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Glossary of Cohen Med Term 3

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apex
point of the heart
endocardium
a thin membrane that lines the chambers and valves
myocardium
the thick muscle layer that makes up most of the heart wall
epicardium
a thin membrane that covers the heart
pericardium
a fibrous sac that contains the heart and anchors it to the surrounding structures such as the sternum and diaphragm
atrium
upper receiving chambers of the heart
ventricle
lower pumping chambers of the heart
pulmonary circuit
the right side of the heart pumps blood to be oxygenated and then it goes back to the left side of the heart
systemic circuit
the left side of the heart pumps blood through the rest of the body and back to the right side of the heart
superior vena cava & inferior vena cava
brings blood to the right atrium
aorta
artery leading from the left ventricle
atrioventricular valve
valve between the atrium and ventricle
right AV valve
tricuspid valve
left AV valve
bicuspid valve or mitral valve
semilunar valves
valves leading into the pulmonary artery and the aorta
functional murmur
any sound made as the heart functions normally
systole
contraction of the heart
diastole
relaxation phase of the heart during which chambers fill
sinoatrial node
located in the upper right atrium and called the pacemaker because it sets the rate of the heartbeat
atrioventricular node
located at the bottom of the right atrium near the ventricle
AV bundle
"bundle of His" at the top of the interventricular septum
bundle branches
travel along the left and right sides of the septum
Purkinje fibers
carry stimulation throughout the walls of the ventricles
sinus rhythm
normal heart rhythm which originates in the SA node
arteries
carry blood away from the heart
arterioles
vessels smaller than arteries that lead into the capillaries
capillaries
the smallest vessels, through which exchanges take place between the blood and tissues
venules
small vessels that receive blood from the capillaries and drain into the veins
veins
carry blood back to the heart
electrocardiography
study of the electrical activity of the heart as detected by electrodes paced on the surface of the body also abbreviated EKG
ventricul/o
cavity, ventricle
angi/o
vessel
arteriol/o
arteriole
aort/o
aorta
phleb/o
vein
atherosclerosis
accumulation of fatty deposits w/i the lining of an artery
plaque
fatty deposit
aneurysm
a localized abnormal dilation of a blood vessel, usually an artery, caused by weakness of the vessel wall; may eventually burst
angina pectoris
a feeling of constriction around the heart or pain that may radiate to the left arm or shoulder, usually brought on by exerton; caused by insufficient blood supply to the heart
arrhythmia
any abnormality in the rate or rhythm of the heartbeat
cerebrovascular accident
sudden damage to the brain resulting from reduction of blood flow; multiple causes; commonly called a stroke
clubbing
enlargement of the ends of the fingers and toes caused by growth of the soft tissue around the nails; a symtom of diseases that cause poor peripheral circulation
coarctation of the aorta
localized narrowing on the aorta with restriction of blood flow
deep vein thrombosis
thrombophlebitis involving the deep veins
diaphoresis
profuse sweating
dissecting aneurysm
an aneurysm in which blood enters the arterial wall and separates the layers; usually involves the aorta
dyslipidemia
disorder in serum lipid levels, which is an important factor in development of atherosclerosis; includes hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia
dyspnea
difficult or labored breathing
edema
swelling of body tissues caused by the presence of excess fluid
embolism
obstruction of a blood vessel by a blood clot or other matter carried in the circulation
embolus
a mass carried in the circulation; usually a blood clot, but also may be air, fat, bacteria or other solid matter from within or from outside the body
fibrillation
spontaneous, quivering, and ineffectual contraction of muscle fibers as in the atria or the ventricles
heart blockmia
an interference in the conduction system of the heart resulting in arrhythmia
heart failure
a condition caused by the inability of the heart to maintain adequate circulation of the blood
hemorrhoid
a varicose vein in the rectum
hypertension
a condition of heigher-than-normal blood pressure; essential (idiopathic)hypertension has no known cause
infarct
an area of localized necrosis of tissue resulting from a blockage or a narrowing of the artery that supplies the area
ischemia
local deficiency of blood supply caused by obstruction of the circulation
murmur
an abnormal heart sound
myocardial infaction
localized necrosis of cardiac muscle tissue resulting from blockage or narrowing of the coronary artery that supplies that area; usually caused by a thrombus
occlusion
a closing off or obstruction as of a vessel
patent ductus arterious
persistence of the ductus
patent ductus arteriousus
persistence of the ductus arteriosus after birth; the ductus arteriousus is a vessel that connects the pulmonary artery to the descending aorta in the fetus to bypass the lungs
phlebitis
inflammation of a vein
rheumatic heart disease
damage to heart valves after infection with a type of streptococcus; the antibodies produced in response to the infection produce scarring of the valves, usually the mitral valve
septal defect
an opening in the septum between the atria or ventricles; a common cause is persistence of the foramen ovale: an opening between the atria that bypasses the lungs in fetal circulation
shock
circulatory failure resulting in an inadequate supply of blood to the tissues; cardiogenic shock is caused by heart failure; septic shock is caused by bacterial infection
stenosis
constriction or narrowing of an opening
syncope
a temporary loss of consciousness caused by inadequate blood flow to the brain; fainting
thrombophlebitis
inflammation of a vein associated with formation of a blood clot
thrombosis
development of a blood clot within a vessel
thrombus
a blood clot that forms within a blood vessel
varicose vein
a twisted and swollen vein resulting from breakdown of the valves, pooling of blood, and chronic dilatation of the vessel; also called varix or varicosity
angioplasty
a procedure that reopens a narrowed vessel and restores blood flow; commonly accomplished by surgically removing plaque, inflating a balloon within the vessel, or installing a device (stent) to keep the vessel open
cardioversion
correction of an abnormal cardiac rhythm; may be accomplished pharmacologically, with antiarrhythmic drugs, or by application of electric current
coronary angiography
radiographic study of the coronary arteries after introduction of an opaque dye by means of a catheter
creatine kinase MB (CK-MB)
enzyme released in increased amounts from cardiac muscle cells following myocardial infarction; serum assays help diagnose MI and determine the extent of muscle damage
defibrillation
use of an electronic device (defibrillator) to stop fibrillation by delivering a brief electric shock to the heart
echocariography (ECG)
a noninvasive method that uses ultrasound to visualize internal cardiac structures
percutaneous trasluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
dilatation of a sclerotic blood vessel by means of a balloon catheter inserted into the vessel and then inflated to flatten plaque against the artery wall
arteriosclerosis
hardening of the arteries, with loss of capacity and loss of elasticity, as from fatty deposits, deposit of calcium salts, or formation of scar tissue
ablation
destruction of a portion of the conduction pathway that is involved in the arrhythmia; electrode catheter ablation (ECA) uses high-frequency sound waves, freezing, or electrical energy delivered through an intravascular catheter to ablate a defect in the conduction pathway
appendix
a small, fingerlike mass of lymphoid tissue attached to the first part of the large intestine
lymph
the thin plasmalike fluid that drains from the tissues and is transported in lymphatic vessels
lymph node
a small mass of lymphoid tissue along the path of a lymphatic vessel that filters lymph
lymphatic system
the system that drains fluid and proteins from the tissues and returns them to the bloodstream; this system also participates in immunity and aids in absorption of fats from the digestive tract
Peyer patches
aggregates of lymphoid tissue in the lining of the intestine
right lymphatic duct
the lymphatic duct that drains fluid from the upper right side of the body
spleen
a large reddish-brown organ in the upper left region of the abdomen; it filters blood and destroys old red blood cells
thoracic duct
the lymphatic duct that drains fluid from the upper left side of the body and all of the lower portion of the body
thymus gland
a gland in the upper part of the chest beneath the sternum; it functions in immunity
tonsils
small masses of lymphoid tissue located in regions of the throat
lymph/o
lymph, lymphatic system
lymphaden/o
lymph node
lymphangi/o
lymphatic vessel
splen/o
spleen
thym/o
thymus gland
tonsill/o
tonsil
lymphadenitis
inflammation and enlargement of lymph nodes, usually as a result of infection
lymphangiitis
inflammation of lymphatic vessels as a result of bacterial infection; appears as painful red streaks under the skin
lymphedema
swelling of tissues with lymph caused by obstruction or exclusion of lymphatic vessels
lymphoma
any neoplastic disease of lymphoid tissue
apical pulse
pulse felt or heard over the apex of the heart; it is measured in the fifth left intercoastal space about 8-9 in from the midline
cardiac output
the amount of blood pumped from the right or left ventricle per minute
Korotkoff sounds
arterial sounds heard with a stethoscope during determination of blood pressure with a cuff
perfusion
the passage of fluid, such as blood, through an organ or tissue
precordium
the anterior region over the heart and the lower part of the thorax; adjective: precordial
pulse pressure
the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure
stroke volume
the amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle with each beat
Valsalva maneuver
bearing down, as in childbirth or defecation, by attempting to exhale forcefully with the nose and throat closed; this action has an effect on the cardiovascular system
bruit
an abnormal sound heard in auscultation
cardiac tamponade
pathologic accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac; may result from pericarditis or injury to the heart or great vessels
ectopic beat
a heartbeat that originates from some part of the heart other than the SA node
extrasystole
premature contraction of the heart that occurs separately from the normal beat and originates from a part of the heart other than the SA node
flutter
very rapid (200-300 bpm) but regular contractions, as in the atria or ventricles
hypotension
a condition of lower than normal blood pressure
intermittent claudication
pain in a muscle during exercise caused by inadequate blood supply; the pain disappears with rest
mitral valve prolapse
movement of the cusps of the mitral valve into the left atrium when the ventricles contract
occlusive vascular disease
arteriosclerotic disease of the vessels, usually peripheral vessels
palpitation
a sensation of abnormally rapid or irregular heartbeat
pitting edema
edema that retains the impression of a finger pressed firmly into the skin
polyarteritis nodosa
potentially fatal collagen disease causing inflammation of small visceral arteries; symptoms depend on the organ affected
Raynaud disease
a disorder characterized by abnormal constriction of peripheral vessels in the arms and legs on exposure to cold
regurgitation
a backward flow, such as the backflow of blood through a defective valve
stasis
stoppage of normal flow, as of blood or urine; blood stasis may lead to dermatitis and ulcer formation
subacute bacterial endocarditis
growth of bacteria in a heart or valves previously damaged by rheumatic fever
tetralogy of Fallot
a combination of four congenital heart abnormalities: pulmonary artery stenosis, interventricular septal defect, displacement of the aorta to the right, and right ventricular hypertrophy
thromboangiitis obliterans
inflammation and thrombus formation resulting occlusions of small vessels, especially in the legs; most common in young men and correlated with heavy smoking; thrombotic occlusion of leg vessels may lead to gangrene of the feet; patients show a hypersensitivity to tobacco; also called Buerger disease
vegetation
irregular outgrowths of bacteria on the heart valves; associated with rheumatic fever
Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW)
a cardiac arrhythmia consisting of tachycardia and a premature ventricular beat caused by an alternative conduciton pathway
cardiac catheterization
passage of a catheter into the heart through a vessel to inject a contrast medium for imaging, diagnosing abnormalities, obtaining samples, or measuring pressure
central venous pressure (CVP)
pressure in the superior vena cava
cineangiocardiography
the photographic recording of fluoroscopic images of the heart and large vessels using motion-picture techniques
Doppler echocardiography
an imaging method used to study the rate and pattern of blood flow
heart scan
imaging of the heart after injection of a radioactive isotope
homocysteine
an amino acid in the blood that at higher-than-normal levels is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease
phlebotomist
technician who specializes in drawing blood
phonocardiography
electronic recording of heart sounds
plethysmography
measurement of changes in the size of a part based on the amount of blood contained in or passing through it; impedance plethysmography measures changes in electrical resistance and is used in the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis
pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP)
pressure measured by a catheter in a branch of the pulmonary artery; it is an indirect measure of pressure in the left atrium
Swan-Ganz catheter
a cardiac catheter with a balloon at the tip that is used to measure pulmonary arterial pressure; it is flow-guided through a vein into the right side of the heart and then into the pulmonary artery
transesophageal echocardiography (TEE)
use of an ultrasound transducer placed endoscopically into the esophagus to obtain images of the heart
ventriculography
X-ray study of the ventricles of the heart after introduction of an opaque dye by means of a catheter
atherectomy
removal of atheromatous plaque from the lining of a vessel; may be done by open surgery or through the lumen of the vessel
commissurotomy
surgical incision of a scarred mitral valve to increase the size of the valve opening
embolectomy
surgical removal of an embolus
intraaortic balloon pump
a mechanical-assist device that constists of an inflatable balloon pump inserted throgh the femoral artery into the thoracic aorta; it inflates during distole to improve coronary circulation and delfates before systole to allow blood ejection from the heart
left ventricular assist device
a pump that takes over the function of the left ventricle in delivering blood into the systemic circuit; these devgices are used to assist patients awaitng heart transplantation or those who are recovering from heart failure
angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitor
a drug that lowers blood pressure by blocking the formation in the blood of angiotensin II, a substance that normally acts to increase blood pressure
angiotensin II receptor antagonist
a drug that blocks tissue receptors for angiotensin II
antiarrhythmic agent
a drug that regulates the rate and rhythm of the heartbeat
beta-adrenergic blocking agent
drug that decreases the rate and strength of heart contractions
calcium-channel blocker
drug that controls the rate and force of heart contraction by regulating calcium entrance into the cells
digitalis
a drug that slows and strengthens heart muscle contractions
diuretic
drug that eliminates fluid by increasing the output of urine by the kidneys; lowered blood volume decreases the workload of the heart
hypolipidemic agent
drug that lowers serum cholesterol
lidocaine
a local anesthetic that is used intravenously to treat cardiac arrhythmias
nitroglycerin
a drug used in the treatment of angina pectoris to dilate coronary vessels
statins
drugs that act to lower lipids in the blood; the drug names end with -statin
streptokinase
an enzyme used to dissolve blood clots
tissue plasminogen activator
a drug used to dissolve blood clots; it activates production of a substance (plasmin) in the blood that normally dissolves clots
vasodilator
a drug that widens blood vessels and improves blood flow
thrombocytes
aka platelets, are part of megakaryocytes
agranulocytes
white blood cells that do not have visible granules in their cytoplasm; this category includes lymphocytes and monocytes
antigen
a substance that induces the formation of an antibody
B cell
a lymphocyte that matures in lymphoid tissue and is active in producing antibodies
band cell
an immature neutrophil w/ a nucleus in the shape of a band; also called a stab cell; band-cell counts are used to trace infections and other diseases
basophil
a granular leukocyte that stains w/ basic dyes; active in allergic reactions
coagulation
blood clotting
eosinophil
a granular leukocyte that stains with acidic dyes; active in allergic reactions and defense against parasites
erythropoietin
a hormone produced in the kidneys that stimulates red-blood-cell production in the bone marrow; this hormone is now made by genetic engineering for clinical use
fibrin
the protein that forms a clot in the process of blood coagulation
fibrinogen
the inactive precursor of fibrin
granulocytes
white blood cells that have visible granules in their cytoplasm; include neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils
hemoglobin
the iron containing pigment in red blood cells that transports oxygen
hemostasis
stoppage of bleeding
immunity
the state of being protected against specific diseases
immunoglobulin
an antibody; fall into 5 classes: IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, IgE
lymphocyte
an agranular leukocyte active in immunity (T cells and B cells); found in both the blood and in lymphoid tissue
megakaryocyte
a large bone marrow cell that fragments to release platelets
macrophage
a phagocytic cell derived from a monocyte; usually located w/i tissues; they process antigens for T cells
monocyte
an agranular phagocytic leukocyte
neutrophil
a granular leukocyte that stains wiht acidic or basic dyes; the most numerous of the white blood cells; a type of phagocyte
plasma cell
a mature form of a B cell that produces antibodies
serum
the fraction of the plasma that remains after blood coagulation; it is the equivalent of plasma w/o its clotting factors
T cell
a lymphocyte that matures in the thymus gland and attacks foreign cells directly
-emia
condition of blood
-hemia
condition of blood
-penia
decrease in, deficiency of
-poiesis
formation, production
-cytosis
excess number of cells
-philia
excess number of cells
myel/o
bone marrow
hem/o
blood
hemat/o
blood
thromb/o
blood clot
thrombocyt/o
platelet, thrombocyte
azot/o
nitrogenous compounds
calc/i
calcium
ferr/o
iron
sider/o
iron
kali
potassium
natri
sodium
ox/y
oxygen
differential count
relative percentage of the different types of leukocytes
hematocrit
relative percentage of packed red cells in a given volume of blood
anemia
a deficieny in the amount of hemoglobin in the blood
angloedema
a localized edema w/ large hives similar to urticaria but involving deeper layers of the skin and subcutaneous tissue
aplastic anemia
anemia caused by bone marrow failure resulting in defiecient blood-cell production, especially of red cells
Cooley anemia
a form of thalassemia (hereditary anemia) in which the B chain of hemoglobin is abnormal
delayed hypersensitivity reaction
an allergic reation involving T cells that takes at least 12 hours to develop
disseminated intravascular coagulation
widespread formation of clots in the microscopic vessels; may be followed by bleeding caused by depletion of clotting factors
ecchymosis
a collection of blood under the skin caused by leakage from small vessels
chym/o
juice
hemophilia
a hereditary blood disease caused by lack of a clotting factor and resulting in abnormal bleeding
Hodgkin disease
a neoplastic disease of unknown cause that involves the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, and other tissues; characterized by the presence of giant Reed-Sternberg cells
leukemia
malignant overgrowth of immature white blood cells; may be chronic or acute; may affect bone marrow or lymphoid tissue
lymphadenopathy
any disease of the lymph nodes
non-Hodgkin lymphoma
a widespread malignant disease of lymph nodes that involves lymphocytes; it differs from Hodgkin disease in that giant Reed-Sternberg cells are absent
pernicious anemia
anemia caused by failure of the stomach to produce intrinsic factor, a substance needed for the absorption of vitamin B12; this vitamin is required for the formation of erythrocytes
petechiae
pinpoint, flat, purplish-red spots caused by bleeding w/i the skin or mucous membrane
purpura
a condition characterized by hemorrhages into the skin, mucous membranes, internal organs, and other tissues
sideroblastic anemia
anemia caused by inability to use available iron to manuvacture hemoglobin; the excess iron precipitates in normoblasts (developing red blood cells)
Sjogren syndrome
an autoimmune disease involving dysfunction of excocrine glands and affecting secretion of tears, saliva, and other body fluids; deficiency leads to dry mouth, tooth decay, corneal damage, eye infections, and difficulty in swallowing
systemic lupus erythematosus
inflammatory disease of connective tissue affecting the skin and multiple organs; patients are sensitive to light and may have a red butterfly-shaped rash over the nose and cheeks
thalassemia
a group of hereditary anemias mostly found in populations of Mediterranean descent
thrombocytopenia
a deficiency of thrombocytes in the blood
utricaria
a skin reaction consisting of round, raised eruptions with itching (hives)
epinephrine
a powerful stimulant produced by the adrenal gland and sympathetic nervous system; activates the cardiovascular, respiratory, and other systems needed to meet stress; used as a drug to treat severe allergic reactions and shock; also called adrenaline
reticulocyte counts
blood counts of reticulocytes, a type of immature red blood cell; reticulocyte counts are useful in diagnosis to indicate the rate of erythrocyte formation
Reed-Sternberg cells
giant cells that are characteristic of Hodgkin disease; they usually have two large nuclei and are surrounded by a halo
bilirubin
a pigment derived from the breakdown of hemoglobin; it is eliminated by the liver in bile
heparin
a substance found throughout the body that inhibits blood coagulation; an anticoagulant
plasmin
an enzyme that dissolves clots
thrombin
the enzyme derived from prothrombin that converts fibrinogen to fibrin
agranulocytosis
a condition involving a decrease in the number of granulocytes in the blood
hematoma
a localized collection of blood, usually clotted, caused by a break in a blood vessel
hemolytic disease of the newborn
disease that results from incompatibility between the blood of a mother and her fetus, usually involving Rh factor; an Rh-negative mother produces antibody to an Rh-positive fetus that, in later pregnancies will destroy the red cells of an Rh-positive fetus; the problem is usually avoided by treating the mother with antibodies to remove the Rh antigen
hemosiderosis
a condition involving the deposition of an iron-containing pigment mainly in the liver and the spleen; the pigment comes from hemoglobin released from disintegrated red blood cells
myelodysplastic syndrome
bone marrow dysfunction resulting in anemia and deficiency of neutrophils and platelets; preleukemia
myelofibrosis
condition in which bone marrow is replaced w/ fibrous tissue
neutropenia
a decrease in the number of neutrophils w/ increased susceptibility to infection
polycythemia
any condition in which there is a relative increase in the percent of red blood cells in whole blood; may result from excessive production of red cells b/c of lack of oxygen, as caused by high altitudes, breathing obstruction, heart failure, or certain forms or poisoning; apparent polycythemia results form concentration of the blood, as by dehydration
polycythemia vein
a condition in which overactive bone marrow produces too many red blood cells; these interfere with circulation and promote thrombosis and hemorrhage; treated by blood removal

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