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Glossary of Cohen Med Term 2

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Created by bekabirder

pathogen
any disease causing organism
trauma
injury
lesion
wound
necrosis
death of tissue
prolapse
dropping
hernia
rupture
etiology
cause of a disease
sepsis
presence of harmful microorganisms or their toxins in the body
cocci
round bacteria
staphylococci
round bacteria in clusters
streptococci
round bacteria in chains
bacilli
rod-shaped bacteria
vibrios
short curved rods
spirochetes
corkscrew-shaped bacteria that move with a twisting motion
chlamydia
extremely small bacteria that grow in living cells, but are suceptible to antibiotics, unlike viruses
helminths
worms
pyr/o, pyret
head
dolar
pain
rubor, erythema
redness
edema
swelling or accumulation of fluid
py/o
pus
sarcoma
tumor of the flesh; a neoplasm that involves connective tissue or muscle
benign
non-spreading tumors
cyst/o
normal bladder or sac like gallbladder
inflammation
heat, pain, redness, swelling
alg/o, algi/o, algsi/o
pain
carcin/o
cancer
lith
stone
onc/o, -oma
tumor
path/o
disease
scler/o
hard
brady-
slow
dys-
abnormal, painful, difficult
mal-
bad, poor
pachy-
thick
tachy-
rapid
xero-
dry
-algia, -algesia
pain
-cele
hernia, localized dilation
-clasis, -clasia
breaking
-odynia
pain
-rhexis
rupture
-schsis
fissure, splitting
ectasia, ectasis
dilation, dilatation, distension
malacia
softening
ptosis
dropping, downward displacement
spasm
contraction
stasis
suppression, stoppage
stenosis
narrowing, constriction
edemic
occuring at a low level, but continuously in a given region ex. cold
iatrogenic
caused by the effects of treatment
idiopathic
having no known cause
in situ
localized
nosocomical
infection acquired in a hospital
septicemia
presence of pathogenic bacteria in the blood; blood poisoning
systemic
pertaining to the whole body
abscess
a localized collection of pus
adhesion
a uniting of two surfaces or parts that may normally be separated
anaplasia
lack of normal differentiation, as shown by cancer cells
ascites
accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity
cellulitis
a spreading inflammation of tissue
effusion
escape of fluid into a cavity or other body part
exudate
material that escapes from blood vessels as a result of tissue injury
fissure
a groove or split
fistula
an abnormal passage between two organs or from an organ to the surface of the body
hyperplasia
excessive growth of normal cells in normal arrangement
hypertrophy
an increase in size of an organ without increase in the number of cells; may result from an increase in activity, as in muscles
induration
hardening; an abnormally hard spot or place
metaplasia
conversion of cells to a form that is not normal for that tissue
polyp
a tumor attached by a thin stalk
purulent
forming or containing pus
suppuration
pus formation
cineradiography
making of a motion picture of successive images appearing on a fluoroscopic screen
computed tomography
CT scan, use of a computer to generate an image from a large number of x-rays passed at different angles through the body; a three dimensional picture of a cross-section of the body is obtained; reveals more about soft tissues than does simple radiography
fluoroscopy
use of x-rays to examine deep structures; the shadows cast by x-rays passed through the body are observed on a fluorescent screen; the device used is called a fluoroscope
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
production of images through the use of a magnetic field and radio waves; the characteristics of soft tissue are revealed by differences in molecular properties; eliminates the need for x-rays and contrast media
positron emission tomography (PET)
production of sectional body images by administration of a natural substance, such as glucose, labeled with a positron-emitting isotope; the rays subsequently emitted are interpreted by computer to show the internal distribution of the substance administered; PET has been used to follow blood flow through an organ and to measure metabolic activity within an organ, such as the brain, under different conditions
scintigraphy
production of an image of the radioactivity distribution in tissues after internal administration of a radioactive substance (radionuclide); the images are obtained with a scintillation camera; the record produced is a scintiscan and usually specifies the part examined or the isotope used for the test, as in bone scan, gallium scan
bougie
slender, flexible instrument for exploring and dilating tubes
cannula
tube enclosing a trocar that allows escapeof fluid or air after removal of the trocar
curet (curette)
spoon-shaped instrument for removing material from the wall of a cavity or other surface
elevator
instrument for lifting tissue or bone
hemostat
small clamp for stopping blood flow from a vessel
rasp
surgical file
rongeur
gouge forceps
sound
instrument for exploring a cavity or canal
trocar
sharp pointed instrument contained in a cannula used to puncture a cavity
anesthesia
loss of the ability to feel pain, as by administration of a drug
auscultation
listening for sounds within the body, usually within the chest or abdomen
biopsy
removal of a small amount of tissue for microscopic examination
cautery
destruction of tissue by a damaging agent, such as a harmful chemical, heat, or electric current (electrocautery); cauterization
opthalmoscope
an instrument for examining the interior of the eye
otoscope
instrument used to examine the ears
palliative
providing relief but not a cure; a treatment that provides such relief
palpation
examining by placing the hands or fingers on the surface of the body to determine characteristics such as texture, temperature, movement, and consistency
percussion
tapping the body lightly but sharply to assess the condition of the underlying tissue by the sounds obtained
sphygmomanometer
the blood pressure apparatus or blood pressure cuff; pressure is read in millimeters of mercury when the heart is contracting (systolic pressure) and when the heart is relaxing (diastolic pressure) and is reported as systolic/diastolic
aer/o
air, gas
bar/o
pressure
chrom/o
color, stain
chron/o
time
cry/o
cold
electro/o
electricity
erg/o
work
phon/o
sound, voice
phot/o
light
radi/o
radiation, x-ray
son/o, ech/o
sound
therm/o
heat, temperature
-graph
instrument for recording data
-graphy
act of recording data
-gram
a record of data
-meter
instrument for measuring
-metry
measurement of
-scope
instrument for viewing or examining
-scopy
examination of
-centesis
puncture, tap
-desis
binding, fusion
-ectomy
excision, surgical removal
-pexy
surgical fixation
-plasty
plastic repair, plastic surgery, reconstruction
-rhapy
surgical repair, suture
-stomy
surgical creation of an opening (think os=opening, mouth)
-tome
instrument for incising
-tomy
incision
-tripsy
crushing
diaphoresis
profuse sweating
malaise
a feeling of discomfort or uneasiness, often indicative of infection
prodrome
a symptom indicating an approaching disease
sequela
a lasting effect of a disease
syncope
a temporary loss of consciousness because of inadequate blood flow to the brain; fainting
febrile
fever
speculum
an instrument for examining a canal
syndrome
a group of signs and symptoms that together characterize a disease condition
catheter
a thin tube that can be passed into the body; used to remove fluids from or introduce fluids into a body cavity
clysis
the introduction of fluid into the body, other than orally, as into the rectum or abdominal cavity; also refers to the solution thus used
irrigation
flushing of a tube, cavity, or area with a fluid
lavage
the washing out of a cavity; irrigation
paracentesis
puncture of a cavity for removal or fluid
prophylaxis
prevention of disease
ligature
a tie or bandage; the process of binding or tying (also called ligation)
resection
partial excision of a structure
antagonist
a substance that interferes with or opposes the action of a drug
contraindication
a factor that makes the use of a drug undesirable or dangerous
efficacy
the power to produce a specific result; effectiveness
phytomedicine
another name for herbal medicine
potentation
increased potency created by two drugs acting together
synergy
combined action of two or more drugs working together to produce an effect greater than any of the drugs could produce when acting alone
-lytic
dissolving, reducing, loosening
-mimetic
mimicking, simulating
-tropic
acting on
-tropin
substance that acts on
anti-
against
alg/o, algesi/o, algi/o
pain
hypn/o
sleep
narc/o
stupor
pyr/o
fever
vas/o
vessel
adrenergics
mimic the action of the sympatheitc nervous system, which responds to stress; used to treat bronchospasms, allergic reactions, hypotension
sympathomimetics
adrenergics
analgesics
alleviate pain
narcotic
decrease pain sensation in central nervous system; chronic use may lead to physical dependence
nonnarcotic
act peripherally to inhibit prostaglandins (local hormones); they may also be antiinflammatory and antipyretic
anesthetics
reduce or eliminate sensation
anticoagulants
prevent coagulation and formation of blood clots
anticonvulsants
suppress or reduce the number and/or intensity of seizures
antidiabetics
prevent or alleviate diabetes
antiemetics
relieve symptoms of nausea and prevent emesis (vomiting)
emesis
vomiting
antihistamines
prevent responses mediated by histamine: allergic and inflammmatory reactions
antiinflammatory drugs
counteract inflammation and swelling
corticosteroids
hormones from the cortex of the adrenal gland; used for allergy, respiratory, and blood diseases, injury, and malignancy; suppress the immune system
nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDS)
reduce inflammation and pain by interfering with synthesis of prostaglandins; also antipyretic
antiinfective agents
kill or prevent the growth of infectious organisms
antibacterials
effective against bacteria
antifungals
effective against fungi
antiarasitics
effective against parasites: protozoa, worms
antivirals
effective against viruses
antineoplastics
destroy cancer cells; they are toxic for all cells but have greater effect on cellls that are actively growing and dividing; hormones and hormone inhibitors also are used to slow tumor growth
cardiac drugs
act on the heart
antiarrythmics
correct or prevent abnormalities of heart rhythm
beta-adrenergic blockers
inhibit sympathetic nervous system; reduce rate and force of heart contractions
calcium-channel blockers
dilate coronary arteries, slow heart rate, reduce contractions
hypolipidemics
lower cholesterol in patients with high serum levels that cannot be controlled with diet alone; hypocholesterolemics, statins
nitrates, antianginal agents
dilate coronary arteries and reduce workload of heart by lowering blood pressure and reducing venous return
CNS stimulants
stimulate the central nervous system
diuretics
promote excretion of water, sodium, and other electrolytes by the kidneys; used to reduce edema and blood pressure
gastrointestinal drugs
act on the digestive tract
antidiarrheals
itreat or prevent diarrhea by reducing intestinal motility or absorbing irritants and soothing the intestinal lining
histamine H2 antagonists
decrease secretion of stomach acid by interfering with teh action of histamine at H2 receptors; used to treat ulcers and other gastrointestinal problems
laxatives
promote elimination from the large intestine; types include:
stimulants
hyperosmotics
stool softeners


hypnotics
induce sleep or dull the senses; see antianxiety agents
muscle relaxants
depress nervous system stimulation of skeletal muscles; used to control muscle spasms and pain
proton-pump inhibitors
inhibit secretion of stomach acid by blocking the transport of hydrogen ions (protons) into the stomach
psychotropics
affect the mind, altering mental activity, mental state, or behavior
antianxiety agents
reduce or dispel anxiety; tranquilizers; anxiolytic agents
antidepressants
relieve depression by raising brain levels of neurotransmitters (chemicals active in the nervous system)
antipsychotics
act on nervous system to relieve symptoms of psychoses
respiratory drugs
act on the respiratory system
antitussives
suppress coughing
asthma maintenance drugs
used for prevention of asthma
bronchodilators
prevent or eliminate spasm of oth bronchi by relaxing bronchial smooth muscle; used to treat asthma attacks and bronchitis
expectorants
induce productive coughing to eliminate respiratory secretions
mucolytics
loosen mucus to promote its elimination
sedatives/hypnotics
induce relaxation and sleep; lower (sedative) doses promote relaxation leading to sleep; higher (hypnotic) doses induce sleep; antianxiety agents also used
tranquilizers
reduce mental tension and anxiety
absorption
drug taken into the circulation through the digestive tract or by transfer across another membrane
inhalation
administration through the respiratory system, as by breathing in an aerosol or nebulizer spray
instillation
liquid is dropped or poured slowly into a body cavity or on the surface of the body, such as into the ear or onto the conjunctiva of the eye
sublingual (SL)
administered under the tongue
topical
applied to the surface of the skin
epidural
injected into the space between the meninges (membranes around the spinal cord) and the spine
intradermal (id)
injected into the skin
intramuscular (im)
injected into a muscle
intravenous
injected into a vein
spinal (intrathecal)
injected through the meninges into the spinal fluid
subcutaneous (sc)
injected beneath the skin; hypodermic

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