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Glossary of Chemistry Zumdahl Glossary

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the agreement of a particular value with the true value
accuracy
a substance that produces hydrogen ions in solution; a proton donor
acid
a substance that marks the end point of an acid-base titration by changing color
acid-base indicator
the equilibrium constant for a reaction in which a proton is removed from an acid by H2O to form the conjugate base and H3O+
acid dissociation constant Ka
a result of air pollution by sulfur dioxide
acid rain
a covalent oxide that dissolves in water to give an acidic solution
acidic oxide
a group of 14 elements following actinium in the periodic table, in which the 5f orbitals are being filled
actinide series
the arrangement of atoms found at the top of the potential energy barrier as a reaction proceeds from reactants to products
activated complex (transition state)
the threshold energy that must be overcome to produce a chemical reaction
activation energy
a type of polymerization in which the monomers simply add together to form the polymer, with no other products
addition polymerization
a reaction in which atoms add to a carbon-carbon multiple bond
addition reaction
the collection of one substance on the surface of another
adsorption
contamination of the atmosphere, mainly by the gaseous products of transportation and production of electricity
air pollution
an organic compound in which the hydroxyl group is a substituent on a hydrocarbon
alcohol
an organic compound containing the carbonyl group bonded to at least one hydrogen atom
aldehyde
a Group 1A metal
alkali metal
a Group 2A metal
alkaline earth metal
a saturated hydrocarbon with general formula C_nH_(2n+2)
alkane
an unsaturated hydrocarbon containing a carbon-carbon double bond, general formula is C_nH_(2n)
alkene
an unsaturated hydrocarbon containing a triple carbon-carbon bond, general formula is C_nH_(2n-2)
alkyne
a substance that contains a mixture of elements and has metallic properties
alloy
a form of steel containing carbon plus other metals such as Cr, Co, Mn, and Mo
alloy steel
a helium nucleus
alpha (α) particle
a common mode of decay for radioactive nuclides in which the mass number changes
alpha-particle production
an organic base derived from ammonia in which one or more of the hydrogen atoms are replaced by organic groups
amine
an organic acid in which an amino group and an R group are attached to the carbon atom next to the carboxyl group
α-amino acid
a solid with considerable disorder in its structure
amorphous solid
the unit of current equal to one coulomb of charge per second
ampere
a substance that can behave either as an acid or as a base
amphoteric substance
the quantum number relating to the shape of an atomic orbital, which can assume any integral value from 0 to n-1 for each value of n
angular momentum quantum number l
a negative ion
anion
the electrode in a galvanic cell at which oxidation occurs
anode
an orbital higher in energy than the atomic orbitals of which it is composed
antibonding molecular orbital
a solution in which water is the dissolving medium or solvent
aqueous solution
one of a special class of cyclic unsaturated hydrocarbons, the simplest of which is benzene
aromatic hydrocarbon
a concept postulating that acids produce hydrogen ions in solution, while bases produce hydroxide ions
Arrhenius concept
the equation representing the rate constant as k = A e^(-E_a/RT), where A represents the product of the collision frequency and the steric factor, and e^(-E_a/RT) is the fraction of collisions with sufficient energy to produce a reaction
Arrhenius equation
a polymer chain in which the substituent groups such as CH_3 are randomly distributed along the chain
atactic chain
the mixture of gases that surrounds the earth's surface
atmosphere
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
atomic number
half the distance between the nuclei in a molecule consisting of identical atoms
atomic radius
a solid that contains atoms at the lattice points
atomic solid
the weighted average mass of the atoms in a naturally occurring element
atomic weight
the principle stating that as protons are added to the nucleus to build up the elements, electrons are similarly added to hydrogen-like orbitals
aufbau principle
the transfer of an electron from one molecule to another of the same substance
autoionization
equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of particles
Avogadro's law
the number of atoms in exactly 12 grams of pure C-12, equal to 6.022*10^(23)
Avogadro's number
a molecular model that distorts the sizes of atoms but shows bond relationships clearly
ball-and-stick model
a molecular model for metals in which electrons are assumed to travel around the metal crystal in molecular orbitals formed from the valence atomic orbitals of the metal atoms
band model
a device for measuring atmospheric pressure
barometer
a substance that produces hydroxide ions in solution, a proton acceptor
base
an ionic oxide that dissolves in water to produce a basic solution
basic oxide
a process for producing steel by oxidizing and removing the impurities in iron using a high-pressure blast of oxygen
basic oxygen process
a group of galvanic cells connected in series
battery
an electron produced in radioactive decay
beta (β) particle
a decay process for radioactive nuclides in which the mass number remains constant and the atomic number changes, net effect is to change a neutron into a proton
beta-particle production
a ligand that can form two bonds to a metal ion
bidentate ligand
a reaction involving the collision of two molecules
bimolecular step
a two-element compound
binary compound
the energy required to decompose a nucleus into its component nucleons
binding energy (nuclear)
a molecule responsible for maintaining and/or reproducing life
biomolecule
a furnace in which iron oxide is reduced to iron metal by using a very strong blast of hot air to produce carbon monoxide from coke, and then using this gas as a reducing agent for the iron
blast furnace
the energy required to break a given chemical bond
bond energy
the distance between the nuclei of the two atoms connected by a bond; the distance where the total energy of a diatomic molecule is minimal
bond length
the difference between the number of bonding electrons and the number of antibonding electrons, divided by two, an index of bond strength
bond order
an orbital lower in energy than the atomic orbitals of which it is composed
bonding molecular orbital
an electron pair found in the space between two atoms
bonding pair
a covalent hydride of boron
borane
the volume of a given sample of gas at constant temperature varies inversely with the pressure
Boyle's law
a nuclear reactor in which fissionable fuel is produced while the reactor runs
breeder reactor
a model proposing that an acid is a proton donor, and a base is a proton acceptor
Brønsted-Lowry model
a solution that resists a change in pH when either hydroxide ions or protons are added
buffered solution
the ability of a buffered solution to absorb protons or hydroxide ions without a significant change in pH; determined by the magnitudes of [HA] and [A-] in the solution
buffering capacity
the science of measuring heat flow
calorimetry
the spontaneous rising of a liquid in a narrow tube
capillary action
a polyhydroxyl ketone or polyhydroxyl aldehyde or a polymer composed of these
carbohydrate
an alloy of iron containing up to about 1.5% carbon
carbon steel
a stable complex hemoglobin and carbon monoxide that prevents normal oxygen uptake in the blood
carboxyhemoglobin
the —COOH group in an organic acid
carboxyl group
an organic compound containing the carboxyl group; an acid with the general formula RCOOH
carboxylic acid
a substance that speeds up a reaction without being consumed
catalyst
the electrode in a galvanic cell at which reduction occurs
cathode
the “rays” emanating from the negative electrode (cathode) in a partially evacuated tube; a stream of electrons
cathode rays
a method in which an active metal, such as magnesium, is connected to steel to protect it from corrosion
cathodic protection
a positive ion
cation
the driving force in a galvanic cell that pulls electrons from the reducing agent in one compartment to the oxidizing agent in the other
cell potential (emf)
a nonmetallic material made from clay and hardened by firing at high temperature; it contains minute silicate crystals suspended in a glassy cement
ceramic
a self-sustaining fission process caused by the production of neutrons that proceed to split other nuclei
chain reaction (nuclear)
the volume of a given sample of gas at constant pressure is directly proportional to the temperature in kelvins
Charles's law
a ligand having more than one atom with a lone pair that can be used to bond to a metal ion
chelating ligand (chelate)
the force or, more accurately, the energy, that holds two atoms together in a compound
chemical bond
the change of substances into other substances through a reorganization of the atoms; a chemical reaction
chemical change
a representation of a chemical reaction showing the relative numbers of reactant and product molecules
chemical equation
a dynamic reaction system in which the concentrations of all reactants and products remain constant as a function of time
chemical equilibrium
the representation of a molecule in which the symbols for the elements are used to indicate the types of atoms present and subscripts are used to show the relative numbers of atoms
chemical formula
the area of chemistry that concerns reaction rates
chemical kinetics
the calculation of the quantities of material consumed and produced in chemical reactions
chemical stoichiometry
the quality of having nonsuperimposable mirror images
chirality
the process for producing chlorine and sodium hydroxide by electrolyzing brine in a mercury cell
chlor-alkali process
the general name for a series of methods for separating mixtures by employing a system with a mobile phase and a stationary phase
chromatography
the destruction of a colloid by causing particles to aggregate and settle out
coagulation
organic bases in sets of three that form the genetic code
codons
properties of a solution that depend only on the number, and not the identity, of the solute particles
colligative properties
a model based on the idea that molecules must collide to react; used to account for the observed characteristics of reaction rates
collision model
a suspension of particles in a dispersing medium
colloid (colloidal dispersion)
the vigorous and exothermic reaction that takes place between certain substances, particularly organic compounds, and oxygen
combustion reaction
the shift in an equilibrium position caused by the addition or presence of an ion involved in the equilibrium reaction
common ion effect
an equation that shows all substances that are strong electrolytes as ions
complete ionic equation
a charged species consisting of a metal ion surrounded by ligands
complex ion
a substance with constant composition that can be broken down into elements by chemical processes
compound
a galvanic cell in which both compartments contain the same components, but at different concentrations
concentration cell
the process by which vapor molecules reform a liquid
condensation
a type of polymerization in which the formation of a small molecule, such as water, accompanies the extension of a polymer chain
condensation polymerization
a reaction in which two molecules are joined, accompanied by the elimination of a water molecule
condensation reaction
liquids and solids
condensed states of matter
the species formed when a proton is added to a base
conjugate acid
two species related to each other by the donating and accepting of a single proton
conjugate acid-base pair
what remains of an acid molecule after a proton is lost
conjugate base
a spectrum that exhibits all the wavelengths of visible light
continuous spectrum
rods in a nuclear reactor composed of substances that absorb neutrons, regulating the power level of the reactor
control rods
a metal-ligand bond resulting from the interaction of a Lewis base (the ligand) and a Lewis acid (the metal ion)
coordinate covalent bond
a compound composed of a complex ion and counterions sufficient to give no net charge
coordination compound
isomerism in a coordination compound in which the composition of the coordination sphere of a metal ion varies
coordination isomerism
the number of bonds formed between the metal ion and the ligands in a complex ion
coordination number
a polymer formed from the polymerization of more than one type of monomer
copolymer
an inner electron in an atom; one not in the outermost (valence) principal quantum level
core electron
the process by which metals are oxidized in the atmosphere
corrosion
E = 2.31*10^(-19)*(Q_1Q_2/r), where E is the energy of interaction between a pair of ions, expressed in joules; r is the distance between the ion centers in nm; and Q_1 and Q_2 are the numerical ion charges
Coulomb's law
anions or cations that balance the charge on the complex ion in a coordination compound
counterions
a type of bonding in which electrons are shared by atoms
covalent bonding
the mass of fissionable material required to produce a self-sustaining chain reaction
critical mass
the point on a phase diagram at which the temperature and pressure have their critical values; the end point on the liquid-vapor line
critical point
the minimum pressure required to produce liquefaction of a substance at the critical temperature
critical pressure
a reaction in which exactly one neutron from each fission event causes another fission event, thus sustaining the chain reaction
critical reaction (nuclear)
the temperature above which vapor cannot be liquefied no matter what pressure is applied
critical temperature
the existence of bonds between adjacent chains in a polymer, thus adding strength to the material
crosslinking
a model used to explain the magnetism and colors of coordination complexes through the splitting of the d orbital energies
crystal field model
a solid with a regular arrangement of its components
crystalline solid
a solid modeled by the closest packing of spheres with an abcabc arrangement of layers; the unit cell is face-centered cubic
cubic closest packed (ccp) structure
a process in which crushed gold ore is treated with an aqueous cyanide solution in the presence of air to dissolve the gold; pure gold is recovered by reduction of the ion to the metal
cyanidation
a type of particle accelerator in which an ion introduced at the center is accelerated in an expanding spiral path by the use of alternating electrical fields in the presence of a magnetic field
cyclotron
a series of iron containing species composed of heme and a protein; the principal electron-transfer molecules in the respiratory chain
cytochromes
for a mixture of gases in a container, the total pressure exerted is the sum of the partial pressures that each gas would exert if it were alone
Dalton's law of partial pressures
a group of orbitals with the same energy
degenerate orbitals
a reaction in which two hydrogen atoms are removed from adjacent carbons of a saturated hydrocarbon, giving an unsaturated hydrocarbon
dehydrogenation reaction
the breaking down of the three-dimensional structure of a protein resulting in the loss of its function
denaturation
the return of nitrogen from decomposed matter to the atmosphere by bacteria that change nitrates to nitrogen gas
denitrification
a property of matter representing mass per unit volume
density
a huge nucleotide polymer having a double-helical structure with complimentary bases on the two strands; functions are protein synthesis and the storage and transport of genetic information
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
the removal of dissolved salts from an aqueous solution
desalination
a phenomenon in which a semipermeable membrane allows transfer of both solvent molecules and small solute molecules and ions
dialysis
a type of magnetism, associated with paired electrons, that causes a substance to be repelled from the inducing magnetic field
diamagnetism
an expression that gives the rate of a reaction as a function of concentrations; often called the rate law
differential rate law
the scattering of light from a regular array of points or lines, producing constructive and destructive interference
diffraction
the mixing of gases
diffusion
the process of adding solvent to lower the concentration of solute in a solution
dilution
a molecule formed by the joining of two identical monomers
dimer
the attractive force resulting when polar molecules line up so that the positive and negative ends are close to each other
dipole-dipole attraction
a property of a molecule whose charge distribution can be represented by a center of positive charge and a center of negative charge
dipole moment
a furnace in which iron oxide is reduced to iron metal using milder reaction conditions than in a blast furnace
direct reduction furnace
a sugar formed from two monosaccharides joined by a glycoside linkage
disaccharide
a reaction in which a given element is both oxidized and reduced
disproportionation reaction
a method for separating the components of a liquid mixture that depends on differences in the ease of vaporization of the components
distillation
an S—S bond that stabilizes the tertiary structure of many proteins
disulfide linkage
a bond in which two pairs of electrons are shared by two atoms
double bond
a cell used for electrolyzing molten sodium chloride
Downs cell
a common battery used in calculators, watches, radios, and tape players
dry cell battery
the statement that light exhibits both wave and particulate properties
dual nature of light
the passage of a gas through a tiny orfice into an evacuated chamber
effusion
the ability to conduct electric current
electrical conductivity
the study of the interchange of chemical and electrical energy
electrochemistry
a process that involves forcing a current through a cell to cause a nonspontaneous chemical reaction to occur
electrolysis
a material that dissolves in water to give a solution that conducts an electric current
electrolyte
a cell that uses electrical energy to produce a chemical change that would otherwise not occur spontaneously
electrolytic cell
radiant energy that exhibits wavelike behavior and travels through space at the speed of light in a vacuum
electromagnetic radiation
a negatively charged particle that moves around the nucleus of an atom
electron
the energy change associated with the addition of an electron to a gaseous atom
electron affinity
a process in which one of the inner-orbital electrons in an atom is captured by the nucleus
electron capture
a quantum number representing one of the two possible values for the electron spin; either +1/2 or -1/2
electron spin quantum number
the tendency of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself
electronegativity
a substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical or physical means
element
a reaction whose rate law can be written from its molecularity
elementary step
Einstein's equation proposing that energy has mass; E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of light
E = mc^2
the simplest whole number ratio of atoms in a compound
empirical formula
isomers that are nonsuperimposable mirror images of each other
enantiomer
the point in a titration at which the indicator changes color
endpoint
refers to a reaction where energy (as heat) flows into the system
endothermic
the capacity to do work or to cause heat flow
energy
a property of a system equal to E + PV, where E is the internal energy of the system, P is the pressure of the system, and V is the volume of the system; at constant pressure its change equals the energy flow as heat
enthalpy
the enthalpy change that occurs to melt a solid at its melting point
heat of fusion
a thermodynamic function that measures randomness or disorder
entropy
a large molecule, usually a protein, that catalyzes biological molecules
enzyme
the value obtained when equilibrium concentrations of the chemical species are substituted in the equilibrium expression
equilibrium constant
the expression (from the law of mass action) obtained by multiplying the product concentrations and dividing by the multiplied reactant concentrations, with each concentration raised to a power represented by the coefficient in the balanced equation
equilibrium expression
the position where the free energy of a reaction system has its lowest possible value
equilibrium point (thermodynamic definition)
a particular set of equilibrium concentrations
equilibrium position
the point in a titration when enough titrant has been added to react exactly with the substance in solution being titrated
equivalence point (stoichiometric point)
an organic compound produced by the reaction between a carboxylic acid and an alcohol
ester
refers to a reaction where energy (as heat) flows out of the system
exothermic
expresses a number as N*10^M, a convenient method for representing a very large or very small number and for easily indicating the number of significant figures
exponential notation
a constant representing the charge on one mole of electrons; 96485 coulombs
Faraday
a method for separating the components of a mixture containing a solid and a liquid
filtration
the energy of the universe is constant; same as the law of conservation of energy
1st law of thermodynamics
the process of using a neutron to split a heavy nucleus into two nuclei with smaller mass numbers
fission
a method of separating the mineral particles in an ore from the gangue that depends on the greater wettability of the mineral pieces
flotation process
the charge assigned to an atom in a molecule or polyatomic ion derived from a specific set of rules
formal charge
the equilibrium constant for each step of the formation of a complex ion by the addition of an individual ligand to a metal ion or complex ion in aqueous solution
formation constant (stability constant)
an equation representing a reaction in solution showing the reactants and products in undissociated form, whether they are strong or weak electrolytes
formula equation
coal, petroleum, or natural gas; consists of carbon-based molecules derived from decomposition of once-living organisms
fossil fuel
the recovery of sulfur from underground deposits by melting it with hot water and forcing it to the surface by air pressure
Frasch process
the thermodynamic function equal to H-TS; under certain conditions equal to the maximum useful work
free energy
a species with an unpaired electron
free radical
the number of waves (or cycles) per second that pass a given point in space
frequency
a galvanic cell for which the reactants are continuously supplied
fuel cell
an atom or group of atoms in hydrocarbon derivatives that contains elements in addition to carbon and hydrogen
functional group
the process of combining two light nuclei to form a heavier, more stable nucleus
fusion
a device in which chemical energy from a spontaneous redox reaction is changed to electrical energy that can be used to do work
galvanic cell
a process in which steel is coated with zinc to prevent corrosion
galvanizing
a high-energy photon
gamma (γ) ray
the impurities (such as clay or sand) in an ore
gangue
an instrument that measures the rate of radioactive decay based on the ions and electrons produced as a radioactive particle passes through a gas-filled chamber
Geiger(-Müller) counter
a given segment of the DNA molecule that contains the code for a specific protein
gene
isomerism in which atoms or groups of atoms can assume different positions around a rigid ring or bond
geometrical (cis-trans) isomerism
an amorphous solid obtained when silica is mixed with other compounds, heated above its melting point, and then cooled rapidly
glass
an electrode for measuring pH from the potential difference that develops when it is dipped into an aqueous solution containing H+ ions
glass electrode
a C—O—C bond formed between the rings of two cyclic monosaccharides by the elimination of water
glycosidic linkage
the rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of the mass of its particles
Graham's law of effusion
a warming effect exerted by the earth's atmosphere (particularly CO2 and H2O) due to thermal energy retained by absorption of infrared radiation
greenhouse effect
the lowest possible energy state of an atom or molecule
ground state
a vertical column of elements having the same valence electron configuration and showing similar properties
group (of the periodic table)
the manufacture of ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen, carried out at high pressure and high temperature with the aid of a catalyst
Haber process
the time required for the number of nuclides in a radioactive sample to reach half of the original value
half-life (of a radioactive sample)
the time required for a reactant to reach half of its original concentration
half-life (of a reactant)
the two parts of an oxidation-reduction reaction, one representing oxidation, the other reduction
half-reactions
a Group 7A element
halogen
the addition of halogen atoms to unsaturated hydrocarbons
halogenation
water from natural sources that contains relatively large concentrations of calcium and magnesium ions
hard water
energy transferred between two objects due to a temperature difference between them
heat
the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of an object by one degree Celsius
heat capacity
the enthalpy change associated with placing gaseous molecules or ions in water; the sum of the energy needed to expand the solvent and the energy released from the solvent-solute interactions
heat of hydration
the enthalpy change associated with dissolving a solute in a solvent; the sum of the energies needed to expand both solvent and solute in a solution and the energy released from the solvent-solute interactions
heat of solution
the energy required to vaporize one mole of a liquid at a pressure of one atmosphere
heat of vaporization
a plot of temperature versus time for a substance where energy is added at a constant rate
heating curve
a principle stating that there is a fundamental limitation to how precisely both the position and momentum of a particle can be known at a given time
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
an iron complex
heme
a biomolecule composed of four myoglobin-like units (proteins plus heme) that can bind and transport four oxygen molecules in the blood
hemoglobin
an equation giving the relationship between pH of an acid-base system and the concentrations of base and acid: pH = pK_a + log([base]/[acid])
Henderson-Hasselbalch equation
the amount of gas dissolved in a solution is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas above the solution
Henry's law
in going from a particular set of reactants a particular set of products, the enthalpy change is the same whether the reaction takes place in one step or a series of steps; in summary, enthalpy is a state function
Hess's law

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