Glossary of Civil War to Present
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- Paris Peace Conference in January 18, 1919.
- Dominated by the Fig Four--Wilson, British prime minister David Lloyd George, French premier Georges Clemnceau, and Italian prime miniater Vittorio Orlando.
To decide the terms of peace and the ending of World War I
- Confederate States of America
- The Confederacy; nation formed by seceding southern states in 1861
- Group of radical Russian socialists who seized power power to control Russia.
Leader: Vladimir Lenin opposed WWI and quickly withdrew Russia fromit.
The signed atreaty with the Central Powers in March 1918 that left the Centrals Powers free to concentrate their forces on the western front.
- popular sovereignty
- The practice that would allow the citizens to vote
- Civil Rights Act of 1875
- Law that prohibited businesses that served the public form discriminating against AFrican Americans
- The favoring of native-born Americans over foreign born residents
- Battle of the Argonne Forest
- Successful Allied effort to push back German troops froma rail center in Sedan, France in 1918.
- Cotton gin
- a machine that made it easier to remove cotton seeds, led to the emergence of the South as the Cotton Kingdom.
- Great Migration
- Jopportunities and chance of higher wages brought about one of the most important population shifts in U.s. history
African Americans from the south to northern cities between 1915 and 1930.
Moved to escape descrimination and difficult living and working conditions.
- Missouri Compromise
- 1820, the agreement admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state.
It also banned slavery in the rest of the Louisiana Purchase north of theMissouri's southern boundary
- Transition from wartime to peacetime production and employment levels.
- Northern Advantages
- 1. huge population
2. economic advantage: 85% of the nation's industry and material resources
3. most of the nation's railroad lines
4. U.S. Navy and Army.
- Fourteen Points
- president Woodraw Wilson's plan for organizing post-World War I Europe and for avoiding future wars.
Plan called for:
1. First nine points delt with the issues of self-determinatio, the right of people to govern themselves--and with the various territorial disputes created by the war.
2. Other points focused on what Wilson considered the causes of modern war: secret diplomacy, arms race, violations of freedom of the seas, and trade barriers.
3. Final point-- establishment of the League of Nations-- was the heart of the program.
League would be an international body designed to prevent offensive wars.
- Southern Advantages
- 1. Had only to fight a defensive war, protecting its territory until the Union tired of the struggle.
2. Had excellent military leadership.
- Palmer raids
- (1919-20) Raids ordered by U.S. attorney generalA. Mitchell Palmer on suspected radical organizations.
- Significance of the First Battle of Bull Run
Defeat shamed and shocked the north.
South, felt that they had superiority of the Confederacy.
People also realized that the war would last longer than a few months
- Treaty of Varsailles
- Took place in the palace of Versailles on June 28, 1919.
1. Germany's colonies and the Ottoman Empire were divided among the Allied nations.
2. Created new nations of Czechosolvakia and Yugoslavia, also created Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland as
France reclaimed Alsace-Lorraine region and won control fo the Saar (industrial region of Germany rich in coal and iron for 15 years.
Germany was disarmed and forced to admit full responsibility for the war and charged billions of dollars in reparations.
Creaton of the League of nations.
- Commander of the American Expeditionary Force?
- General John J. Pershing
- Espionage Act and Sedition Act
- Congress passed these laws in Junr 1917 and 1918 to silence o pponents of WWI.
outlaws acts of any type of acts of treason.
Opposition to the draft, war-bond drives, or to the arms industry also became a crime.
- convoy system
- Escorted by U.S. warships merchant vessels transported troops, supplies, and volunteers through the submarine-infested North Atlantic.
- Schenck v. United States
- Clear and present danger.
Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendel Holmes wrote the opinion that stated the Espionage and Sedition Acts did not violate the First Amendment.
- Fort Sumter
- April 13, the fall of Fort Sumter was the beginning of the Civil War.
- What was the global impace of the World War I?
- Destruction and human suffering: 8.5 people died in battle and another 21 million wounded.
Industry and agriculture central Europe ruins.
Businesses still operating could not produce enought to meet demands.
Germany good shortages so extreme impossible to keep track of prices.
Throughout Europe,n ations competed withone another over territories that they thought the treaty ought to have granted them.
Arab nations in the Middle East sided with the Allies in hopes of winning their independence from the Ottoman Turks, Found themselves living under French and British authority.
Tensions in the regions grew after Britain issued the Balfour Declaration in 1917, which declared British support for a Jewish homeland in Palestine.
- Monroe doctrine
- President Monroe vowed that the United States would oppose any European attempts to regain former Latin American colonies ro to establish new ones in the Western Hemisphere
- Teapot Dome scandal
- Most noted episode of corruption during the Harding administration, which became news early in 1924.
- Manifest destiny
- A phrase expressed the belief held by many Americans that God intended the United States to expand westeard to the Pacific Ocean.
- Red Scare
- The was a period of anticommmenist hysteria during 1919 and 1920.
- First Battle of Bull Run
- First battle of the Civil War.
South called it, Battle of Manassas.
- Battle of the Argonnne Forest
- successful Allied effort to push back German troops from a rail center in Sedan, France.
- Anaconda Plan
- a three part strategy of the north.
1. Capture Richmond
2. gain control of the Mississippi River
3. institute a naval blockade of the South.
It was to slowly squeeze the life out of hte South like the snake.
- Sacco and Vanzetti
- One of the most sensational trials of the 1920s involved two Italian immigrants who were convicted of murder and sentenced to death.
- Compromise of 1850
- California admitted as a free state.
New Mexico Territory would be divided into two territories, with the residents of each territory allowed to vote on whether to allow slavery.
abolitition of the slave trade, but not slavery itsself-in the District of Columbia.
Fugitive Slave Act
- What was the economic outcomes of Demobilization?
- Caused unemployment
caused women to lost their jobs.
caused prices to rise then fall.
caused agricultural prices to fall.
- American Expeditionary Force (AEF)
- U.S. forces in WWI
- organizations in which groups of farmers pooled their resources to buy and sell goods.
Cooperative members sold their products directly to big city markets.
- What did the United States senate not join the League of Nations.
- 1. Reservationists :Particularly objected to Article 10, which seemed to commit the United States to go to war in defense of any League member that came under attack.
2. Irreconcilables: completely rejected the League of Nations.
- Southern strategy
- 1. capture Washington
2. invade the North (hoped this would shatter northern morale, distrupt Union communications, win European support and bring the war to a speedy end).
- How did President Wilson quickly mobilize the nation for WWI.
- A.Directed the economy: raising money topay for the war.
1. raised money through four issues of liberty bonds and one of Victory bonds after the end of the war.
2. Increased taxes
3. coordinated the actions of government, business,a nd industry. Done through several federal war boards.
B.Most successful of the federal war boards were the Food Administration and the Fuel Administration.
Had to increase agricultural production and to conserve existing food supplies
guaranteed farmers high prices.
Call on Americans to reduce their food consumption by obsrving wheatless and meatless days.
To supplement their diet: suggested "victory gardents"
Fuel: encouraged people to observe heatless Mondays.
C. Organizing Industry: Hundreds of federal boards and agencies were created to regulate industrial production and distribution.
work of these boards were coordinated by the government's central war agency, the War Industries Board.
Established production priorities, and setting prices.
- What are some of the experiences that the soldiers faced in the military on both sides?
- shortages of clothing, food, and rifles.
Some did not have standard uniforms and wore their own clothes.
Confederates lacked good shoes and warm coats.
Unsanitary conditions in most field camps, led to deadly problems of disease.
Thousands died from illnesses.
Hospitals had little in the way of medical provision.
Conditions worse in overcrowded prisoner of war camps in the north and south.
Many suffered from extreme boredom, homesickness, and loneliness.
- Reconstruction Acts of 1867
- These acts divided the former Confederate -except reconstructed Tennessee-- into 5 military districts, in which the military would enforce order.
- Mathew Brady
- He is a renowed photographer of the Civil War.
- Interstate Commerce Act in 1887
- Act prohibited railroads from giving secret rebates, or refunds, to large shippers or charging more for short hauls than for long hauls over the same line.
Also stated that railroad rates had to be "reasonable and just."
To monitor railroad activities, the act created the Interestate Commerce Commission (ICC).
- Battle at New Orleans
- Allowd the Union to cut off supplies to western Confederate forces and to move troops up the Mississippi River to join Grant's troops to the north.
Led by David Farague.
- The rebuilding of the former Confederate states and reuniting the nation
- habeas corpus
- a protection against unlawful imprisonment.
PresidentLincoln suspended this in an attempt to quiet the Copperheads.
- What were the incidents that marred President Grant's terms in office?
- Jay Grould and James Fish made an attempt to corner the gold market.
Credit Mobilier scandle which involved his vice-president, Schuyler Colfax.
The Whiskey Ring during his second term.
- Battle of Shiloh
- Northern victory.
Gave the North a great advantage in the fight to control the Mississippi River valley.
- Bland-Allison Act
- (1878) Federal law that required the government to buy and mint silver each month.
- U.S. Sanitary Commission
- The commission worked to battle the diseases and infections that killed twice as many soldiers as bullets.
- National Grange
- Organization founded by Oliver Hudson Kelley in 1867; addressed economic and political issues concerning farmers.
Confederacy passed the first conscription in 1862
- Vertical integration
- Ownership of business involved in each step of a manufacturing process.
- Elizabeth Blackwell
- Northern woman, first professionally licensed female doctor in the U.S.
Helped run the U.S.Sanitary Commission.
- Thomas Nast
- a political cartoonist.
Nast published some 50 cartoons in Harper's Weekly that crtiticized Tweed and Tammany Hall.
Nast's cartoons exposed the corruption of Tammany Hall and contributed to Tweed's indictment for fraud and extortion in 1871.
- Northern Democrats who sympathizers with the South and did not actively interfere with the war effort.
- First President to be impeached
- President Andrew Johnson
- Who wrote "Uncle Tom's Cabin"?
- Harreit Beecher Stowe
- Algonquian word for "big chiefs"-- reformers who supported the Democratic candidate, Grover Cleveland
- Emancipation Proclamation
- a military order by President Lincoln in 1862 that freed the slaves in areas rebelling against the Union.
Took effect January 1, 1863
- laissez-faire capitalism
- The theory of laissez-faire capitalism calls for no government intervention in the economy.
- complete ban on the manufacture, sale and distribution of alcohol.
two factors that contributed to prohibition:
1. womens suffrate movement
2. WWI (grain)
- Pendleton Civil Service Act
- The bill established the Civil Service Commission to adminisster competitive examinations to those people seeking government jobs.
- What was the U.S. resonse at the outbreak of WWI?
- They declared neutrality.
- Thaddeus Stevens
- A Radical Republicans who insisted that African Americans be given the right to vote.
- Spanish Response to the Revolt in Cuba.
- 1. exiled many leaders of he independence movement
2. sent soldiers to battle rebels
3. sent General ValerianoWeyler to put down the revolt.
- Gilded Age
- Name applied by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner to late 1800s America to describe the corruption and greed that lurked below the surface of society.
- New type of store that sold a variety of goods and were created to cater to the demands of the urban market.
- department stores
- Fifteenth Amendment
- The right of citizens of the U.S. to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the U.S. or by anystate on account of race, color, or previous conditions of servitude.
- Sherman Antitrust Act
- Law prohibiting monoplies and trusts that restrained trade.
- enables voters to remove an elected official from office by calling for a special election.
- Square Deal
- Became Roosevelt's 1904 campaign slogan.
He promosed to "see to tit that every man has a square deal, no less and no more."
called for limiting the power of trusts, promoting public healtha nd safty, and improving working conditions.
- One of the most significant advances in communications in the 1800s.
developed by Samuel F. B. Morse
- Open Door Policy
- would give all nations equal access to trade and investment in China.
1. European powers keep all ports in their spheres open to all nations
2. Chinese officials be allowed to collect all tariffs and duties
3. European countries guarantee equal harbor, railroad, and tariff rates in thier spheres to all nations trading in China.
- graduated income tax
- taxed higher incomes at a higher rate.
Lobbied for by the Farmers Alliance.
- Investigative journalists who wrote about corruption in business and politics, hoping to bring about reform.
- Southern whites who backed the Union cause and supported Reconstruction.
Considered by the Confederate southerners as betrayers of their race and country.
- Angel Island
- Immigrantion station in San Francisco Bay.
Mostly recieved immigrants from Asia.
- I matched General Grant's determination and undertook a campaign to destroy southern railroads and industry. In May, 1864, I marched my men to the sea.
- General William Tecumseh Sherman
- Political theory that proposes that all people should collectively own property and the means of production and that individual ownership should not be allowed.
- The "Wizard of Menlo Part"
- Thomas Alva Edison
- Causes of World War I
territorial rivalries (imperialism)
- war of attrition
- Grant's plan when President Lincoln promoted him to general of the Union forces.
War of attrition is to continue fighting until the South ant out of men, supplies, and will.
- What were the terms of the peace treaty that ended the Spanish-American War
- Spain gave up all claim to Cuba and ceded Puerto Rico and Guam to the U.S.
Spain gave up control of the Philippines in return for a U.S. payment of $20 million.
- Civil Rights Act of 1866
- First civil rights law in the nation's history.
It declared everyone born in the U.S. a citizen with full civil rights.
- de jure segregation
- racial segregation that is enforced by law.
In the past, laws in many states required separate schools, parks, public transportation, and so on for whites and African Americans.
- Battle at Chancellorsville
- Stonewall Jackson was mistaken for a Union cavalryman and shot by his own troops. He died led to infection and 8 days later he died.
- List the chain reaction that followed the assassination.
- Austria-Hungry demanded concession from Serbia.
Austria-Hungry declared war on Serbia.
Germany offered its support.
Russia in alliance with Serbia mobilized.
Germany made the first move into Belgium to get to France.
Brisish forced to enter to help Belgium.
- Literacy tests
- Test used to prevent people who could not read from voting.
- the quest for colonial empires.
Was driven by a need for markets and raw materials as well as the desire for powr and prestige.
- Battle of Antietam
- The Union victory that a gave Lincoln the necessary political support to move forward with his plans to free the slaves in the South.
Also proved that General Lee could be defeated and also cost the South any hope of support from European countries.
- Despite its polilcy of neutrality the U. S. could remain untouched by the war. Why?
- War began, British navy blockaded Germany and laid mines in North Sea.
British stopped U.S. ships bound for neutral countries and searched their cargoes.
Germany responded to the blockade by establishing a "war zone" around Britain.
Any ships entering this zone--even from neutral nations- were subject to attack by U-boats.
- Sherman Silver Purchase Act
- (1890) Federal law that required the government to buy and mint silver each month.
- Great Upheaval
- 1886 the national experienced a year of intense strikes and violent labor confrontations.
- General William Tecumseh Sherman March to the Sea
- his campaign to destoy southern railroads and industries.
- Zimmerman Note
- Cable sent to Mexico by Germany's foreign secretary during WWI; proposed an alliance between the two countries.
Promises Mexico Texas, New Mexico, and Arizonia when Germany won the war.
- Black codes
- laws passed in the southern states during Reconstruciton that greatly limited the freedom of former slaves.
- Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
- Union formed in 1905 that opposed capitalism.
- Pickett's Charge
- General Lee ordered commander George Picket to rush the Union center of Cemetery Ridge at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Only about 1/2 of his men survived the charge.
- de facto segregation
- racial separation that exists not because of laws or governmetn action, but because of social and economic factors nad conditions.
- Freemen's Bureau
- 1.Created March 1865 t aid the millions of southerners left homeless and hungry by the war.
2.It distributed food, clothing, served an an employment agency, set up hospitals, and operated schools.
3.Also played a major role in providing education for African Americans.
4.Helped settle contract disputes between African American laborers and white planters.
- Russo-Japanese War
- February 1904: Japanese troops attacked Russian forces in Manchuria.
- Gettysburg Address
- President Lincoln dedicated a cemetery at the Gettysburg battlefield.
This remains a classic statement of democratic ideals.
- Created by African American musicians, emerged during the 1890s.
King of Ragtime: Scott Joplin
- What were the working conditions like working on the Panama Canal?
- Harsh working, harsh living condition, shortage of labor and materials, outbreak of yellow fever hit
- Ida Tarbell
wrote "History of the Standard Oil Company."
She was assigned to investigate Standard Oil and she published her findings in a series of 19 articles on Standard Oil's business practices.
- Total War
- Strategy of fighting in which an army destroys its opponent's ability to fight by attacking civilian and economic, as well as military targets.
- Meat Inspection Act
- 1906: consumer protection law.
required federal government inspection of meat shipped across state lines.
- Gives voters thepower to initiate or introduce legislation.
If a certain percentage of voters in a state--usually 5 to 15 percent--sign a petition, proposed policy must be put on the ballot for public approval.
- Battle of Gerrysburg
- The turning point of the Civil War.
The Union has proved that the Confederacy could b beaten.
- Built his fortune in the railroad industry
- Cornelius Vanderbilt
- I was the forerunner to the automobile and was originally developed in 1770.
- horseless carriage
- Economic system in which the government or the workers own most of the factories, utilities, and transportation and communications systems.
- 54th Massachusetts Infantry
- African American Union regiment that helped capture Fort Wagner in south Carolina during the Civil War
- Ellis Island
- Immigration station in New Y9ork Harbor.
Recieved those immigrants from Europe
- Separation of epople by category, usually race.
- Chinese Exclusion Act
- passed in response to the Nativist.
It denied citizenship to people born in China and prohibited the immigration of Chinese laborers.
- Siege of Vicksburg
- Turning point in the Civil War on the Western theatre. This and other victories gave the Union total control over the Mississippi River thereby cutting off Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas from the rest of the Confederacy.
- Battle of the Somme
- (1916) WWI battle in which the British lost some 60,000 troops in a single day.
- Frederick Douglass
- A former slave who demanded the immediate, unconditional, and universal right to vote of the black man in every State in the Union.
- Ninteenth Amendment
- Granted women full voting rights. Ratified in 1920.
- Political bosses
- Leaders of political machines
- W. E. B. Du Bois
- Believed that access to a college education and vocational training offered the best chance of progress for African Americans.
Believed that African Americans should be politically active in the struggle for racial equality.
His views contrasted with Booker T. Washington who aregued that African americans should not spend their time fighting discrimination.
- I was passed January 1865 and abolished slavery
- Thirteenth Amendment
- What were some of the new weapons introduced in WWI?
- Machine guns, tanks, poison gas, submarines (improved), and airplanes.
- politicans often recieved bribes, payoffs--payments of part of the earnings from a job or contract.
- New immigrants
- 1891 to 1910
immigrants @70% were f rom southern or eastern Europe.
Most were Catholic, Greek Orthodox, or Jewish.
- Ku Klux Klan
- Secret society created by (6) former Confederates in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep African Americans from obtaining their civil rights.
- spheres of influence
- regions where a particular country has exclusive rights over mines, railroads, and trade.
- Acquisition of money or political power through illegal or dishonest methods
- What were the immigrants who passed through Ellis or Angel Island subject to?
- 1.Physical exam (contagious diseases, mental disorders, or serious health problems were deported).
2. Questioned by inspectors about their background, job skills and relatives (criminal records or without means to support themselves were deported).
- Compromise of 1877
- Agreement to settle the disputed presidential election of 1876.
Democrates agreed to accept Republican Rutherford B. Hayes as president in return for the removal of federal troops from the south.
- What were working conditions like in the late 1800s?
- Children: long shifts-often at nights for pennies a day, in dangerious positions.
Unskilled men: long hours, 6 to 7 days a week for less than $10 a week.
Women: long house with little pay.
African Americans: were discriminated against.
- Political machines
- Well-organized political parties that dominated local and state governments in the late 1800s.
- The incident that started WWI
- The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferinand, the heir to the Ausstro-Hungarian throne and his wife Sophie in June 1914.
- How did the U.S. propose to govern Puerto Rico. (List all the Acts and their purposes).
- 1. The Foraker Act: established a territorial government in Puerto Rico.
2. The Jones Act: granted Puerto Ricans U.S. citizenship and the right to elect both houses of the legislature
1952: Puerto Rico became a self-governing commonwealth.
- These two men profited hugely from technological innovations in the steel andoil-refining industries.
- Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller
- The Tweed Ring
- William Marcy Tweed reigned as boss of Tammany Hall, which has a long history as a social and political orgnaization dating back to 1789.
Tweed and his ring of political supporters used his position of power to gain bribes and kickbacks.
- He made a largefortune in the roalroad industry, established the Westinghouse Air Brake Company by capitalizing on his invention, the compressed air brake.
- George Westinghouse
- Exclusive economic control of an industry.
- Sixteenth Amendment
- Proposed in 1909 and ratified in 1913. permitted Congress to levy taxes based on an individual's income.
- President Andres Johnson reconstruction plan
- 1. complete pardon to all rebels except former Confederate officeholders and richest planters (these he pardoned on individual basis)
2. states were required only that the states nullify their acts of secession to be re-admitted to the union
3. states had to abolish slavery.
4. states also had to refuse to pay Confederate government debts.
- immigrants traveled to the U.S. in the steerage of the ship, which was below deck on the s hip's lower levels near the steering mechanisms.
Were cramped, no privacy and little ventilation.
- Jim Crow laws
- Laws that enforced segregation in the South.
- Immigration Restriction League
- Formed in 1894 by weatlhy Bostonians. It sought to impose a literacy test on all immigrants.
Congress tried several times without success to pass similar measures.
- Booker T. Washington
- Founded the Tuskegee Institute in 1881.
Believed that African Americans should concentrate on achieving economic independence.
Urged AfricanAmericans to seek practical training in trades and professions.
Discouraged them from protesting against discriminating.
- What was the Allies response to Germany's invasion of Belgium?
- Sent troops to support Belgium and fought the Battle of the Marne:
began a war of attrition.
- Civil Rights Act of 1957
- Law that made it a federal crime to prevent quallified persons from voting.
- Knights of Labor
- one of the earliest national unions in 1869:
Terence V. Powderly became its leader.
He opened the union to both skilled and unskilled labaorers.
He also welcomed women.
- Plessy v. Ferguson
- 1896: Supreme Courtruling that estabished the "separate-but-equal" doctrine for public facilities.
- Is a companion to the initiative. B securing a specified numberof signatures on a petition, citizens can force the legislature to place a recently passed law on the ballot, allowing voters to approve or veto the measure.
- transcontinental railroad
- completed in 1869 when the Central Pacific and Union Pacific Railroad were joined to create a single rail line from Omaha, Nebraska, to the Pacific Ocean.
- Hay market Square Riot
- Incident in which a bomb exploded during a labor protest held in Haymarket Square in Chicago, killing several police officers.
- Fourteenth Amendment
- Amendment required states t extend equal citizensship to African Americans and all people "born or naturalilzed in the U.S."
It also denied states the right to deprive anyone of "life, liberty, or property without due process of law."
It promised all citizens the "equal protection of the laws."
- old immigrants
- 1800 to 1880: immigrants who
were protestants from northwestern Europe
- System used on southern farms after the Civil War in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for supplies and a small share of the crops.
- Eighteenth Amendment (1919)
- Constitutional amendment that barred the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages in the U.S.
Repealed in 1933 with the Twenty-first amendment.
- Populist Party
- People's Party;
national political party formed in 1892 that supported a graduated income tax, bank regulation, government ownership of some companies, restrictions on immigration, shorter workdays, and voting reform.
- Hepburn Act
- authorized the ICC to set railroad rates and to regulate other compahnies engaged in interestate commerce, such as pipelines and ferries.
- Lincoln's Reconstruction Plan
- 1.Amnesty, which would give a full pardon to all southerners-except high ranking Confederate leaders and a few other---who would swear allegiance to the U.S. Constitution
2.Accept federal laws ending slavery
3.Permitted a state to rejoin the Union when 10 percent of its residents who had voted in 1860 swore theirloyalty to the nation.
- Roosevelt Corollary
- (1904) President Theordore Roosevelt's addition to the Monroe Doctrine: stated that the U.S. would police affairs in the Western Hemisphere to keep Europenas from interveningin the region.
- Civil Rights Act of 1964
- Law banning racial discrimination in the use of public facilities and in employment practices.
- National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
- Group founded by W. E. B. DuBois and other in 1909 to end racial discrimination.
Used the legal system to find colutions.
- Arrangement grouping several companies under a single board of directors to eliminate competition and to regulate production.
- Upton Sinclair
- Publsihed "The Jungle" a novel that depicted the wretched and unsanitary conditions at a meatpacking plant.
- Bessemer process
- Developed by Henry Bessemer in Great Britain and William Kelly in the U.S.
They both developed a method of steelmaking that burned off the impurities in molten iron with a blast of hot air.
This method could produce more steel in a day than the older techniques.
- dollar diplomacy
- President William Taft's policy of influencing Latin American affairs through economic influence rather than military force.
- gold standard
- Type of monetary system in which money is worth a specific amount in gold.
- mass transit
- included forms of public transportation such as electric commuter trains, subways, and trolley cars.
mass transit extended U.S. cities outward.
- I started building a canal across a 50 mile wide Isthmus of Panama, but in less than 10 years I abandoned the effort.
- Social Gospel
- Protestant ministers joined the bettle against poverty.
called for people to apply Christian principles to address social problems.
Agrued that the Church has a moral duty to confront social injustice.
- I shot and killed President Lincoln at the Ford Theatre on April 14, 1865
- John Wilks Booth
- closed shop
- workplacein which all the employees must belong to a union.
- I had an even greater impace in communication in March 1876. I was demonstrated at Philadelphia Centennial Exposition in June 1876.
I was called the "talking telegraph."
- telephone, Patented by Alexander Graham Bell
- Mexican Revolution
- Struggle to end dictatorship that led to years of instability in Mexico in the early 1900s.
- The Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty
- Gave the U.S. complete and unending sovereignty over a 10-mile wide Canal Zone.
- Woman's Christian Temperance Union
- Reform organization that led the fight against alcohol in the late 1800s.
- Brown v. Board of Education
- 1954: Supreme court case that declared segregated public schools unconstitutional.
reversed Plessy v. Ferguson
- nouveau riche
- French term meaning "newly rich."
Late 1800s new class of wealthy city-dwellers emerged that were distinguished by their social values.
- poll taxes
- Taxes that a person had to pay in order to vote.
- residential neighborhoods on the outskirts of a city.
As a result of the expansion of transportation to areas beyong the urban center.
- crop-lien system
- arrangement in which sharecroppers promised their crops to merchants in exchange for supplies on credit.
- open shop
- Non-union workplace.
- free enterprise
- Belief that the conomy will prosper if businesses are left free from government regulation and allowed to compete in a free market.
- Factors that drove Imperialism
- 1. the need for markets
2. the need for raw materials
3. the desire for power
4. the desire for prestige
- I used a steam engine to drill for oil near Titusville, Pennsylvania, in 1859.
- Edwin L. Drake
- Enforcement Acts
- They were three laws that were passed in 1870 and 1871 that empowered the federal government to combat terrorism with military force and pto prosecute guilty individuals. Aimed at the KKK.
- Schlieffen Plan
- Germany's plan for the war.
Germany would take France. Great Britain on the other side of the English Channel would be out of the way.
Germany would then focus on Russia.
Called for Germany forces to avoid the heavily defended French-German border by invading France through the neutral country of Belgium.
- How did the U.S. propose to govern the Island of Cuba? (List the Acts/Act)
- The Platt Amendment: made Cuba a protectorate.
1934: the United States renounced the right to interfere in Cuban affairs.
- compulsory education laws
- After 1860 more states began to pass compulsory education laws.
Laws requiring parents to send children to school.
- Northern Republicans who moved to the South during Reconstruction.
- Reform movement of the early 1900s concerned with curing problems of urbanization and industrialization.
- Company that sells shares of ownership called stock to investory in order to raise money.
- President Wilson presidential election campaign slogan in 1916?
- "He kept us out of the War."
- social Darwinism
- Theory adepted by philosopher Herbert Spencer from Charles Darwin's theory of evolution; argued that society progresses through competition, with the fittest rising to positons of wealth and power.
- Trench warfare
- WWI military strategy of defending a positon by fighting from the protection of deep ditches.
- horizontal integration
- Onwership of several companies that make the same product.
- Allied Powers
- Britain, France, and Russia.
Later Italy and the U.S.
- A new era of industrial transformation began with numerous discoveries and inventions that significantly altered manufacturing, transportation, and everyday lives of Americans.
- The Second Industrial Revolution
- large, miltistory buildings
- When did the Monroe Doctrine change from an idle threat?
- Following the Spanish-American War.
Presidents Roosevelt, Taft and Wilson actively enforced the Monroe Doctrine as a way to protect U.S. interest in Latin America.
- Progressive Party
- Also called the Bull Moose Party after Roosevelt declared that he felt "fit as a bull moose" to run.
Reform party that ran Theodore Roosevelt for president in 1912.
- Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
- (1911) Incident that resulted in the deaths of some 140 garment workers; led to increased safety regulations for businesses.
- benevolent societies
- Residents in many cities formed religious and non-relligious aid organizations t help immigrants in case of sickness, unemployment, and death.
- Why did some Americans support expansionism (imperialism)?
- 1. The U.S. needed a strong navy to protect its economic interests in foreign markets and that we a navy required overseas bases
2. Some claimed that the U.S. had a duty to spread its political system and the
Christian religion throughout the world.
- Central Powers
- Germany, Ausstria-Hungry, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria.
- Major Causes of the Spanish-American War
- 1. imperialist ambition
2. humanitarian sympathy for the rebels
3. yeallow journalism
3. the destruction of the USS Maine
- Keating-Owen Child Labor Act
- 1916: act outlawed the interstate sale of products produced by child labor.
Supreme court declared unconstitutional becaue it restricted commerce instead of directly outlawing child labor.
- Boxer Rebellion
- (1900) Revolti n which Chinese nationalists known as Boxers attacked foreigners in order to end foreign involvement in China's affairs; put down by an international force after two months.
- settlement houses
- were established to confront the problems of urban poverty.
These reformers established and lived in settlement houses.
offered educational opportunities, skills traiing, and cultural events.
Hull House, established by Jane Addams.
- What were the events that led the U.S. to enter into WWI?
- 1. March 1916: The Germans attack the Susses
Significance: President Wilson threatens to cut diplomatic ties: Germany makes the Sussex pledge.
February 1917: Germany resumes full scale U-boat warfare.
Significance: Wilson breaks diplomatic tires; orders the arming of American merchant ships.
March 1917: American newspapers pubish the Zimmerman Note.
significance: This note proves German hostility.
April 1917: The Senate declares War
significance: United States join the war on the Allied side.
- no-man's land
- Strip of bombed-out territory that separated the trenches of opposing armies along the Western Front during WWI.
- direct primary
- a nominating election in which voters choose the candidates who later run in a general election.
This was a push by the progressives.
- He was successful railroad giant who designed and manufactured railroad cars that made long-distance rail travel more confortable.
- George Pullman
- Muller v. Oregon
- (1908): Supreme Court case that upheld protective legislation for workers in Oregon.
- Pure Food and Drug Act
- Consumer protection law.
Forbade the manufacture, sale, or transportation of food and patent medicine containing harmful ingredients.
Also required that containers of food and medicines carry ingredient labels.
- Rough Riders
- U.S. cavalry unit in the Spanish-American War led by Theodore Roosevelt.
Know for their charge up San Juan Hill.
Composed of college athletes, cowboys, American Indians, and ranchers.
- conspicuous consumption
- spending money just to display one's wealth.
- British passenger liner that was sank by a German U-boat on March 28, 1915. Deal included 128 Americans.
Germans charged tht the Lusitania was transporting armaments for Britain--accusation later proved true.
- Yellow journalism
- Style of sensational reporting used by newspapers to attract readers.
- Sussex Pledge
- (1916) Promise issued by German officials during WWI not to sink merchant vessels without warning or without assuring the passengers' safety.
- a type of variety show that featured a wide selection of short performance.
- National Defense Act and the Preparedness movement
- Passed in June 1916 which increased the number of soldiers in the regular army.
Later increased National Guard's size and the Navy.
President Wilson program of preparedness was supported by the banks and war industries that had a large economic interest in an Allied victory.
- Federal Reserve Act of 1913
- Created a 3-tiered banking system
Top: Federal Reserve Board, group appointed by the president and charged with running the system
Second level: were 12 Federal Reserve banks, under mixed public and private control. These bankers banks served other banks rather than individuals
Third level: were private banks, which could borrow from the Federal Reserve banks at interest rates set by theBoard
- American Federation of Labor (AFL)
- Many skilled workers broke ranks with the unskilled llaborers and joined the AFL, new union funded by Samuel Gompersin 1886:
The AFL organized independent craft unions into a groupthat worked to advance the interests of skilled workers.
- Selective Service Act
- May 18, 1917, Congress pass this act that required men between the ages of 21 and 30 to register with local draft boards.
Later changed tomen 18 and 45.
- Seventeenth Amendment
- Gave voters the power to elect their senators directly
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