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Glossary of Child Development 1st Exam

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Created by ElenaMatthews

Child Development
the scientific study of the patterns of growth, change, and stability that occur from conception through adolescence.
3 major topic areas of child development are..
Physical development
cognitive development
social and personality development

Physical development
development involving the body's physical makeup including the brain, nervous system, muscles, and senses and the need for food drink, and sleep.
How it helps determine behavior


Cognitive Development
development involving the ways that a growth and change in intellectual capabilities influence a person's behavior.
Examine learning, memory, problem solving, and intelligence.
Personality Development
development involving the ways that the enduring characteristics that differentiate one person from another change or stay stable over time.
Social development
the way in which individuals' interactions with others and their social relationships grow, change, and remain stable over the course of life.
Effects of racism, poverty, or divorce.
Cohort
a group of people born at around the same time in the same place
history graded influences
biological and environmental challenges due to the event.
EX: cohort effects
age-graded influences
biological and environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a certain age group, regardless of when or where they are raised
sociocultural-graded influences
include ethnicity, social class, subcultural membership and other factors.
Non-normative life events
specific, atypical events that occur in a particular person's life at a time when such events do not happen to most people.
continuous change
development is gradual, with achievements at one level building on those of previous levels.
Quantitive...
Discontinuous change
occurs in distinct steps or stages, with each stage bringing about behavior that is assumed to be qualitatively different from behavior at earlier stages.
critical period
a specific time during development when a particular event has it's greatest consequences.
plasticity
the degree to which a developing behavior or physical structure is modifiable
sensitive period
a specific time when organisms are particularly susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli in their environment
maturation
the process of the predetermined unfolding of genetic information
one key issue in child development today includes the comparison and contrast between continuous versus ______ change.
discontinuous
Another important issue involves the understanding of critical and ______ periods.
Sensitive
The relative influence of nature versus _____ on development illustrates a key question in child development.
nurture
Child development takes a scientific approach to development, and it considers ____ as well as change, in the lives of children and adolescents.
stability
The field of child development includes three major topics or approaches: physical development, ______ development, and social and personality development.
cognitive
specialists in child development must take into consideration broad ________ factors and account for ethnic, racial, socioeconomic, and gender differences if they are to understand how people change and grow throughout the life span.
cultural
Major social events have similar influences on members of a particular ____, a group of people born at around the same time in the same place.
cohort
Theories
explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interest, providing a framework for understanding the relationships among an organized set of facts or principles.
psychodynamic perspective
the approach to the study of development that states behavior is motivated by inner forces, memories, and conflicts of which a person has little awareness or control.
Psychoanalytic theory
the theory proposed by Freud that suggests that unconscious forces act to determine personality and behavior.
Psychosexual development
according to Freud, a series of stages that children pass through in which pleasure, or gratification, is focused on particular biological function and body part.
psychosocial development
the approach to the study of development that encompasses changes in the understanding individuals have of their interactions with others, of others' behavior, and of themselves as members of society.
Behavior perspective
the approach to the study of development that suggests that the keys to understanding development are observable behavior and outside stimuli in the environment.
classical conditioning
a type of learning in which an organism responds in a particular way to a neutral stimulus that normally does not bring about that type of response.
operant conditioning
a form of learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened, depending on his association with positive or negative consequences.
behavior modification
a formal technique for promoting the frequency of desirable behaviors and decreasing the incidence of unwanted ones
social-cognitive learning theory
an approach to the study of development that emphasizes learning by observing the behavior of another person, called a model
cognitive perspective
the approach to the study of development that focuses on the processes that allow people to know, understand, and think about the world.
information-processing approaches
approaches to the study of cognitive development that seek to identify the ways individuals take in, use, and store information
cognitive neuroscience approaches
approaches to the study of cognitive development that focus on how brain processes are related to cognitive activity.
contextual perspective
the perspective that considers the relationship between individuals and their physical, cognitive, personality, social, and physical worlds.
Bioecological approach
the perspective suggesting that different levels of the environment simultaneously influence every biological organism
sociocultural theory
an approach that emphasizes how cognitive development proceeds as a result of social interactions between members of a culture.
Evolutionary perspective
the theory that seeks to identify behavior that is the result of our enetic inheritance from our ancestors
scientific method
the process of posing and answering questions using careful, controlled techniques that include systematic, orderly observation and the collection of data
the five major theoretical perspectives that guide the study of child development are: Psychodynamic, the ______, the cognitive, the contextual, and the evolutionary perspectives.
behavioral
The _____ perspective identifies behaviors that are the result of genetic inheritance.
evolutionary
Erikson's _____ _____ theory was created as an alternative psychodynamic view and emphasizes social interaction with other people.
psychosocial development
Vygotsky's sociocultural theory emphasizes how cognitive development proceeds as a result of _____ _____ between members of a culture
social interactions
hypothesis
a prediction stated in a way that permits it to be tested.
correlational research
research that seeks to identify whether an association or relationship between two factors exists.
Experimental research
research designed to discover causal relationships between various factors
Naturalistic observation
students in which researchers observe some naturally occurring behavior without intervening or making changes in the situation
case studies
extensive, in-depth interviews with a particular individual or small group of individuals
survey research
research in which a group of people chosen to represent some larger population are asked questions about their attitudes, behavior, or thinking on a given topic.
psychophysiological methods
a research approach that focuses on the relationship between physiological processes and behavior
experiment
a process in which an investigator, called an experimenter, devises two different experiences for subjects or participants.
Treatment
a procedure applied by an experimental investigator based on two different experiences devised for subjects or participants.
treatment group
the group in an experiment that receives the treatment.
control group
the group in an experiment that receives either no treatment or an alternative treatment.
independent variable
the variable in an experiment that is manipulated by researchers
dependent variable
the variable in experiment that is measured and is expected to change as a result of experimental manipulation.
sample
a group of participants chosen for an experiment
field study
a research investigation carried out in a naturally occurring setting
laboratory study
a research investigation conducted in a controlled setting explicitly designed to hold events constant
the ____ ____ is the process of posing and answering questions using controlled techniques that include systematic, orderly observation and the collection of data
scientific method
a ____ is a prediction stated in a way that permits it to be tested
hypothesis
_______ are sistematically derived explanations of facts or phenomena
theories
the major research strategies associated with social science research are _____ and correlational studies.
experimental
theoretical research
research designed specifically to test some developmental explanation and expand scientific knowledge
applied research
research meant to provide practical solutions to immediate problems
longitudinal research
research in which the behavior of one or more individuals is measured as the subjects age
cross-sectional research
research in which people of different ages are compared at the same point in time
sequential studies
studies in which researchers examine members of a number of different age groups at several points in time
developmental researchers focus on _____ and applied research
theoretical
_____ research measures change over time.
longitudinal
The research method in which researchers examine a number of different age groups at a single point in time is called ____ ____ research.
cross-sectional
among the basic ethical principles that protect research participants are those involving freedom from harm, _____ ______, and maintenance of participants' privacy.
informed consent

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