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Glossary of Clinical Final

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effective counselors should have
accepting, positive view of others and should be well adjusted with good self-esteem that are committed to their own growth and dvlpmt

Counselors should seek personal counseling as to
enhance their openness to new experiences and become more self aware
According to Rogers, counselors should show
empathy, congruence, upr
According to Carkhuff, counselors should show
respect and immediacy
major counselor characteristics
self awareness (know personal vulnerabilities)
interpersonal awareness (ability to understand client struggles and pain)
objectivity
personal integrity
open-minded (open but alert to preconceptions)
flexible (not bound by theoretical viewpt)
trustworthy







ACA addresses the issue of awareness of diverse cultures by
code of ethics: counselors must be culturally competent
burnout
not coping with stress -> anxious, worn out, feel ineffective
manifesting negative attitudes about self and work and do not deal with symptoms ->
impairment - unaware of or unable to cope with or resolve emotional stress, and thus the inability to relate to clients effectively and may cause harm to clients
if a counselor experiences impairment, they are required by the apa code of ethics to
recover/seek assistance before resuming client work
To avoid burnout
1 confront/attempt to improve working conditions
2 evaluate whether personal relations are inhibiting counseling
3 learn limits, set limits with others
4 engage in professional community
5 attend prof workshops
6 P in prof growth activities
7 seek prof growth activities
8 broaden interests beyond work






what are the similarities/differences between listening and attending skills
sim: both aim at establishing rx

diff
listening skills - gain info and encourage clients to talk about themselves; help client perceive themselves and their problems (open and closed Qs and encouraging)

attending skills - understand/clarify client feelings and to convey counselor understanding of feelings to client (paraphrasing, reflection of feelings, and summarization)




in listening and attending skills, it is important to know
what is appropriate in the client culture, as this will dictate body language, direct eye contact, etc
what are examples of influencing skills
confrontation
focusing skills
self-disclosure

influencing skills
allow counselors to help clients more deeply explore their problems and take actions that will lead to change
confrontation

facilitative skill

facilitative tool used to increase client insight and motivation io to change self-defeating bxs
focusing skills
direct discussion to areas counselor believe will improve client perspective about selves, problems, influence on others
self disclosure

facilitative skill

refer briefly to personal beliefs or expce
purpose of assessment skills
1 determine presenting problem
2 make accurate do
3 gather info to aid in dvlpmt of tx planning
4 baseline data to monitor progress
5 determine client suitability for tx program/modality



research: hospital patients reported improvement whne the therapist showed high levels of
warmth, genuineness, and empathy
what are the eight qualities for effective counseling
psychological health, genuine interest in others, empathic ability, personal warmth, personal power, self-awareness, tolerance of ambiguity, and an awareness of values
Because counselors are models of bx, they become part of the problem and not the solution for a client if they do not
demonstrate psy health
what did bandura call the ability to feel in control of your own life
perceived self efficacy
What did Rogers call the quality of genuine interest
congruence
clients are burdened with the lack of honesty in the world outside of counseling. how does this relate to client attitude in therapy
clients do not want to relate to another real person who is playing the role of counselor
empathy can be described as thinking
with, not for, the client
Carl Rogers on empathy
to sense the private world of the client as if it were your own, but without ever losing the as-if quality
the warm counselor is ____. the humid counselor is ____.
caring and freeing

needy and possessive

what is the purpose of nonpossessive warmth
to preserve the client self-respect and to provide a trusting and safe atmosphere. this stims the client trust and helps them recognize that they can be liked in spite of unattractive cxs
warmth is important because
it begets warmth, which melts human defenses
what are three critical areas that a counselor should self study
security
trust
courage

counselors should have the courage to
confront themselves- to examine their true motives, feelings, and limits
effective counselors and ambiguity

how does this affect the counselor client rx?

tolerate ambiguity -> consistently practice patience with their clients, gently working to move the process along
some professionals feel that, given the inevitable communication of counselor values through body language, a counselor should
be open and explicit in their value orientation during counseling
in lecture, we discussed 12 important personal qualities of effective counselors..
objectivity
openmindedness
flexible
tolerance of ambiguity
trustworthy
personal integrity
respect
empathy
genuine
personal warmth
awareness of self, interpersonal dynamics, multicultural issues, values
avoid burnout










The quality of flexibility in effective counseling can
help a counselor be more multiculturally competent, as it acknowledges that there is more than one way to do things
In the effective counseling quality of trustworthiness, it is imp that counselors remain
trustworthy through confidentiality and trustworthy in daily actions
In the effective counseling quality of personal integrity, it is imp that counselors remain
aware of the power they have over the client; in the high vulnerability of the client, it is important that the counselor attempt to push strengths back to the client
In the effective counseling quality of awareness of self, it is imp that counselors remain
aware of abilities, facial expression, that they are not conveying negative emotions, stress level, and biases
In the effective counseling quality of awareness of multicultural issues, it is imp that counselors have
awareness - know biases but do not act on them

knowledge - learn about cultures

skills - skills to work with many different groups

if you do not know, ASK





Professional qualities of a counselors
-know about theories and strategies
-ethical judgment
-interviewing skills
-assessment skills (scientist practitioners)


pitfalls of new counselors
-premature problem solving
-knowing where to set limits
-fear of silence
-interrogating (just because you want to get to the root of the problem does not mean that the client is ready
-moralizing (we do not use should in therapy)
-reluctance to refer
-impatience





according to research, how do clients feel about issues of gender, race, and counselor personal wellness
clients do not tend to perceive differences in gender and race when they exist

clients most concern with counselor personal wellness

ethnic match is not a significant predictor of
decrease drop out rates or increased rate of attendance
Asian Americans and ethnic match
match was important, especially if spec ethnicity and linguistics matched (treatment efficacy and attendance both showed importance)
For Mexican Americans, ethnic match mattered
In efficacy and attendance but not as much as it did in Asian Americans
In African Americans and Caucasian Americans
Attendance increased with ethnic match but efficacy did not change
Premature termination with ethnic non-match occurred more for
Caucasian Americans than for African Americans
If the counselor experiences racism/ageism/sexism in therapy, you can
use that as part material for therapy, ie, you commented on that group, but you know that I am part of that group. What was your intention in doing that?
Levels of empathy
1 communicates no awareness of even most obvious, expressed surface feelings of client

2 communicates some awareness of obvious, surface feelings of client, but the lvl of meaning is distorted

3 responds with accurate understanding of the surface feelings of the clients, but misses or misinterps feelings

4 communicates an understanding of the expressions of clients at a deeper level than expresses, enabling them to expce and express those feelings at a deeper lvl

5 the counselor is tuned in to clients and responds with accuracy to all their deeper as well as surface feelings







In culture, race, and ethnicity it is important that counselors
recognize and appreciate existing differences
all counseling is multicultural because
multicultural counseling includes both items of ADDRESSING and values/beliefs; since we do not all share belief systems, all counseling is
Multicultural counseling competencies include
-understand world views of culturally diverse clients
-become knowledgeable about client cultural bkgd, way of life, everyday living expces
-use intervention strategies and techniques that are appropriate to the client cultural values and customs

culture affects
how symptoms are explained, coping with symptoms, support of families and community, whether and when they seek help, how well indiv does in tx
gender
socially constructed masculine/feminine roles that men and women play that may or may not be related to biological sex
Little attention was paid to counseling ethnic minorities before
the 1970s
In counseling ethnic minorities,
empathy and trust are key, however this should not be mistaken for knowing what it is like to be in that position

personal racial/cultural identity dvlpmt on behalf of counselor is very imp

In counseling ethnic minorities, it is important to remember that, for client
racial/cultural identity is a personal choice/process is a choice completely
Characteristics of the field of psy in counseling multicultural counseling
-assessment and do weaknesses
-bias in theories
-minorities underrepresented in numbers of psychologists and therapists, which is a problem because ppl tend to study what is important to them

Training issues with regards to multicultural counselings
cultural differences do not equal deviancy, pathology, or inferiority

biculturalism is acknowledged and desirable; increased knowledge is extremely imp

awareness of racism/sexism/heterosexism as something that exists outside the indiviudal



Multicultural Competencies
1 Therapist Awareness of own assumptions, values, and biases
2 gaining knowledge about the worldview of culturally diverse clients (understand, not adopt, it)
3 Dvlp apropriate skills in multicultural practice (tailor goals and modalities to individuals)



Tripartite dvlpment of personal identity
All indivs are, in many respects

Like no others indivs
Like some indivs
Like all other indivs



Overt Covert and Microaggressions
Overt - not gone
Covert - so called new form; harder to define
Microaggressions - intentional or not, still hurts

As counselors, we must

multicultural

-be aware of our own biases (incl biases of own culture)
-strive to learn about others experiences
-strive toward MCC



lgb makes up
ten percent of pop
What must counselors be aware of in regards to LGB rxs and families?
-be knowledgeable about importance of rxs
-understand the effect of homosexuality on the family of origin (difference in sexual orientation could make you feel as if you are in a different culture of origin from your family
What are special issues in working with transgender clients?
-expce discrimination from lgb and non-lgb groups
-isolation and social alienation can lead to depression, suicide
-some transgender or intersex indivs prefer ze or zer/zim instead of her/him

race
social construction
d
d
race

real notecard

social construction, not bio, not real and yet everywhere and very powerful
ethnicity
includes land, history, and tradition
culture
learned, dynamic, includes language and worldview
biculturalism
refers to inhering two different cultural traditions - different from being biracial
multicultural counseling
any counseling rx in which 2 or more participants differ with respect to cultural background, values, and lifestyle
microaggression
brief and commonplace daily verbal or bxl indignities that communicate negative racial slights and insuls
microassault
blantant attack

ie hiring only men for managerial positions

microinsult
unintentional, conveys rudeness and insensitivity

ie colin powell speaks so well!

microinvalidation
verbal comments that dismiss or negative expces

ie you are being overly insensitive

note: hallmark of counseling is to validate feelings



guidelines for cultural proficient psychological research
awareness - commitment to increase awareness of cultural implications of conducting research with persons from underrepresented populations

knowledge - strive to make lifelong commitment to increasing own knowledge regarding a broad range of issues related to multicultural research

skills - strive to make an ongoing commitment to use own awareness and knowledge to effectively and ethically conduct psy research among persons from diverse ethnic, linguistic, and racial bkgds



guidelines in attitudes toward homosexuality and bisexuality
1 understand that lgb are not indicative of mental illness
2 encourage to recognize how own attitudes abt lgb issues may be relevant to ax and tx and seek consultation/make appro referrals when indicated
3 understand ways stigma poses risks to mh and well being of lgb clients
4 understand how inaccurate or prejudicial views of lgb may affect the client presentation in tx and the therapeutic process


guidelines for relationships and families when working will lgb clients
5 psy strive to be knowledgeable abt and respect the importance of lgb rxs
6 understand the partic circumstances and challenges facing lgb parents
7 recognize that families lgb people may incl non relatives
8 understand how lgb may have impoact on family of origin and rx to that family of origin


issues of diversity when working with lgb clients
9 recognize the partic lifestyle issues or challenges expced by lgb members of racial and ethnic minorities that are related to multiple and often conflictings norms, values, beliefs, and values
10 recognize the partic challenges expcd by bisexual indivs
11 strive to understand the special problems and risks that exists for lgb youth
12 consider generational differences with lgb populations, esp for older adults
13 encouraged to recognize partic challenges expced by lgb indivs with phys, sensory, or cog disabilities



education issues in counseling lgb clients
14 support to provision of professional edu and training on lgb issues
15 encouraged to increase their knowledge and understanding of lgb through ocontinuing edu, training, supervision, and consultation
16 reasonable efforts to familiarize themselves with relevant mental health, edu, and community resources for lgb

what is the oldest type of counseling
career counseling
early vocational counseling emphasized
measuring indiv differences; assumptions: inherent indiv traits, interests, and abilities can be assessed through standardized tests and matched with certain types of occupations
vocational counseling in the 50s
believed that vocational counseling should be integrated with personal and interpersonal counseling
vocational counseling in the 1970s
college counselors began focusing on client personal growth issues and tended to ignore their vocational concerns
1993 super vocational counseling
career v personal counseling
situational v inner self exploration

exists on continuum, and approaches (situational and inner) differ based on career v personal


21st century career counseling scene
career dvlpmt practicioners seek to empower ppl as they make meaning of their life expces and translate that info appropriate occupational choices
super: vocational adjustment and vocational maturity
vocational adjustment - implementation of indiv self concept

vocational maturity - through choices that are considered mature at each life stage, adults find and establish themselves in appropriate vocations

Ginzberg career development
1 fantasy - early childhood unrealistic ideas
2 tentative period - what child likes and can do well
3 realistic period - indivs explore and make specific life choices

-vocational choice = lifelong and always open to change



trait and factor approach to career counseling
traits should be identified and then matched with factors inherent in various occupations
the postmodern approach to career counseling emphasizes
use of understanding the plurality of perspectivies, contextual impact, social constructions of reality and the meaning indivs give to their experiences/to their careers
constructivist approach to career counseling
counselors help indivs id and eval the constructions and meaning in their career decisions they can assist clients in reconstructing those meanings = change outcome
contexual approaches to career counseling id ways in which
contextual factors can be incorporated into counseling; assump - change in context lead to stim life changes -> individual life and career are intertwined
career counseling process
1 dvlp rapport, asses client needs and est goals
2 counselor works to promote client self understanding (interviews, interest inventories, aptitude; work through obstacles that hinder career making choices)
3 dvlp appro career choice options





types of problems presented in career counseling
exploration of careers, conflicts about careers, life transitions
Special tools in career counseling
inventories and tests: (vocational interest inventories), personality inventories, ability tests, occupational info, computer assisted career guidance systems
when are personality inventories used in career counseling
if personal conflicts believed to be interfering with client career resolution
forensic psychology
involves the application of mental health knowledge and expertise to the ax and tx of indivs who, in some way, are invd in the legal process or legal system
clinical psychologists working in the forensic area may be invd in addressing a wide range of legal issues, including whether
-an indiv is sufficiently mentally ill and potentially dangerous to justify involuntary hospitalization
-a person charged with a crime is mentally competent to stand trial
-a perpetrator of an illegal act was sane at the time of the offense
-a person suffered psy harm as the result of an injury or trauma and, if so, how serious it is


Before a verdict is reached, courts ust determine whether defendants are mentally competent to assist in their own defense in court. What will determine this?
whether the defendant has sufficient present ability to consult with his lawyer with a reasonable degree of rational understanding, and whether he has a rational as well as a factual understand of the proceedings against him
aside from competence to stand trial, what other competencies to clinical psychologists assess for criminal defendants
competence to confess a crine, to waive the right to an attorney, to choose not to invoke ngri, and competence to be sentenced and punished
expert witnesses do not
make decision. they can only testify to symptoms, bxs, and do of defendant
tort law
provides mechanism for an indiv to seek redress for the harm they have suffered from the wrongful acts of another party
when clinical psychologists conduct axs with civil plantiffs in tort cases, they perform an eval that
includes a social history, a clinical interview, psy testing, interviews with others, and a review of available records
claims for mental disability that falls under tort law usually arise from
1 serious mental injury that results in psy problems (mental -> psy)

2 indiv suffers traumatic incident at work or undergos a long period of continuous stress that leads to psychological difficulties (mental -> mental)

3 work-related stress is blamed for the onset of a physical disorder, sa high blood pressure (phys -> psy)



questions of civil competency focus on
whether an indiv has the capacity to understand info relevant to making a partic decision and then making an informed choice about what to do
a competent indiv in a civil case is expected to be able to
-understand basic info relevant to making a decision
-apply that info to a specific situation io to anticipate the consequences of various choices that ight be made
-use of logical, rational thinking to eval the pros and cons of various strategies and decisions
-communicate a personal decision or choice about the matter under consideration


psychological autopsies
postmortem psychological evals
general proponent of termination of parent rights is
proof that future contact between the parent and child is detrimental to the child welfare
in child custody cases, psychologists are
asked to conduct a child custody eval and to offer recommendations to help a court settle disputes over which parent can best meet the child needs and which should retain custody
most child custody evals include
clinical and social histories, standardized testing of the parents and the children, observation of parent child interaxns, interviews with indivs who have had opportunities to observe family members, and a review of docs that might be relevant to the case
legal definition and requirements of an expert witness
someone with scientific, technical, or other specialized knowledge who may testify in the form of an opinion or otherwise if certain reqs are met

1 at discretion of judge
2 qualified with knowledge, skill, expce, training or edu to testify abt a specialized matter
3 testimony must be based on reliable and accepted principle in respective field
4 principles and methods used must be applicable to facts and data in the case




neuropsychology
the field of study that seeks to understand how brain processes make human bx and psy functions possible
interests of neuropsychologists
wide range of human abilities including aspects of cog functioning, motor functioning, emotional functioning, social func, and personality traits; study how brain operations control such processes and how this control breaks down after brain dysfuncs of psy dos
neuropsychologists must
-consider the entire person
-use specialized assessment methods unique to neuropsy ax
-must have knowledge of the neurosciences
-must know about a wide range of human cog abilities
-must be able to distinguish bxl and psy problems caused by brain dysfunction from those caused by psychopathy structurally in the brain

-dvlp effective rehab programs based on indepth understanding of clinical psy





neuropsy assessment is designed to
-establish the nature and severity of patient deficits
-determine the likelihood that the deficits stem from brain damage
-provide an edu guess as to where the damage might be located
- id the partic disease or kind of damage responsible for the partic pattern of deficits seen


in addition to conducting a neuropsy test, a clinical neuropsy will
conduct a thorough interview and examine the patient medical records, including records of previous assessments
core knowledge base for clinical neuropsychology
a general psychology
b general clinical psychology
c foundations for the study of brain-bx rxs
d foundations for the practice of clinical neuropsy


an important part of deciding competency in ngri is
did the criminal have mens rea (intent) when committing the crime
insanity is a
legal distinction, not a psychological concept
what methods might a psychologist use when assessing criminal competency
stuctured interview, mmpi-2, psychopathy checklist, rorshach, tat, possible neuro battery
what helps protect against malingering
special questions (outsmarts, as with hillside strangler), tests, batteries that help to detect malingering
what sort of evals would be used in a child custody case
personality tests (mmpi, rorshach), rx with child (parent-child relational inventory, parent-child stress inventory), review of records (court, prev evals), interviews and observations (home visit, interviews of parents and partners, interviews of children, reference levels)
when deciding on parental fitness, the welfare of the child must be substantially threatened to what extent
75 percent chance of threat, which will be based on psy assessment
difficulty in deciding custody for other cultures
differences in what constitutes abuse
neuropsychology is very dependent on
training in assessments
what are the main questions of neuropsychology
is there organic (brain related) damage present

is the emotional instability best accounted for by the mental disorder or by organic functioning

in neuropsy, what might a mini-mental status exam entail
orientation to time, place
immediate recall
attn
delayed recall
naming of objects
repetition
3 stage command
read, copy, write






despite emph on axs, why is it still imp that neuropsys display warmth, compassion, etc
tests are very anxiety provoking
health psychology
specialty that emerged in the 1970s and is devoted to studying psy influs on how ppl stay healthy, why they become ill, and how they respond when they do get ill
health psychology and bxl medicine follows a ____ model
biopsychosocial model
what are three major focuses of health psychology?
stress (affects us emotionally and physically), coping (little hassles add up), and health
Stress and Health and how it affects the CNS
-fight or flight response -> narrowed ability to cope
-broaden and build hypotheses: if negative emotions narrow ability to cope, perhaps positive emotions broaden our ability to cope
stress and health and the immune system
-chronic stress decreases funcing
-brief stress asocd with decreased immune funcing
-could be that immunosuppression is the link btwn stress and physical illness

gender differences in coping
males more problem focused
females more emotion focused
health psy research on social support
rx btwn stress and illness is lower in those who perceive high lvls of social support

rxs could act a buffer

coping and cancer health psychology
relaxation intervention: relaxation tx -> less stress -> less side effects in chemo
pain management tx in health psy research
biofeedback, relaxation, cbt, stress management
prevention programs and health psy
healthy sexual bx (decrease HIV and decrease drug use)

decrease type A bx and decrease heart attacks

basis for career counseling
unique abilities -> standardized tests -> occupation options
career counselors in the 21st century
empower ppl as they translate life expces into job pursuits

encourage ppl to have a high lvl of self awareness

coping
cognitive, emotional, and bxl efforts at modifying, tolerating, or eliminating stress
vocational psychology
study of psychological aspects of work-related bx and expce; basis for career counseling process
why are cultural factors very imp in career counseling
-diff ses groups might have diff views about the values of diff jobs
-amnt of influ family gives in deciding the job/degree
-imp to watch for gender bias

what does RIASEC in john holland model stand for?
realistic
conventional
enterprising
investigative
artistic
social




when and where did school counseling begin
1960s, mostly vocational in high schools
why were school counselors dvlpd
need for someone other than school psys, who are mostly focused on testing
admin of tests in schools - who does it
school psychologists, not counselors
how do school psys and couns differ in activities
proportions of time spent counseling varies
difference in spsy and scoun salaries
-sps earn sig more, dt type of work (testing) and degree (phD)
-couns usu have single school they are affiliated with, while sps tend to go from school to school
-scs conduct therapy

role of counselor at elem lvl
counseling - indiv and group
-guidance - in classroom presentations
-consultation - working with teachers, parents, admins, schools psys, etc, might be who notices problem first
-coordination - organize and manage school counseling program


role of counselor at middle or high school level
primary func is counseling, collaboration with community mental health

at high school lv: career guidance, course planning

role of counselor at college lvl
sim to therapy or counseling in the community, testing for adult onset of adhd/add/ld

crisis work

dvlpmtl needs for elementary school children
consideration of cog abilities

less control over environ

dvlpmtl needs for middle/high school age
searching for identity; must understand from their perspective; some things that may be unimp to you might be extremely salient to a 10-15 yo

cultural issues, may be the first time they see themselves as partic race, gender, orientation

dvlpmtl needs of college age students
may seem like adults but still dvlping

coming out, spiritual issues, etc., emol v financial independence

Presenting problems for elementary age kids
educational problems, incl learning disorders

personal problems, loneliness, rejection, anxiety, family problems

socl problems (friends, teachers, parents)

risk bx (hurting animals, setting fires)





Presenting problems for middle and high school kids
career/educational

personal

social problems (interpersonal conflicts, problems making/keeping friends)

risk bx: school violence, alcohol/drugs, suicidal ideation/acts





Presenting problems for college age kids
-career/edul concerns
-personal concerns
-interpersonal conflicts
-alcohol/drug abuse
-crises
-cultural issues




issues of diversity specific to school and college counselors
esl parents and or children
religious practices
international students
coming out issues


special issues in children in counseling in the schools
child abuse and neglect, dvlpmtl disorders and social issues (such as FAS), child homelessness
special issues issues in counseling adolescents in schools
violence in schools

youth gangs (serve as affiliation outlets, belonging, protection, recreation)

special issues in young adults in counseling in schools
brief counseling is the method used in college counseling centers

online counseling, increased attention dt increased tech savvyness in this pop

consultation in counseling in the schools
-may often be asked for help for parents, teachers, admins

-knowing confidentiality rules and having boundaries are important

-mandated reporting bc you may be more likely to see students with abuse problems in school than when parents voluntarily brings their students in



how has the role of school counseling grown
grown from merely vocational counseling to addressing emotional and dvlpmtl needs of students
Current model of school counseling emphasizes
places comprehensive counseling programs that are central to the academic mission of the school, are accessible to all students, including knowledge and skills students need, and are delivered systematically to the students
child maltreatment is a special issue in treating elementary school students. what are the signs of psychological abuse
withdrawal, aggression, hypervigilance, difficulty concentrating, and poor school performance
what types of activities and interventions do school counselors use?
adlerian counseling
play therapy
creative and expressive arts therapy
choice therapy
group counseling
consultation
crisis intervention
training school staff
peer facilitators









adlerian counseling
emphasis that all child bx=goal directed; issues underlying child misbx incl attn, power, revenge and inadequacy; focus: birth order, feelings of inferiority, family constellation, and lifestyle ax
play therapy goals
increase child self esteem, improve decision making ability, practice self control, and learn social skills
choice therapy
the environ necessary for conducting counseling and procedures that lead to change; internal control psychology - all we do is behave, all our bx is chosen and we are driven by our 5 basic needs; disconnectedness = source of human problems; warm environ, when counselor builds on rx with client to see what bxs client would like to change and how they want to make changes occur; emphasizes what client can control in present day
school guidance curriculum

group counseling

structured dvlpmtl lessons designed to help students achieve desired competencies and provide students with dvlpmtly appropriate knowledge and skills

invs classroom instruction

what occurred in the 80s for college counseling?
adoption of dvlpmtl appraoches to counseling, emphasizing interpersonal, spiritual, emotional, physical dimensions
organization and administration of college counseling
works with student services under, but very independent of other student services bc they offer voluntary, confidential, and nonauthoritarian rx with students
how do college counselors spend most of their time
personal counseling, outreach programs (incl crisis services)
group counseling on college campuses focuses on
bxl skills training to decrease stress and anxiety
presenting problems of college students
career and educational concerns
personal concerns
interpersonal conflicts and concerns
gender issues
antisocial acts and alcohol abuse
crises




What turn did psy take during WWII
veteran admin -> ead to psychological opportunities in testing and NIMH

combined, these two institutions and the surrounding mindset, which attend to weaknesses, distracted from positive psychology/focus on strengths in indivs

Post-WWII establishments marked
-hardening of psychology
-medical model - what problem do you have
-became more focused on deficits

According to positive psychology, treatment is not about
fixing what is broken, but nurturing what is best -> using positives to help indiv get out of negatives of the situation
According to positive psychology, our views of reality are
-skewed by our expces
-skewed by our personal mindsets
-couched in our cultural context (ie, happiness is highly culturally dependent)

culture free research
when we use psychological models, we can transcend culture so long as our scientific method is sound
culturally embedded research
impossible to choose a culture-free research topic bc of bias in what you think it is imp to study -> nothing can transcend culture; plus, definitions are culture dependent
Aim of positive psychology
begin to catalyze a change in the focus of psychology from preoccupation only with repairing the worst things in life to also building positive qualities
Field of positive psychology

subjective level
individual level
group level



subjective - is about valued subjective experiences

individual - about positive individual traits

group - about civic virtues and the institutions that move indivs toward better citizenship



Pre-WWII goals of psychology
-curing mental illness
-making the lives of all people more productive and fulfilling
-identifying and nurturing high talent

According to reserach is positive psychology, why are positive states of mind so elusive
-because present-mind adapted for past world, we are misfits in our surroundings

-evolved distress mechanisms are functional

-selection tends to be competitive and involve zero-sum outcomes



what are dispositional and affiliative traits that mediate between external events and indiv interpretation
optimism (most imp)
religious faith
economic growth and income (asymptote)
close personal relationships (strong correlation)


people high in optimism who are ill
more likely to provide selves with unfavorable info about their disease, thereby being better prepared to face up to realities even though their positive outcome estimates may be inflated
main effect of positive psychology movement
psychologists will learn how to build the qualities that help indivs and communities, not just endure and survive, but flourish

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