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Glossary of College Bio- CCAC

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What is pollination?
the transfer of pollen grains to the stigma
What are the 3 aids of pollination? (what attracts pollinators)
color, odor, presence of nectaries
What are 3 modes of pollination?
air, H20, pollinators
What are the 3 organisms that serve as pollinators?
birds, insects, animals
What are 3 types of pollination?
self pollination, cross-pollination, artificial pollination
What is self-pollination?
the anther of a plant pollinates the stigma of the same plant
What is cross-pollination?
the anther of one plant pollinates the stigma of another plant of the same species
What is artificial pollination?
the anther of 1 plant species contributes pollen grains that are added to the stigma of female plant of another species and hybrids (man intervenes)
What are 2 types of cells in a pollen grain?
tube cells and generative/germinative cells
What is a tube cell?
a cell contained in a pollen grain that houses digestive enzymes that digest a pathway through the style and to the micropyle (distal opening) of the ovary
Where is the pathway (2 parts) that the tube cell creates using digestive enzymes
style and micropyle
What is the purpose of the micropyle in a tube cell?
allows entry of generative/germinative cell
Type of cell in a pollen grain that contains the 2 sperm used for double fertilization
generative/germinative cell
The process of sperm meeting the egg
fertilization
Part of female plant that breaks down pollen grain
stigma
When a pollen grain reaches the stigma, how does the female plant respond?
Uses enzymes to break down the pollen grain
Tube cell's function in fertilization in a plant
breaks down tissue of pistil which creates path for generative cell to travel to the micropyle
Generative cell's function in fertilization?
travels via pathway and enters ovary through micropyle for double fertilization
Two areas that sperm fertilizes in double fertilization
1 synergid, polar nucleus
Parts in the female plant that are 2N?
zygote, polar nucleus
Part of plant that is 3N?
endosperm
This part of the plant undergoes numerous mitotic divisions and surrounds the developing embryo during double fert
endosperm
This is the food source for the devel embryo in a plant
endosperm
Once the endosperm is fertilized, what happens? (double fert)
undergoes numerous mitotic divisions and surrounds developing embryo
What happens to the ovule once fertilized in double fert?
hardens and shrinks in size
What is the purpose of the hard seed coat that the ovule obtains during double fert?
prevents H20 loss in devel embryo, protection
Edible portion of fruit?
ovary
Phase between development of embryo to birth in a plant?
germination
3 conditions necessary for germination
favorable climate, H20, gases in balance
2 gases needed to be in balance for germination
H20 and C02
When does germination phase end?
cotelydons are exposed to sun and are now capable of carrying out photosynthesis
part of plant that determines when germination is over
cotyledon
What is a cotyledon
seed leave
2 major growing seasons in plants
primary and secondary
What area of growth does that plant focus on during primary growing season?
the apical meristem and growth in height
This growing season primarily affects lateral meristem and grown in fullness or girth
secondary
How many growing seasons do annuals have?
1
This type of plant survives 2 growing seasons
biennials
How many growing seasons do perennials have?
> 2
7 reasons why plants are important
start food chain, maintain ozone layer through protecting earth from gamma rays, provide food, shelter, fuel, clothing, meds
What is repro?
continuation of species
How does repro occur?
presence of gametes or sex cells formed by the meiosis, which occurs in gonads (sex organs)
2 types of gametes?
sperm, oocyte
Word to describe testes and ovaries
gonads
Outward patching of abdominal pelvic cavity of male
scrotum
Function of scrotum
houses testes
Why is scrotum wrinkly?
dartos muscle and folds to increase surface area to protect testes
What is pubic hair on the scrotum for
protection
What is the raphe
visible exterior ridge on scrotum that separates scrotum into two halves externally
Impermeable membrane which sep scrotum into 2 distinctive halves
septum
Each halve of scrotum houses how many testes
1
Septum has a ________ membrane
impermeable
What is an inguinal canal
openings in abdominal-pelvic cavity
3 Functions of inguinal canals
sites of testicular descent, mode of travel for spermatic cord and cremaster muscle
When do testes begin to leave the abd pelvic cavity and descend into scrotum
@ 7 mo. of prenatal life
What happens if the testes do not descend at 7 mo of prenatal life?
cryptoorcidism and possible sterility
2 modes of treatment to get rid of cryptoorcidism?
hormone therapy or orchiopexy
Which two hormones can be used to treat cryptoorcidism
hCG and testosterone
What is orchiopexy
surgical proced to cause testes to descend
3 parts of spermatic cord
blood/lymph vessels, nerves, vas deferens
Function of spermatic cord?
allows communication/w body proper
Function of cremester muscle?
positions testes in order to maintain a temp 3* lower than body temp, which is crucial for proper spermatogenesis
Why do testes need to be 3* lower than rest of body
optimum spermatogenesis
If hot, which direction do testes go
down
The cremaster muscle raises the testes in this type of situation
too cold
where are testes located
scrotum
Size of testes? (L x W)
2" L x 1" W
What are the two connective tissue coverings in testes from outer to inner?
tunica vaginalis, tunica albuginia
Function of tunica vaginalis?
protection
Function of tunica albuginea
inverts to form septa which divides testes into 200-300 lobules/compartments
What are septa
part of tunica albuginea that divides testes into 200-300 lobules
Septa divides testes into how many lobules/compartments
200-300
How many seminiferous tubules are housed in each lobule
1-3
Where does sperm prod (spermatogenesis) occur?
seminiferous tubules
Length of seminif tubules
700 ft
Where specifically in the seminiferous tubules does spermatogenesis take place?
below basement memb and lymen in nurse/sertoli/systentacular cells
Where EXACTLY are nurse/sertoli/systentacular cells located
between basement memb and lymen of seminif tubules
6 Functions of nurse/sertoli/systentacular cells
nurse/nourish developing sperm, form blood-testes barrier, get rid of misfit sperm, carrying out spermination, produces inhibin, and produces androgen-binding protein
Specifically, how are sperm protected from antibodies in blood?
blood-testes barrier that nurse cells create
What is spermiation and where does it occur?
process of kicking mature enough sperm out of seminiferous tubule conducted by nurse cell of seminif tubule
What does inhibin do in the male?
acts on nurse cells to inhibit spermatogenesis when all nurse cells are full of developing sperm
How exactly does inhibin stop spermatogenesis in nurse cells in seminif tubules
inhibits release of FSH from gonadotroph cell of adenohypophysis
Where is adenohypophysis in male?
anterior pituitary
How does FSH stim spermatogenesis
stims nurse cell function
Which hormone does nurse cell attempt to pull in which aids in sperm devel
testosterone/androgen
Where are interstitial endocrinocytes in male?
outside and between seminif tubules
What part of male produces testosterone?
interstitial endocrinocyte
How does LH help interstitial endocrinocyte
creates stimulation in the cells to increase testosterone production
Specifically, where does LH come from in male?
gonadotroph cell of ant pituitary gland
8 Steps in spermatogenesis?
daughter cell spermatogonium becomes precursor stem cell, spermatogonium pushed away from basement membrane of semif tubule, differentiation, DNA rep/tetrad form/crossing-over in primary spermatocyte, Meiosis I/Reduction Division, 2 secondary spermatocytes, Meiosis II/Equatorial Div, Spermatids created which devel into spermatozoa and go deep within lumen
Each secondary spermatocyte contains how many chromatids?
2
Stages in which male gametes are 2N?
precursor stem cell, spermatogonium, primary spermatocyte
These male cells are Haploid
2ndary spermatocytes, spermatids, spermatozoa
Spermiogenesis occurs when sperm are in which two stages?
spermatids, spermatozoa
5 locations in which sperm travel through to get to epididymis
spermenter lumen of seminif tubule, straight tubules, rete testes, efferent ducts, ductus epididymis
Rete testes are defined as?
ciliated tubules
What is epididymis of male?
comma-shaped orgain which houses 20 ft of ductus epididymis
Where is epididymis located?
on each posterior testes
Function of epididymis
maturation site for sperm
After leaving seminif tubules, how long does it take for sperm to mature in epididymis
10-14 days
Comma shaped male sex organ
epididymis
How many ft of ductus epidydimis in epidydimus
20
3 parts of epididymis
head, body, tail
Where are most mature sperm loc in epid
tail
2 functions of vas deferens
passageway for sperm en route to sex accessory structures, temp storage from sperm
Where are vas deferens loc
spermatic cord
How long are vas deferens
18"
2 structures in vas deferens that aid in peristalsis
cilia, smooth muscle
What is peristalsis
rhythmic contractions
Why is peristalsis needed in vas deferens?
moves sperm through vas deferens
What is the ampulla
distal end that widens in vas deferens
Where does vasectomy occur in male
vas deferens
2 types seed plants
gymnosperm/angiosperm
Gymnosperm and Angiosperm's Kingdom
Plantae
Subphylum of Gymnosperm
gymnosperma
Phylum of gymnosperms
coniferophyta
Division of gymnosperms
pinophyta
When did gymnosperms originate
early Mesozoic Era
how many dif species of gymnosperma
550
2 char of gymnosperms
needle-like leaves, cone-bearing
4 Purposes needle-like leaves on gymnosperms
prevents water loss, helps withstand extreme humidity, temp, and wind conditions
Examples of gymnosperms
pine, spruce, fir, hemlock, junipers, sequoia, Calif Redwoods
What does word gymnosperm mean
naked or exposed seeds
Where are seeds of gymnosperm housed
scales of female cones
For what 2 reasons are there a lim # of gymnosperm species
prone to predator and environmental stresses
Where are sex organs located in gymnosperms
cones
Male or Female? Long and fleshy cone of gymnosperm
M
Male or Female: Cone that hangs in clusters of 3 on gymnosperm
M
When do male cones fall from tree
After pollen release in spring
What is pollen
yellow dust that travels through air and water
Male or Female: short, stocky, woody cone of gymnosperm
female
What happens within female cones of gymnosperm in spring
sclaes of that house the seeds open to accept pollen for fertiliz
Subphylum of angiosperm
angiosperma
phylum of angiosperm
anthrophyta
Division of angiosperm
magnolyophyta
4 divisions into which gymnosperms and angiosperms are classified in
Plantae, Subphylum, Phylum, Division
When did angiosperm originate?
Cretaceous period of Mesozoic Era
From what species of plants did angiosperm originate
early gymnosperm shrub
When did angiosperm begin to diversify
cenozoic era
How many species of angiosperma
250,000
What general kind of plants are angiosperms
flowering plants
Most successful plant group on earth
angiosperms
4 reasons why angiosperms are so successful
seeds housed in ovaries, hardy, evolved when insects did, have soph vascular sys
What does word angiosperm mean
seed vessel
What makes angiosperms considered to be hardy
grow in many climate and soil conditions
What do insects do for angiosperms
pollinate
How does the soph vascular sys contribute to success of angiosperm
allows flow of nutrients
Where are angiosperms seeds located
ovaries (fruits)
2 classes of angiosperms
monocotelydon, dicotelydon
What is a cotelydon?
seed leaf
How are angiosperms classified
by # of seed leaves
Monocots have ____ seed leaves
1
Dicots have ____ seed leaves
2
Type of angiosperm char by long, narrow leaves that typically unfurl from central region of plant
monocot
Leaves on this type of angiosperm have parallel venation
monocot
Type of angiosperm char by short, broad leaves
dicot
This type of angiosperm have leaves with netted venation
dicot
The stem on this angiosperm has a scattered vascular sys
monocot
Stem on this angiosperm has organized peripheral vascularity
dicot
Flowers are always in multiples of 3 on this type of angiosperm
monocot
Flowers always in multiples of 4's and 5's on this type of angiosperm
dicot
Examples of monocots
grasses, orchids, pineapple, palm, wheat, corn, irises
What kind of angiosperm are these plants: strawberry plants, peach trees, and apple trees
dicots
4 types tissues in seed plants
dermal, ground, vascular, meristemic
2 types of dermal tissue in seed plants
epidermis, cuticle
Three types ground tissue in seed plants
parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma
2 types vascular tissue in plants
phloem, xylem
2 types meristemic tissue in seed plants
lateral, apical
What is the dermal tissue, epidermis?
outer covering of tissue that secretes cuticle
What is dermal tiss, cuticle, on seed plants?
waxy coat secreted by epidermis
What part of the plant secretes waxy coating for cuticle
epidermis
Purpose of dermal tiss, cuticle
retardation of certain organisms
Purpose of ground tiss in seed plants
photosynthesis, food storage, fill and support of interior of plant
Ground tiss that provides for photsynthesis and food storage in seed plant
parenchyma
Purpose of ground tiss, collenchyma, in seed plants
supports immature or growing parts of plant
Celery stalks are ex of what type of ground tissue
collenchyma
Ground tiss supporting matured portion of plant such as petal or leaf
sclerenchyma
Vessel that picks up H20 and minerals from soil by the roots and conducts it to the stem to be used during photosynthesis
xylem
Picks up nutrients created during photosynthesis and carries them to roots for plant growth and devel
phloem
Where is meristemic tiss in seed plants
tips of roots and shoots
Where is mitosis carried out in seed plants
meristemic tiss
What tissue accounts for lengthwise plant growth
apical meristem
Which specific type of tissue is most active in primary growing season
apical meristem
Lateral meristem accounts for what kind of growth in seed plants
girth/fullness
Def of photosynthesis
process that converts radiant energy from sun into chemical energy called glucose
Reactants (what incites rxn also) --> Product (in photosynthesis)
6CO2+6H20+light (CHLOROPHYLL) --> C6H1206+602
4 ingredients needed for photosynthesis
H20, CO2, Chlorophyll, light
Where is H20 obtained in a plant for photosynthesis
soil via roots which goes to xylem in leaves
How is CO2 obtained for photosynthesis
stomata (pores in leaf) from air
How is O2 produced
after photosynthesis O2 leaves via stomata into atmosphere
What is stomata
pores in leaves
Part of plant that attracts sun
Chlorophyll in chloroplants
2 reaction stages in photosynthesis (in order)
light dependent, light indep
Where does light dependent rxn of photosyn take place?
thylakoids of chloroplast
Where does light dependent rxn take place
thylakoids of chloroplasts
Which light rxn manufactures ATP?
light dependent
Where does the light independent phase take place in a plant?
stoma
What is stoma?
area around thylakoid in chloroplast
Which stage of photosynthesis uses ATP to make glucose?
light independent
Why is ATP necessary in photosynthesis?
to make glucose
What are thylakoids?
photosynthetic units
series of thylakoids are called?
grana
space around and in between thylakoids is called?
stoma
The swollen bases that flowers grow in are called?
receptacles
What in the receptacle of a flower aids in pollinator attraction?
nectaries
Nectaries contain what two things?
sugar and H20
What are whorls?
the circular patterns in which flowers grow
Name all 4 whorls from outer to inner
calyx, corolla, androecium, gyneocium
This whorl contains the sepals or leaves
calyx
2 functions of the calyx
photosynthesis, protection to developing bud
What is the corolla of a plant?
part of plant that contains petals
2 Purpose/Functions of corolla
attracts pollinators, beauty
This whorl contains the stamen of the plant. The stamen is comprised of what two things?

(Name whorl and 2 other components)
androecium, anther and filament
Where do pollen grains form in a plant?
in the stamen's anther
This area of a plant contains 4 pollen sacs
anther
How many pollen sacs does the anther of a plant contain
4
Function of a stamen's filament?
suspends and supports
Function of androecium in a plant
male sex part
This whorl in a plant contains the carpel or pistil
gyneocium
The carpel/pistil contains what three things?
stigma, style, ovary
What is a carpel's stigma?
sticky, hair-like projections that aid in pollen grain adherence
The style in a carpel/pistil serves as what
neck
Part of carpel/pistil that houses embryo sac
ovary
What does it mean when a plant is said to be complete?
All 4 whorls are present, a perfect plant
When one or more whorls are missing from a plant it is said to be
incomplete
This kind of flower has male and female sex parts intact
perfect
Flower that has either male or female sex part missing
imperfect
Where does pollen formation occur in plant
in pollen sacs of anther
Where are the diploid megaspore mother cells located in a plant
pollen sacs
Type of cell in plant that undergoes meiotic and mitotic division
megaspore mother cells
are megaspore mother cells diploid or haploid
2n diploid
This stage in pollen formation creates 4 haploid daughter cells gen dif from parent
meiosis II
This type of cell division in pollen formation is when the megaspore mother cell divides to form 2 haploid cells
meiosis I
This stage in pollen formation is when 2 haploid cells divide to produce 4 haploid daughter cells
meiosis II
What happens to 4 haploid daughter cells in pollen formation after having undergone Meiosis II
They each undergo mitosis once, creating 4 germinative cells and 4 tube cells
This surrounds 2 of the daughter cells resulting from pollen formation
hardened pollen grain
How many daughter cells become surrounded by a hardened pollen grain for protection
2
What is another name for ovule formation in plants
embryonic sac production
This part of female plant becomes hardened seed coat that surrounds the seed
ovule
Where does ovule formation occur in a female plant
inside ovary
From what does the ovule develop from
ovarian tissue
When an ovule is formed, it is suspended from ovarian wall by means of
funiculi
What are funiculi
hairlike projections that suspend an ovule from the ovarian wall once the ovule is formed
The distal opening through which sperm enters
micropyle
The ovule forms around all areas of the ovary in ovule formation with the exception of what part
micropyle
Where are megaspore mother cells housed in a female plant
ovary
This female plant part undergoes mitosis twice
megaspore mother cell
After the megaspore mother cell in a female plant undergoes Meiosis I and II, what happens?
enzymes in the plant destroy three of 4 daughter cells
How many times does the remaining daughter cell resulting from ovule formation undergo mitosis
3

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