Glossary of Chpter 12 Questions
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- Sampling may be defined as the:
- Process of selecting a subset of the population to represent the entire population
- Bias in a sample for a quantitative study refers to:
- Systematic over- or underrepresentation of an attribute vis-à-vis the population
- Strata are incorporated into the design of which of the following sampling approaches?
- Which of the following is not a nonprobability sampling method?
- Cluster sampling
- The sampling design that would be especially likely to yield a representative sample is:
- Which of the following types of sample is considered to be the weakest for quantitative studies?
- The type of nonprobability design that is most likely to yield a representative sample is:
- Quota sampling
- The procedure of weighting is associated with which type of sampling design?
- Disproportionate sampling
- A researcher used a probability-type systematic sampling plan. The sample size was 200. The sampling interval was 250. The first element drawn was 196. The second element would be:
- Which of the following terms does not belong with the others?
A) Purposeful sample
C) Judgmental sample
B) Purposive sample
D) Volunteer sample
- Volunteer sample
- Theoretical sampling is used by:
- Grounded theory researchers
- A sampling strategy that is diametrically opposed to maximum variation sampling is:
- Homogeneous sampling
- As qualitative researchers near the end of data collection, they may employ the technique of sampling:
- Disconfirming cases
- Samples of 10 or fewer subjects would be most likely to be found in a(n):
- Phenomenological study
- Sampling bias would be of greater concern in studying body temperatures in healthy adults than in studying their attitudes toward abortion.
- The major criterion in assessing the adequacy of a sample in a quantitative study is the degree to which it represents the characteristics of interest in the population.
- Random selection is a key concept in all types of probability sampling designs.
- If a probability sampling design has been used, the researcher can safely generalize to the target population.
- Systematic sampling involves the successive random sampling of units from largest to smallest.
- In a quantitative study, larger samples are more likely to represent the population on the attribute of interest than smaller samples.
- Snowball sampling is to convenience sampling what cluster sampling is to simple random sampling.
- Each element in the population has an equal chance of being selected in a quota sampling plan.
- Systematic sampling may be either probability or nonprobability.
- The researcher hand-picks people to be included in a study in cluster sampling.
- If a researcher posted a recruitment notice for a study on a website, people who responded would comprise a convenience sample.
- Differences between population values and sample values are referred to as weighting errors.
- In quantitative studies, power analysis is used to estimate the sample size needed to adequately test research hypotheses.
- Populations that are fairly homogeneous with respect to the dependent variable require a smaller sample size for a quantitative inquiry than heterogeneous populations.
- A major criterion for assessing the adequacy of a sample in a qualitative study is the degree to which a theory has been developed to adequately describe the population.
- In a qualitative study, sample size decisions are often guided by the principle of data saturation.
- The sampling strategy that involves the selection of extreme cases is referred to as maximum variation sampling.
- Qualitative researchers often strive to purposefully select sample members based on emerging information needs.
- In homogeneous sampling, the researcher deliberately seeks to increase variation in the characteristics of the sample members.
- Qualitative samples tend to be small primarily because in-depth interviews are so time-consuming there is insufficient time for large samples.
- What are the Basic Sampling Concepts?
- The aggregate of cases in which a researcher is interested in is?
- Are populations restricted to humans?
- Selection of a portion of the population (a sample) to represent the entire population ?
- What are elements?
- Entities that make up samples and populations?
- Selection of a portion of the population (a sample) to represent the entire population is?
- What is a subset of a population?
- The characteristics that define the population is?
- Eligibility criteria/Inclusion criteria
- What is Exclusion criteria?
- The population may be defined to exclude people who do not speak english.
- Subpopulations of a population is?
- The entire population of interest is?
- Target population
- The portion of the target population that is accessible to the researcher, from which a sample is drawn is?
- Accessible population
- What are the Sampling Concepts in Quantitative Research?
- Representative sample
- A sample whose key characteristics closely approximate those of the population?
- Representative sample
- What is the main sampling goal in quantitative research?
- Representative sample
- Representative sample is more easily achieved with:
- Probability sampling
- What is probability sampling?
- it involves randome selection of elements from population.
- What is Homogeneous population?
- population that exhibits no varibility at all. the elements of the population are identical.
- What is Sampling bias?
- The systematic over- or under-representation of segments of the population on key variables
- What is Sampling error?
- Differences between sample values and population values
- What are the 2 braod types of sampling plans?
- Probability sampling
- What is Nonprobability sampling?
- Does not involve selection of elements at random
- What are the Types of Nonprobability Sampling—Quantitative Research?
- Convenience (accidental) sampling
Snowball (network) sampling
- What is Convenience Sampling?
- ~Use of the most conveniently available people
~Most widely used approach by quantitative researchers
~Most vulnerable to sampling biases
- What is Snowball Sampling?
- Referrals for others who meet eligibility criteria from other people already in a sample. Used to identify people with distinctive characteristics.
Used by both quantitative and qualitative researchers.
- What is Quota Sampling?
- ~Similer to Convenience sampling within specified strata of the population.
~Enhances representativeness of sample and does not require sophisticated skills or alot of efforts.
- What is Purposive (Judgmental) Sampling?
- ~Sample members are hand-picked by researcher to achieve certain goals
~Used more often by qualitative than quantitative researchers
~Can be used in quantitative studies to select experts or achieve other goals
- What are the types of Probability Sampling?
- Simple random sampling
Stratified random sampling
Cluster (multistage) sampling
- What is Simple Random Sampling?
- Involves random selection of elements from the sampling frame
~Not to be confused with random assignment to groups in experiments
Cumbersome, not used in large, national surveys.
~Uses a sampling frame
- What is a sampling frame?
- a list of all population elements
- What is Stratified Random Sampling?
- ~Population divided into strata, then random selection from the stratified sampling frames
~Can sample proportionately or disproportionately from the strata
- What is the most common procedure for drawing a stratified random sample?
- to group those elements that belong to a stratum and to randomly select the desired number of elements.
- What is Cluster (Multistage) Sampling?
- ~Successive random sampling of units from larger to smaller (e.g., states, then zip codes, then households)
~Widely used in national surveys
~Larger sampling error than simple random sampling, but more efficient
- What is the most common procedure for national surveys?
- cluster sampling
- The number of study participants in the final sample is?
- The Sample Size
- What is is a key determinant of sample quality in quantitative research?
- Sample size
- Sample size needs can be estimated through?
- power analysis
- Cluster sampling is often referred to as ________.
- multistage sampling
- What is sampling error/
- the difference between population calues and samle values
- What are the Methods of Sampling in Qualitative Research?
- Convenience (volunteer) sampling
- What are the Types of Purposive Sampling in Qualitative Research (Examples?
- Maximum variation sampling
Extreme/deviant case sampling
Typical case sampling
Sampling confirming/disconfirming cases
- What is Theoretical Sampling?
- Preferred sampling method in grounded theory research
Involves selecting sample members who best facilitate the development of the emerging theory
- What is Homogeneous sampling?
- Associated with Purposive sampling. involves a deliberate reduction of variaiton to permit a more focused inquiry.
- What is Maximum variation sampling?
- Associated with Purposive sampling. involves purposefully selecting cases with a range of variation on dimensions of interest.
- What is Extreme/deviant case sampling?
- Associated with purposive sampling. provides opportunities for learning from the most unusual and extreme informants
- What is Typical case sampling?
- Associated with purposive sampling.Involves selecting participants who will illustrate or highlight what is typical or average.
- What is Criterion sampling?
- Associated with purposive sampling. involves studying cases that meet a predetermined criterion of importance.
- What is Sampling confirming cases?
- Associated with purposive sampling. Additional cases that fit researchers conceptualizations and offer enhanced credibility.
- What is Sampling Disconfirming cases?
- Associated with purposive sampling. New cases that do not fit and serve top challange researchers interpretations.
- Sample Size in Qualitative Research is based on?
- Sample size determined by informational needs
- A guiding principle in sampling with Qualitative studies is?
- data saturation which means sampling to the point at which no new information is obtained and rebundacy is achieved.
- What are the Three Main Qualitative Traditions in sampling?
- What is Ethnography?
- ~Mingling with many members of the culture—a “big net” approach
~Informal conversations with 25 to 50 informants
~Multiple interviews with smaller number of key informants
- What is Phenomenology?
- ~Relies on very small samples (often 10 or fewer)
~Participants must have experienced phenomenon of interest
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