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Glossary of Communication Theory Final Test

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Created by annebeck

What are we most strongly motivated by?
Guilt
What is guilt?
Whenever you see you are not perfect, this negative feeling is guilt
What kind of theory is dramaticism and what is its concentration?
Rhetorical and subjective
What do we do with Dramaticism and what's the method?
We are trying to figure out people's motivations by using the pentad
What does receiver of the message must have in order for persuasion to occur?
Identification
What is motion?
comes from nature and non-symbol-using animals and lacks motive
What is action?
comes from symbol-using animals (humans) and reflects our motives
Identification?
Burke argued that for persuasion to happen, there needs to be common ground between the speaker and the audience.
Dramatistic Pentad?
People who do pentadic analysis work to gain the audience’s acceptance of a certain view of reality using 5 key elements:
Act, Scene, Agent, Agency, and Purpose


Act?
What is done/What happened
Scene?
The context/place/situation in which the agent commits the act
Agent?
The actor/subject/person doing the act
Agency?
The power/ability/stimulus that made the agent able to do the act
Purpose?
The reason/target/intention for the act to be committed by the agent
God term?
a word used by the speaker that is ranked higher than all other positive terms
Devil term?
a word used by the speaker that sums up all that is regarded as bad, wrong, or evil
Guilt?
shame, anxiety, tension, embarrassment, disgust, etc.– noxious feelings intrinsic to the human condition
Mortification?
confession of guilt and request for forgiveness
Victimage?
scapegoating; the process of naming an external enemy as the source of all personal or public ills
Perspective by incongruity?
linking 2 unlike things to draw attention to a truth
Dramaticism?
Dramatism uses the pentad as a method for studying and understanding human motivations and behavior
Two key catalysts for motivating human behavior are?
1) our fixation on “the negative” and the guilt it makes us feel; and,
2) our fixation on attaining “perfection”– even though that is impossible


The pentad refers to the implied goal of a speaker's remarks as the?
Purpose
In the pentad, the term for the person who performed the act is called the?
Agent
Burke calls the common ground that exists between speaker and audience what?
Identification
According to the pentad, the context for where and when the act was done is called the?
Scene
True or false: Burke believed that life is drama
True
True or false: Burke argues that the ultimate task of the critic is assessing the speaker's motives.
True
True or false: Burke's notion of terministic screens describes the way that words dictate interpretations of life's drama.
True
According to Burke, ______________ is the word to which all other positive words are subservient
God Term
Burke's term for blaming one's self for the problems of a situation is called?
Mortification
Burke called the process of blaming an external enemy as the source of societal problems as?
Victimage
Burke refers to what was done as the?
Act
Burke used the term ______________ to describe the device that links two unlike things to call attention to a truth
Perspective by incongruity
Burke's goal with the pentad was?
to evaluate the term in a text that seemed to drive the action so the observer could accurately interpret the speaker’s motivation
_______ is considered Burke’s most controversial concept
Redemption through victimage
Burke argues that language
is a strategic response to a situation
The means a person used to perform the act is called the?
Agency
What is narrative coherence?
When you tell a story that seems to make sense
What is it called when someone tells a sotry you can relate to and identify with?
Narrative fidelity
Narrative paragidm says humans are what?
Homomarrens; story-telling animals
When thinking of a general audience to craft a story to appeal to most people, you are attempting to reach out to an?
Ideal audience
Phatic communication?
maintains relationships, rather that informing or saying something new
Narration?
Symbolic actions– words and/or deeds– that have sequence and meaning for those who live, create, or interpret them
Paradigm?
a conceptual framework; a universal model to be used as an interpretive lens
Rational-world paradigm?
an interpretive lens that assumes that people are logical and make decisions based on evidence and lines of argument
Narrative paradigm?
an interpretive lens that assumes that all human communication is based on narrative
Five assumptions of the real-world paradigm?
1. People are essentially rational
2. We make decisions based on arguments.
3. The type of speaking situation (legal, scientific, legislative) determines the course of our argument.
4. Rationality is determined by how much we know and how well we argue.
5. The world is a set of logical puzzles that we can solve through rational analysis



Five assumptions of the narrative paradigm?
1. People are essentially storytellers.
2. We make decisions on the basis of good reasons, which vary depending on the communication situation, media, and genre (philosophical, technical, rhetorical, or artistic).
3. History, biography, culture, and character determine what we consider good reasons.
4. Narrative rationality is determined by the coherence and fidelity of our stories.
5. The world is a set of stories from which we choose, and thus constantly re-create, our lives



Narrative rationality?
evaluating the worth of a story based on both narrative coherence and narrative fidelity
Narrative coherence?
Internal consistency of a story; the story “hangs together”
Narrative fidelity?
Degree to which the values of a story match those of the audience; the story “rings true” for the audience
Ideal audience?
: an actual community existing over time, who believe in the values of truth, the good, beauty, health, wisdom, courage, temperance, justice, harmony, order, communion, friendship, and oneness with the cosmos

What do stories do?
help us categorize our experiences and make sense of the world around us
manufacture consent?
employees at all levels willingly adopt and enforce the legitimate power of the organization
Ideology?
Frameworks through which we interpret, understand, and make sense of social existence
Democratic Pluralism?
The myth that society is held together by common norms such as equal opportunity, respect for diversity, one person-one vote, individual rights, and rule of law.
Cultural studies?
A neo-Marxist critique that sets forth the position that mass media manufacture consent for dominant ideologies.

Type/Concentration of Narrative Paradigm?
Interpretive/Rhetorical
Type/Tradition of Cultural Studies?
Interpretive/Critical
Type/Tradition of Speech Codes Theory?
Interpretive/Socio-cultural
Type/Tradition of Standpoint Theory?
Interpretive/Critical
Articulate?
the process of speaking out on oppression and linking that subjugation with media representations; the work of cultural studies
Economic determinism?
the belief that human behavior and relationships are ultimately caused by differences in financial resources and the disparity in power that those gaps create
Hegemony?
The subtle sway of society's haves over its have-nots
Discourse?
frameworks of interpretation
Discursive formation?
The process by which unquestioned and seemingly natural ways of interpreting the world become ideologies
Culture industries?
the producers of culture; television, radio, music, film, fashion, magazines, newspapers, etc.
Cultural studies calls us to do what?
To review the arrangement and distribution of power in an organization
Power begets power and weakness begets _____?
weakness; "winners win and losers lose"
Ethnography?
The work of a naturalist who watches, listens, and records communicative conduct in its natural setting in order to understand a culture’s conceptual web of meanings.

Speech code?
A historically enacted, socially constructed system of terms, meanings, premises, and rules, pertaining to communicative conduct
First speech code?
Distinctive culture = distinctive speech code
Speech code #2?
Each speech community will have multiple speech codes
Speech code #3?
a speech code has a culturally distinctive psychology, sociology, and rhetoric; when the girl on Clueless says "as if" that's her identity and her code of community
Speech code #4?
Speaker and listener speech codes drive the creation and interpretation of communication (you can't just make up a code by yourself?
Speech code #5?
The terms, rules, and premises of a speech code are inextricably woven into speaking itself.
Totemizing ritual?
A careful performance of a structured sequence of actions that pays homage to a sacred object.
Speech code #6?
When used well, speech codes allow us to explain, predict, and control communication conduct
Performance Ethnography?
A research methodology committed to the performance as both the subject and method of research, to researchers’ work being performance, and to reports of fieldwork being actable.
Rhetoric?
both the discovery of truth and a persuasive appeal
honor?
a code that grants worth to an individual on the basis of adherence to community values
Dignity?
the worth of an individual has by virtue of being a human being
Standpoint?
A place from which to critically view the world around us
Local knowledge?
Knowledge situated in time, place, experience, and relative power, as opposed to knowledge from nowhere that’s supposedly value-free.
Strong objectivity?
The strategy of starting research from the lives of women and other marginalized groups, thus providing a less false view of reality.
The Standpoint of Black Feminist Thought (Patricia Hill Collins)?
Validation of knowledge claims:
-Lived experience as a criterion of meaning
-The use of dialogue in assessing knowledge claims
-The ethic of caring
-The ethic of personal accountability



Biggest part of standpoint theory?
context matters
What does Particia Hill Collins say?
when we experience something consistently, that means you know somethingy
What does cultural studies have to do with?
power and how it is manifested in the language we use
What does cultural studies ask us?
To consider when a few select people in power of an organization are benefitting
Cultural studies requires us to adopt what?
Sensibility
What theory does cultural studies go along with with?
Standpoint theory, which helps us understand what's going on
It is important to view the standpoints of who?
People in the margins
What method do we associate speech codes with?
Ethnography
What do we need to know about the 6 speech code propositions?
Every culture has its own unique speech code; each speech code reveals something about that population

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