Glossary of Chapter 9 Questions

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The research design for a quantitative study involves decisions with regard to all of the following except:Which conceptual framework to use,
Whether there will be an intervention,
What types of comparisons will be made,
How many times dat
Which conceptual framework to use
One of the functions of a rigorous research design in quantitative studies, including nonexperimental studies, is to have control over:
Extraneous variables
A true experiment requires all the following except:A) Control B)Manipulation C)Double-blind procedures D) Randomization
Double-blind procedures
When researchers simultaneously manipulate two independent variables, the design is a:
Factorial design
How many hypotheses can be tested in a 2 × 2 factorial design?
The use of a random numbers table for assigning subjects to groups eliminates:
Selection threat
Which of the following must be present in quasi-experimental research?
A)A comparison group
B)Manipulation of a variable C)Matching of subjects
Manipulation of a variable
A one-group pretest-posttest design is an example of a:
Preexperimental design
In order for a researcher to examine interaction effects, which of the following designs must be used? A)A nonequivalent control group design
B)A case-control design
C)A factorial design
D)A prospective design
A factorial design
What feature of a nonequivalent control group design makes it quasi-experimental rather than preexperimental?
The use of a pretest
A pretest is to a posttest as:
The baseline measure is to the outcome measure
One weakness associated with ex post facto research is the:
Problem of self-selection into groups
Which of the following research designs is weakest in terms of the researcher's ability to establish causality?
B)Ex post facto
Ex post facto
In an ex post facto study, as compared with an experimental study, the researcher forfeits control of:
The independent variable
In a study in which medical diagnosis is the independent variable, an ex post facto study is essential because the independent variable:
Inherently cannot be manipulated
If a researcher wanted to describe the relationship between women's age and frequency of performing breast self-examination, the study would be classified as:
Descriptive correlational
Studies that collect data at one point in time are referred to as:
Cross-sectional studies
A study that followed, over a 20-year period, users and nonusers of oral contraceptives to determine if there were any long-term side effects would be called a:
Prospective study
Which of the following designs involves the use of the same subjects at several points in time?
A) Trend study
B) Cross-sectional study C) Panel study
D) All of the above
Panel study
Constancy of conditions is often enhanced through:
Having standard written research protocols
Using the principle of homogeneity to control for extraneous variables has implications for:
Generalizability of the findings
Ways by which a researcher can control extraneous variables in an ex post facto study include all of the following except:
A)Using a homogeneous sampleB)Analysis of covariance
C)Matching subjects
The most effective method of controlling extraneous variables is by:
The researcher must know in advance the extraneous variables that are to be controlled for which of the following procedures?
In a nonequivalent control group design, the most serious threat to internal validity is:
A study is internally valid if:
All alternative explanations of the results can be ruled out
The sampling plan for a research study affects the study's:
Selection threat
Which of the following can reduce the statistical conclusion validity of a study?
Low power
The researcher manipulates the independent variable in experimental research.
The experimental treatment is the dependent variable.
Quasi-experimental research requires the use of a comparison group.
The most effective method for equalizing groups of subjects that are being compared in a study is matching.
The one-group pretest-posttest design is an example of a preexperimental design.
The type of quantitative research that has the least controls associated with it is called quasi-experimental.
In a pretest-posttest design, a researcher collects data from subjects twice.
Preexperimental, quasi-experimental, and experimental research have one common feature: manipulation.
The purpose of both experimental and ex post facto research is to determine the relationships that exist between the variables of interest.
A researcher would choose a nonexperimental approach when ethical constraints prevented manipulation of the independent variable.
A case-control design is typically used in preexperimental studies.
A major weakness of ex post facto research is the risk of making faulty interpretations from the results.
A potential problem in an experimental study is the high risk of self-selection bias.
A study that focused on cognitive development among preterm infants would ideally use a cross-sectional design.
Retrospective designs are stronger in elucidating causal relationships than are prospective designs.
More than one type of research control technique may be used in the same study.
A heterogeneous sample helps to control the influence of extraneous variables in a study.
If there is no constancy of conditions in a study, history becomes a potential threat to its internal validity.
The threat of mortality can arise as a result of differential attrition from groups.
The threat of maturation is one that applies primarily to studies involving children.
The major threat to the internal validity of a case-control study is typically the maturation threat.
One way to weaken the statistical conclusion validity of a study is to use too large a sample.

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