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Glossary of Colored Stone Essentials Vocabulary Chapter 3

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Blemish
surface of polished stone
brilliant cut
triangular or kite-shaped facets, radiate from center toward girdle
cabochon
smoothly rounded domed top & flat or gently curved base
caliber cuts
gemstones cut to strict proportions
cameo
figure projects slightly from flat surface, often woman's profile
clarity characteristic
term for inclusions & blemishes
clarity
relative freedom from inclusions & blemishes
cleavage
flat break along weakest structural direction, can be step-like
density
how heavy object is in relation to its size
designer cuts
artistic cuts, special proportions w/no limit except gem's rough shape & optical characteristics
durability
withstand wear, heat, chemicals
eye-clean
inclusions visible only under magnification
facet
flat polished surface
fancy shape
any shape other than round (including marquise, emerald, heart, oval, pear)
fantasy cut
free-form, alternating curved & flat surfaces
feather
general term for break in stone
finish
quality of polish & precision of cut
fluid inclusion
pocket filled w/fluids, gas bubbles, tiny crystals; created by environmental changes during crystal growth
fracture
any break other than cleavage or parting
included crystal
small crystal trapped inside a large gem as it grows
inclusion
characteristic enclosed within or reaching its surface from interior
intaglio
design engraved into surface
metric carat
int'l unit measurement for weight. 1 carat = 1/5 gram = .200 gr.
mixed cut
combines brilliant & step cut
parting
flat break along twinning plane
per-carat price
price divided by its weight
point
1/100 of carat (.01 ct)
proportion
angles & relative measurements of polished gem & relationships between them
scintillation
flashes of light reflected from polished gem when observer, gem, or light source moves
shape
face-up outline
silk
needle-like inclusions create phenomena like cat's-eyes & stars
specific gravity
ratio of gemstone's weight to weight of equal volume of water. abbrev. SG
step cut
mainly square & rectangular facets arranged in concentric rows
style
arrangement of stone's facets (brilliant, step, mixed cuts)
total gem weight
combined weight of all gems in a piece of jewelry
twinning plane
location of a direction change in stone's crystal structure during growth

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