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Glossary of Chinese myths & legends 2

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Created by jkadlik

Mahayana
became principle type of Buddhism in China
Buddhism 5 paths
Heaven
Human
Animal
Ghost
Hell



Karma
Ethical totality of all that you do, in this life and in previous lives
Samsara
turning wheel, life death rebirth
Ava Loki Tesvara
" listen to the cries of us"

comes to the aide of believers (house on fire, boat sinking)

Maitreya
Happy Buddha

can come to the aide of believers, or believers can appear in his heaven

Avadana
her stories
sutra
carrying the words of the Buddha
Shastra
essays by learned Buddhist scholars
The five precepts
Kill living things
take what is not given
engage in improper sexual contact
speak falsehoods
use intoxicants





indigenous chinese beliefs
Mt tai ruled ghostly realm and maintains registers of living and dead

netherworld has bureaucratic structure similar to imperial administration

widespread respect for elders and authority: filal piety, loyalty



Important philosophers in Daoism
Lao Zi

Lie Zi

Zhuang Zu



Daoist supreme dieties
Jade Emperor

Yuhuang dadi

Yu-huangta-ti



Taishan
ruler of the eastern peak in Daoism

Presides over human life

this is an outgrowth of the earlier Lord of Mount Tai, who was a netherworld god



First hell
contains "Mirror of the wicked" in which can be seen all of the beinfs that the person has harmed
Fifth Hell
Yama (sent here because he was to lenient in the first hell)



Tenth Hell
It is the exit chamber where future lives are initiated

No punishments

Dame Meng is in this hell. She prepares the "broth of Oblivion" which causes everyone to forget the hells and their previous incarnations



Bodhi Sattva
group of enlightened people who as they approach enlightenment they take a vow, called the "Bodhi Sattva Vow"

They vow to stay in the world to help other achieve enlightenment

Only when all being achieve Enlightenment then the Bodhi Sattva can go to Nirvana



Jataka
tell of somthing that happened during a previous life of our Buddha (Sakyamuni)
Vinaya
Buddhist rules for the monastic community
Chinese Buddhist miracles tales borrowed their form from
Indigenous Chinese "strange tale" genre
Ts'ai Chinh's Wife
a "strange tale" not a buddhist tale
Daoism and immortality
Common foods were avoided
special diet was used
elixirs/potions/drugs were ingested= chinese alchemy
Cinnabar was often used
Breaks blood vessels when ingested
gives rudy complexion considered youthful
Immortals could reside in heaven
Immortals lived in Isles of the Blest in the Eastern Sea






Daoism religious movements
Five pecks of Rice

Yellow turbans

Eight Immortals

Zhang Guo

o rides white donkey
o carries a long narrow bamboo drum
o he is associated with old men

Eight Immortals

Li Tieguai

o Portrayed as a poorly dressed and crippled beggar
o He wears rags and carries an iron crutch
o He often carries a gourd (symbol of immortality)
o left his body, servant cremated body


Eight Immortals

Han Xiangzi

o Portrayed holding or playing flute
o His is said to be the nephew of the famous Tang scholar Han Yu
o Said to have died when he fell out of a peach tree

Eight immortals

Lan Caihe

o Sometimes portrayed as a male, sometimes as female
o lived as a hermit during tang dynasty
o shown with a basket of flowers and carrying a hoe over one shoulder

Eight Immortals

Cao Cuojiu

o supposedly related to the Song dynasty imperial family
o portrayed with a beard and a pair castanets
o sometimes he holds a jade audience tablet
o he is associated with actors


Other two of eight immortals
He Xiangzi

Zhongli Quan

Wu Zixu
o actually euhermerized
o Committed susiced with a sword given to him by the king
o became recognized as the god of the Quiantang River tidal bore

Qu Yuan
o Actually euhemerized
o committed suicide by leaping into a tributary of the Yangtze river
o replaced Wu Zixu as the figure associated with the Dragon Boat Festival

Guan Yu
o one of the most widely popular gods in traditional China
o In Popular religion
- Defends against demons
- Kills demons
- Breaks spells
o In "official religions"
- Protector of the empire
- Patron of the empire
- Patron of military officers







Yue Fei
A historical person, Song Dynasty General



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