Safety and Health Administration.
MSDS
Material Safety Data Sheet
EPA
Enviromental Protection Agency



Condition caused by an injury or disease of the nail unit
Nail Disorder
Noticeably thin, white nail plate that is more flexible than normal
Eggshell Nails
Leukonychia
white spots; whitish discoloration of the nails, usually caused by injury to the matrix area
Split or brittle nails that also have a series of lengthwise ridges giving a rough appearance to the surface of the nail plate
Onychorrhexis
Edges of the nail plate curl around to form the shape of a trumpet or come around the free edge
Trumpet/Pincer Nails
The condition caused by an injury or disease of the nail unit
Nail Disease
Ingrown nail
Onychocryptosis
Condition that affects the surface of the nail plate, causing it to appear rough and pitted, as well as causing reddish spots on the nail bed and onycholysis
Nail Psoriasis
Fungal infection of the feet (Athletes foot)
Tinea Pedis
Condition in which a blood clot forms under the nail plate, forming a dark purplish spot, usually due to injury
Bruised Nails
The darkening of the fingernails or toenails; may be seen as a black band under or within the nail plate, extending from the base to the free edge
Melanonychia
Type of highly curved nail plate often caused by injury to the matrix, but may be inherited; also called "folden nail"
Plicatured Nail
Parasites, which under some circumstances may cause infections of the feet and hands
Nail fungus
Any deformity disease of the natural nails
Onychosis
Loosening of the nail without shedding
Onycholysis
Bacterial inflammation of the tissues of the nail; pus, thickening, and brownish discoloring of the nail plate
Paranychia
Fungal infections of the natural nail plate
Onychomycosis
Vertical lines running the length of the natural nail plate, usually related to normal aging
Ridges
A condition on which the eponychium or other living tissue surrounding the nail plate becomes slit or torn
Hangnail
Bitten nails
Onychophagy
Abnormal condition that occurs when the skin is stretched by the nail plate; usually caused by serious injury or allergic reaction
Nail Apterygium
One of the several common bacteria that can cause nail infection
Pseudomonas Aeruginosa
The inflammation of the nail matrix with shedding of the nail
Onychia
Ingrown nails
Onychocryptosis
The technical term for toenails and fingernails
Onyx
The separation and falling off of a nail in which a lump of red tissue grows up from the nail bed to the nail plate
Pyogenic Granuloma
Ringworm; reddened patches of small blisters; slight or severe itching
Tinea
Women applied preparations of white lead on their faces, kohl on their eyes and vermillion on their cheeks and lips. Red pigment was made by grinding cinnabar.
Greeks
Noblemen tinted hair red, middle class colored theirs blond, and poor women colored their hair black
Romans
Culture that refound the process of steam distillation.
Persians
Made nail tinters with gum arabic, gelatin, beeswax, and egg whites
Chinese
The first to cultivate beauty in an extravagant fashion. Used minerals, insects and berries to create makeup for their eyes, lips, and skin
Egyptians
"skilled in the use of cosmetics"
kosmetikos
Term used to encompass a broad range of specialty areas, including hairstyling, nail technology, and improving the skin.
Cosmetology
these women pinched their cheeks and bit their lips to add natural color to their faces
victorian
Establishes the values of the business and what it lives by
Mission Statement
The study of how a workplace can best be designed for comfort, safety, efficiency, and productivity
Ergonomics
Inability to cope with a threat
Stress
Round shaped bacteria
Cocci
Pus-forming bacteria that grow in clusters like a bunch of grapes.

Ex: abscesses, pustules, and boils

Staphylococci
Pus-forming bacteria arranged in curved lines resembling a string of beads.

Cause infections such as strep throat and blood poisoning

Streptococci
Spherical bacteria that grow in pairs and cause diseases such as pneumonia
Diplococci
Short rod-shaped bacterial
Bacilli
A spiral or corkscrew-shaped bacteria
Spirilla
One-celled microorganisms with both plant and animal characteristics
Bacteria
The life cycle of bacteria consists of what two phases?
The active stage

The inactive or spore-forming stage

During the active sate, bacteria...
Grow and reproduc
When cells reach their largest size, they divide into two new cells. This is called?
Mitosis
Occurs when the body tissues are invaded by disease causing or pathogenic bacteria
Infection
An organism that grows, feeds, and shelters on or in another organism, while contributing nothing to the survival of that organism
Parasite
Contagious is also known as
Communicable
A microorganism capable of infecting almost all plants and animals.
Virus
A bloodborne virus that damages the liver
Hepatitis
What does HIV stand for
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
What does AIDS stand for
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
A skin disease caused by head lice
Pediculosis capitis
Skin disease that is caused by the itch mite, which burros under the skin
Scabies
Partly inherited immunity and partly developed through healthy living
Natural immunity
Immunity that the body develops after overcoming a disease
Acquired immunity
Sanitation
Removing all visible dirt and debris; cleaning
Disinfection
the process that kills most, but not all, microorganisms on non-living surfaces
Chemical agents that destroy all bacteria, fungi, and viruses

Not for use on skin

Disinfectants
Sterilization
Complete elimintation of all microbial life
Percentage that of alcohol that has to be used as a disinfectant
70%

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