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Glossary of Comm Theory Test 2

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Created by annebeck

What do two axioms make?
A theorem
What is an axiom?
A statement true in and of itself and doesn't need an explanation
What is the first axiom?
Verbal Communication: as the amount of verbal communication between strangers increases, the level of uncertainty will decrease
What is the second axiom?
Nonverbal Warmth: as nonverbal affiliative expressiveness increases, uncertainty levels will decrease during a first interaction scenario
What is the third axiom?
Information seeking: high levels of uncertainty cause increases in information-seeking behavior
What is the fourth axiom?
Self-Disclosure: high levels of uncertainty in a relationship cause a decrease in the intimacy level of communication content
What is the fifth axiom?
Reciprocity: high levels of uncertainty produce high rates of reciprocity
What is content?
What is said verbally; the report part of a message; the words spoken
what is relationship?
how the message is said nonverbally; the command part of the message
Content + Relationship = what?
Communication
High amounts of uncertainty = what?
less disclosure
The better we know someone, the lesser need for what?
Disclosure and need for equalness of disclosure
What came from the cybernetics tradition?
interactional view
When we speak with someone, what is it called when we are labeling cause and effect in communication?
punctuation
What is setting ground rules for a relationship?
boundary coordination
What happens when someone oversteps their boundaries?
Boundary turbulence
What is it called when a family system falls into a stable routine where they do not want to change?
homeostasis
In order for a family to change, they must what?
reframe
What is the minimax theory?
people seek to maximize their benefits and minimize their costs
What is the term that says multiple causes lead to an outcome?
equifinality (you would reach a conclusion based on many factors)
1st axiom?
You can't not communicate; not responding is still conveying a message
2nd axiom?
Communication is the content of the message and the relationship
3rd axiom?
the nature of the relationship depends on how both parties punctuate the communication sequence
4th axiom?
All communication is either complementary or symmetrical
What is an example of complementary communication?
someone gets more aggressive and intense, while the other person withdraws as result
What is an example of symmetrical communication?
two people are equally yelling at each other
What is digital communication?
Words involved in the communication sequence
What is analogic communication?
the meaning in the actions performed
What is one-down communication?
when a person steps back and submisses power of the situation
What is one-up communication?
one takes a dominating role in communicating; getting control of the exchange
What is one-across communication?
neutralizing control within the exchange
What is deviance?
when someone has unusual behavior
Deviance encourages what?
uncertainty reduction
What three things causes us to desire a reduction in uncertainty?
if we know we'll see them again, if they have what we want, or if they are weird
If you go to a vending machine and automatically know what you want, what is that called?
using the peripheral route (quick decisions)
What is counterpart to the peripheral route?
the central route (actually putting effort to think about and allow message elaboration)
When we are trying to persuade do we always want message elaboration?
No, sometimes you want the audience to make a quick decision and not mull over what you're saying so they agree with you
What are peripheral cues?
Things that contribute to speaker credibility
Decisions using what route tend to be permanent?
the central route
What is a dialectic?
has to do with us seeking to have a balance
What is called when your relationship with someone changes in different situations? (aka at home your brother is family, but at work he is your boss)
segmentation
What is it called when you elaborte a message to reflect your desires?
biased elaboration
What is the counterpart to biased elaboration?
Objective elaboration
What is objective elaboration?
An honest desire to find an accurate outcome causes the researcher to try as much as possible to avoid bias in his/her research… even if s/he might not like the results.
What is the social penetration theory?
The development of closeness in friendships and interpersonal relationships.

What does the depth of penetration equal?
the degree of intimacy
What is the first level of penetration in the SPT?
Peripheral (on the surface)
What is the second level of the SPT?
Biographical data (just under the surface)
What is the third level of the SPT?
Semi-private (deep within)
What is fourth and deepest level of penetration in the SPT?
inner core (the very center core)
What are comparison levels?
deals with satisfaction (how happy or sad do they make us feel?)
What is comparison level of alternatives?
deals with relationship stability (is this the best I can do?)
What is a dialectical model?
human social relationships are characterized by openness or contact and closedness or separateness between participants
Privacy Rules are PERSONAL rules that are influenced and shaped by what?
culture, gender, motive, context, risk-benefit ratio
What is an internal dialectic?
within the relationship (the couple)
What is an external dialectic?
between the couple and the community
What contriubutes to the integration-separation contradiction?
the dialectics of connection-autonomy, inclusion-seclusion, and intimacy-independence
What contributes to the stability and change contradiction?
certainty-uncertainty, conventionality-uniqueness, predictability-surprise, and routine-novelty
What contributes to the expression-nonexpression contradiction?
openness-closedness, revelation-concealment, candor-secrecy, and transparency-privacy
What is Consequentialist ethics?
Judging actions solely on the basis of their beneficial or harmful outcomes

What is the principle of veracity?
Truthful statements are preferable to lies in the absence of special circumstances that overcome their negative weight

What are family systems?
A self-regulating, interdependent network of feedback loops guided by members’ rules; the behavior of each person affects and is affected by the behavior of another.

What are games?
sequences of behavior governed by rules
What is message elaboration?
thought about issue-relevant arguments
What is the need for cognition?
The desire for cognitive clarity; an enjoyment of thinking through ideas even when they aren’t personally relevant.

What are strong arguments?
Claims that generate favorable thoughts when they are examined
What does the uncertainty reduction theory do?
focuses on how human communication is used to gain knowledge and create understanding
What is the attribution theory?
We observe people’s behavior and draw inferences about their character
What is uncertainty reduction?
The more we know about a person, the better we will be at predicting future interactions
What is a theorem?
A proposition that logically and necessarily follows from two axioms
When seeking information, what is the passive strategy?
observing the person
When seeking information, what is the active strategy?
ask someone about the person
When seeking information, what is the interactive strategy?
interacting with the person
What is hedging?
a way out if things go wrong
What is hierarchy hypothesis?
changing the details when things go wrong

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