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Glossary of Chapter 7

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____ are a single, highly variable species inhabiting the entire globe
Humans
Though biological processes are responsible for human variation, the biological concept of race (can or cannot) be applied to human diversity.
cannot
The vast majority of _______ variation exists within populations rather than among populations
human
Early European scholars tried to classify _____ _____ into subspecies based on geography and features such as skin color, body size, head shape, and hair texture
Homo sapiens
The 18th-century Swedish naturalist __________ ________ divided humans into subspecies based on geography and classified all Europeans as “white,” Africans as “black,” American Indians as “red,” and Asians as “yellow.”

Carolus Linnaeus
_______ _______ divided humans into Caucasian, American Indian, Ethiopians, Mongolians, and Malays
Johann Blumenbach
Historical efforts at classifying humans into higher and lower forms were based on _______ errors and ________ prejudices.
factual
ethnocentric
The notion of superior and inferior ______ has been used to justify brutalities ranging from repression to slavery, mass murder, and genocide.

races
In biology, the taxonomic category of _______ is not applicable to humans because the division of humans into discrete types does not represent the true nature of human biological variation.
subspecies
In some societies, race is an important _______ category.

social
In biology, a ______ is a population differing geographically, morphologically, or genetically from other populations of the same species
race
Any one race does not have exclusive possession of any particular variant of any _____.
gene or genes
The differences among individuals and within a population are generally (less/greater) than the differences among populations.

greater
A doctrine of superiority by which one group justifies the dehumanization of others based on their distinctive physical characteristics is what?
racism
what is not just about discriminatory ideas, values, or attitudes; but is also a political problem?
racism
______ conflicts result from social stereotypes, not known scientific facts.

racial
Many people have assumed there are _______ differences among human races.

behavioral
The innate _______ characteristics attributed to race can be explained in terms of experience as well as a hierarchical social order.

behavioral
In the United States, ________________ was used in the 20th century to try to establish racial differences in intelligence.

IQ testing
It is not possible to separate inherited components of ________ from those that are culturally acquired.

intelligence
The expression of _____ always occurs in an environment. _______ shapes all aspects of the environment.

genes
Culture
what has these several factors:
-transparency or thickness of the skin
-distribution of blood vessels
-amount of carotene and melanin




Skin color
________ ________ has favored darkly-pigmented skin as protection against strong solar radiation of equatorial latitudes
Natural selection
In ________ latitudes, natural selection has favored lighter skin, which allows weaker solar radiation to penetrate the skin and aid in production of vitamin D.
northern
Human ____ ____ change in response to external factors
gene pools
In times of scarcity, individuals with the _______ _______ conserve glucose (a simple sugar) for use in brain and red blood cells as well as nitrogen (vital for growth and health).

thrifty genotype
Regular access to _______ through the lactose in milk led to selection for the non-thrifty genotype as protection against adult-onset diabetes.

glucose
At least 51 chemicals, many in common use, are known to ______ hormones
disrupt
________ __________ ________ that make plastics are used in plumbing, food processing, and food packaging.
hormone disrupting chemicals that make plastics

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