## Glossary of Chpter 12 Questions

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- Sampling may be defined as the:
- Process of selecting a subset of the population to represent the entire population

- Bias in a sample for a quantitative study refers to:
- Systematic over- or underrepresentation of an attribute vis-à-vis the population

- Strata are incorporated into the design of which of the following sampling approaches?
- Quota

- Which of the following is not a nonprobability sampling method?
- Cluster sampling

- The sampling design that would be especially likely to yield a representative sample is:
- Systematic

- Which of the following types of sample is considered to be the weakest for quantitative studies?

A) Convenience

B) Quota

C) Purposive

D) Systematic - Convenience

- The type of nonprobability design that is most likely to yield a representative sample is:
- Quota sampling

- The procedure of weighting is associated with which type of sampling design?
- Disproportionate sampling

- A researcher used a probability-type systematic sampling plan. The sample size was 200. The sampling interval was 250. The first element drawn was 196. The second element would be:
- 446

- Which of the following terms does not belong with the others?

A) Purposeful sample

C) Judgmental sample

B) Purposive sample

D) Volunteer sample - Volunteer sample

- Theoretical sampling is used by:
- Grounded theory researchers

- A sampling strategy that is diametrically opposed to maximum variation sampling is:
- Homogeneous sampling

- As qualitative researchers near the end of data collection, they may employ the technique of sampling:
- Disconfirming cases

- Samples of 10 or fewer subjects would be most likely to be found in a(n):
- Phenomenological study

- Sampling bias would be of greater concern in studying body temperatures in healthy adults than in studying their attitudes toward abortion.
- False

- The major criterion in assessing the adequacy of a sample in a quantitative study is the degree to which it represents the characteristics of interest in the population.
- True

- Random selection is a key concept in all types of probability sampling designs.
- True

- If a probability sampling design has been used, the researcher can safely generalize to the target population.
- False

- Systematic sampling involves the successive random sampling of units from largest to smallest.
- False

- In a quantitative study, larger samples are more likely to represent the population on the attribute of interest than smaller samples.
- True

- Snowball sampling is to convenience sampling what cluster sampling is to simple random sampling.
- False

- Each element in the population has an equal chance of being selected in a quota sampling plan.
- False

- Systematic sampling may be either probability or nonprobability.
- True

- The researcher hand-picks people to be included in a study in cluster sampling.
- False

- If a researcher posted a recruitment notice for a study on a website, people who responded would comprise a convenience sample.
- True

- Differences between population values and sample values are referred to as weighting errors.
- False

- In quantitative studies, power analysis is used to estimate the sample size needed to adequately test research hypotheses.
- True

- Populations that are fairly homogeneous with respect to the dependent variable require a smaller sample size for a quantitative inquiry than heterogeneous populations.
- True

- A major criterion for assessing the adequacy of a sample in a qualitative study is the degree to which a theory has been developed to adequately describe the population.
- False

- In a qualitative study, sample size decisions are often guided by the principle of data saturation.
- True

- The sampling strategy that involves the selection of extreme cases is referred to as maximum variation sampling.
- False

- Qualitative researchers often strive to purposefully select sample members based on emerging information needs.
- True

- In homogeneous sampling, the researcher deliberately seeks to increase variation in the characteristics of the sample members.
- False

- Qualitative samples tend to be small primarily because in-depth interviews are so time-consuming there is insufficient time for large samples.
- False

- What are the Basic Sampling Concepts?
- Population

Sampling

Eligibility criteria

Strata

Target population

Accessible population

- The aggregate of cases in which a researcher is interested in is?
- Population

- Are populations restricted to humans?
- No

- Selection of a portion of the population (a sample) to represent the entire population ?
- Sampling

- What are elements?
- Entities that make up samples and populations?

- Selection of a portion of the population (a sample) to represent the entire population is?
- Sampling

- What is a subset of a population?
- sample

- The characteristics that define the population is?
- Eligibility criteria/Inclusion criteria

- What is Exclusion criteria?
- The population may be defined to exclude people who do not speak english.

- Subpopulations of a population is?
- Strata

- The entire population of interest is?
- Target population

- The portion of the target population that is accessible to the researcher, from which a sample is drawn is?
- Accessible population

- What are the Sampling Concepts in Quantitative Research?
- Representative sample

Sampling bias

Sampling error

- A sample whose key characteristics closely approximate those of the population?
- Representative sample

- What is the main sampling goal in quantitative research?
- Representative sample

- Representative sample is more easily achieved with:
- Probability sampling

Homogeneous populations

Larger samples

- What is probability sampling?
- it involves randome selection of elements from population.

- What is Homogeneous population?
- population that exhibits no varibility at all. the elements of the population are identical.

- What is Sampling bias?
- The systematic over- or under-representation of segments of the population on key variables

- What is Sampling error?
- Differences between sample values and population values

- What are the 2 braod types of sampling plans?
- Probability sampling

Nonprobability sampling

- What is Nonprobability sampling?
- Does not involve selection of elements at random

- What are the Types of Nonprobability Sampling—Quantitative Research?
- Convenience (accidental) sampling

Snowball (network) sampling

Quota sampling

Purposive sampling

- What is Convenience Sampling?
- ~Use of the most conveniently available people

~Most widely used approach by quantitative researchers

~Most vulnerable to sampling biases

- What is Snowball Sampling?
- Referrals for others who meet eligibility criteria from other people already in a sample. Used to identify people with distinctive characteristics.

Used by both quantitative and qualitative researchers.

- What is Quota Sampling?
- ~Similer to Convenience sampling within specified strata of the population.

~Enhances representativeness of sample and does not require sophisticated skills or alot of efforts.

~Infrequently used

- What is Purposive (Judgmental) Sampling?
- ~Sample members are hand-picked by researcher to achieve certain goals

~Used more often by qualitative than quantitative researchers

~Can be used in quantitative studies to select experts or achieve other goals

- What are the types of Probability Sampling?
- Simple random sampling

Stratified random sampling

Cluster (multistage) sampling

Systematic sampling

- What is Simple Random Sampling?
- Involves random selection of elements from the sampling frame

~Not to be confused with random assignment to groups in experiments

Cumbersome, not used in large, national surveys.

~Uses a sampling frame

- What is a sampling frame?
- a list of all population elements

- What is Stratified Random Sampling?
- ~Population divided into strata, then random selection from the stratified sampling frames

~Enhances representativeness

~Can sample proportionately or disproportionately from the strata

- What is the most common procedure for drawing a stratified random sample?
- to group those elements that belong to a stratum and to randomly select the desired number of elements.

- What is Cluster (Multistage) Sampling?
- ~Successive random sampling of units from larger to smaller (e.g., states, then zip codes, then households)

~Widely used in national surveys

~Larger sampling error than simple random sampling, but more efficient

- What is the most common procedure for national surveys?
- cluster sampling

- The number of study participants in the final sample is?
- The Sample Size

- What is is a key determinant of sample quality in quantitative research?
- Sample size

- Sample size needs can be estimated through?
- power analysis

- Cluster sampling is often referred to as ________.
- multistage sampling

- What is sampling error/
- the difference between population calues and samle values

- What are the Methods of Sampling in Qualitative Research?
- Convenience (volunteer) sampling

Snowball sampling

Purposive sampling

Theoretical sampling

- What are the Types of Purposive Sampling in Qualitative Research (Examples?
- Maximum variation sampling

Homogeneous sampling

Extreme/deviant case sampling

Typical case sampling

Criterion sampling

Sampling confirming/disconfirming cases

- What is Theoretical Sampling?
- Preferred sampling method in grounded theory research

Involves selecting sample members who best facilitate the development of the emerging theory

- What is Homogeneous sampling?
- Associated with Purposive sampling. involves a deliberate reduction of variaiton to permit a more focused inquiry.

- What is Maximum variation sampling?
- Associated with Purposive sampling. involves purposefully selecting cases with a range of variation on dimensions of interest.

- What is Extreme/deviant case sampling?
- Associated with purposive sampling. provides opportunities for learning from the most unusual and extreme informants

- What is Typical case sampling?
- Associated with purposive sampling.Involves selecting participants who will illustrate or highlight what is typical or average.

- What is Criterion sampling?
- Associated with purposive sampling. involves studying cases that meet a predetermined criterion of importance.

- What is Sampling confirming cases?
- Associated with purposive sampling. Additional cases that fit researchers conceptualizations and offer enhanced credibility.

- What is Sampling Disconfirming cases?
- Associated with purposive sampling. New cases that do not fit and serve top challange researchers interpretations.

- Sample Size in Qualitative Research is based on?
- Sample size determined by informational needs

- A guiding principle in sampling with Qualitative studies is?
- data saturation which means sampling to the point at which no new information is obtained and rebundacy is achieved.

- What are the Three Main Qualitative Traditions in sampling?
- Ethnography

Grounded theory

Phenomenology

- What is Ethnography?
- ~Mingling with many members of the culture—a “big net” approach

~Informal conversations with 25 to 50 informants

~Multiple interviews with smaller number of key informants

- What is Phenomenology?
- ~Relies on very small samples (often 10 or fewer)

~Participants must have experienced phenomenon of interest