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Glossary of Chapter 6 Vocab

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A written document sent to someone outside of a company, usually formal in style and tone.
Business Letter
The words a person understands when he or she reads them or hears them spoken.
Recognition Vocabulary
Barganing through persuasion rather than argument to resolve disputes between two or more individuals or groups.
Negotiation
Sending and receiving messages; and exchange of thoughts, ideas, and beliefs between two or more people.
Communication
To supervise or check for accuracy.
Monitor
Words a person uses in speech or writing.
Active Vocabulary
To encourage or make something easier to accomplish.
Facilitate
The words that surround a particular word or passage that can shed light on the meaning of the word or passage.
Context
A note sent within a company used to aid the memory of the recipient, usually concerning office matters in a company.
Memorandum
A change in tone or pitch of a person's voice used to convey meaning.
Inflection
A clash or struggle that sometimes occurs when individuals or groups have different points or view.
Conflict
Facial expressions and body positions that relay a person's feeling.
Nonverbal Communication
A reaction or response to what is said, including verbal and nonverbal communication.
Feedback
The ability to understand another person's feelings and motives.
Empathy
To pull away from a volatile situation and give the other party time to cool off before attempting to resolve the conflict.
Withdrawal
A listening technique that requires the listener to repeat the speaker's ideas or thoughts in his or her own words.
Paraphrasing
An objective, third party expert used to help solve disputes.
Arbitrator
When each member of a negotiation gives up some of its demands and meets the other side halfway.
Compromise
Abductors
Muscles that separate the fingers.
Abductor Hallucis
Musles of the foot that moves the toes and help maintain balance while walking and standing.
Adductors
Muscles at the base of each fingers that draw the fingers together.
Abdctor Hallucis
Muscles of the foot that moves the toes and help maintain balance while walking and standing.
Anabolism
Constructive metabolism; the process of building up larger molecules from smaller ones.
Angular Artery
Supplies blood to the side of the nose.
Anatomy
Study of the body structure that can be seen with the naked eye, and what they are made up of; the science of the strucre of organisms, or of their parts.
Anterior Auricular Artery
Supplies of the front part of the ear.
Anterior Tibial Artery
See "Popliteal Artery"
Divides into two separate arteries know as the anterior tibial and the posterior tibial. goes to the goot and becomes the dorsalis pedis which supplies the goot with blood.
Anterior Tibial Nerve
See "Deep Peroneal Nerve"
A nerve that exteds down the front of the leg, behind the muscles. It supplies impulses to thses muscles and also to the muslcle and skin on the top of the foot and adjacent sides of the first and second toes.
Arteries
Thick walled, muscular, flexible tubes that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the capillaries.
Atrium
The upper thin walled chambers of the heart.
Auricularis Anterior
Muscles in front of the ear that draws the ear forward.
Auricularis Posterior
Muscles behind the ear that draws the ear backwards.
Auricularis Superior
Muscle above the ear that draws the ear upwards.
Auriculotemporal Nerve
Affects the external ear and skin above the temple, up to the top of the skull.
Autonomic Nervous System
The part of the nervous systme that controls the involutary muscles, regulates the action of the smooth muscles, glands, blood vessles, and the heart.
Axon
The extention of a neuron by which impulses are sent away from the nerve cell.
Belly (Muscle)
Middle part of a muslce.
Bicep
Muscle producing the contour of the front and inner side of the upper arm.
Blood
Fluid circulation through the circulatory system (Heart, venins, arteries, and capillaries)
Blood Vascular System
Group of structures (heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries) that distribute blood throughout the body.
Body Systems
Groups of bodily organs action together to perform one or more functions. The human body is composed of 10 major systems.
Brain
Part of the central nervous system contained in the cranium; larges and most comlex nerve tissue; controls sensation, muscles, gland activity, and the power to think and feel emotions.
Buccal Nerve
Affects the muscles of the mouth.
Buccinator Muscles
Thin, flat muscle of the cheek between the upper and lower jaw that compresses the cheek and expels air between the lips.
Cappilaries
Thin walled blood vessels that connect the smaller arteries to the veins.
Cardiac Muscle
The involutary muscle that is the heart.
Carpus
The wrist; flexible joint compsed of a group of eight small, irregular bones held together by ligaments.
Catabolism
The pahse of metabolism that involves the breaking down of complex compounds within the cell into smaller ones resulting in the release of energy to perform function such as muscular movements or digestion.
Cell
Basic unit of all living things, minute mass of protoplasm capable of performing all the fendametal functions of life.
Cell Membrane
Part of the cell that encloses the protoplasm and permits soluble substnaces to enter and leave the cell.
Central Nervous System
Consist of the brain, spinal cord, spinal nerves, and cranial nerves.
Cervical Cutaneous Nerve
Located at the side of the nect and the platysma muscle.
Circulatory System
System thta controls the steady circulation of the blood through the body by means of the heart and blood vessles.
Clavicle
Collarbone; bone joining the sternum and scapula.
Common Carotid Artery
Artery that supplies blood to the face, head and neck.
Common Peoneal Nerve
A division of the sciatic nerve thta extends from behind the knee to wind around the head of the fibula to the front of the leg where it divides into two branches.
Connective Tissue
Fibours Tissue that binds together, protects, and supports the various parts of the body such as bone, cartilage, and tendons.
Corrugator Muscle
Muscle located beneath the frontalis and orbicularis oculi that draws the eyebrow down and wrinkles the forehead vertically.
Cranium
An oval, body case that protects the brain.
Cytoplasm
All the protopalsm of a cell except that which is in the nucleus; the watery fluid that contains food material necessary for growth, reproduction, and self repair of the cell.
Deltoid
Large Triangular muscle covering the shoulder joint that allows the arm to extend outward and to the side of the body.
Dendrites
Tree like branching of the never fibers extending from a nerve cell; short nerve fibers that carry impulses towards the cell.
Depressor Labii Inferioris
Muscle surrounding the lower lip; depresses the lower lip and draws it to one side.
Diaphragm
Muscular wall that separates the thorax from the abdomianal region and helps control breathing.
Digestive System
The mouth, stomach, intestines, and salivary and gastric glands that change food into nutrients and wastes.
Digit
A finger or toe.
Digital Nerve
Nerve that, with its brances, supplies the finger and toes.
Dorsal
A nerve that extends up from the toe and foot, just under the skin, suppieing impulses to toes and foot, as well as athe muscles and skin of the leg, where it is called the superficial peroneal nerve or the musculo cutaneous nerve.
Dorsal Cutaneous Nerve
see "Dorsal"
Dorsalis Pedis Artery
See " Popliteal"
Endocrine (ductless) Gland
Ductless glands that release hormonal secretions directily into the blood stream.
Endocrine System
Group of specialized glands that affect the growth, development, sexual activiteies, and health of the entire body.
Epicranial Aponeurosis
Tendon that connects the occipitalis and frontalis.
Epicranius
The broad muscle that covers the top of the skull consistes of the occipitalis and frontalis.
Epithelial Tissue
Protective covering on body surfaces, such as the skin, mucous membranes, and the lining of the heart, digestive and respitory organs, and glands.
Ethomoid Bone
Light spongy bone between the eye socket and forms part of the nasal cavities.
Excretory System
Group of organs including the kidneys, liver, skin , intestines, and lungs, that purify the body by the elimination of matter.
Exhalation
The act of breahing outwards, expelling carbon dioxide from the lungs.
Exocine (Duct) Glands
Duct Glands that produce a substance that travels through small tuve like ductsw, such as the sudoriferous (sweat glands and the sebaceous oil glands)
Extensors
Mucles that straighten the wrist, hand , and fingers to form a straight line.
Extensor Digitorum Brevis
Muscle of the foot that moves the toes and helps maintain balance while walking and standing.
Extensor Digitorum Longus
Muscles that bends the foot up and extends the toes.
External Carotid Artery
Supplies blood to the anterior (front) parts of the scalp , ear,face, neck, and side of the head.
External Jugular Vein
Vein located at the side of the nect that caries blood returning to the heart from the head, face and neck.
Facial Artery
Suppies blood to the lower region of the face. mouth and nose.
Femur
A heavy, long bone that forms the leg above the knee.
Fifth Cranial Nerve AKA : Traifacial or Trigeminal
The Chief sensory nerve of the fave, and serves, as the motor nerve of the muscle that controls chewing.
Flexors
Extensor muscles of the foot that moves the toes and helps maintian balance while walking and standing.
Flexor Figitorum Brevis
Muslce of the foot that move the toes and help maintian balance while walking and standing.
Flexor ***
Extensor mucles of the wrist involved in flexing the wrist.
Fibula
The smaller of the two bones from the leg below the keen. The fibula may be vissualized as a "bump" on the little-toe side of the ankle.
Fifth cranial nerve (also known as thifacial or trugminal)
The chief sensory nerve of the face, and serves as the motor nerve of the muscles that control chewing.
Frontal Artery
Supplies blood to the forehead and upper eyelids.
Frontal Bone
Forms the forehead.
Frontalis
Anterior (front) portionof the epicranius; muscles of the scalp that raises the eyebrows, draws the scalp forward, and causes wrinkles across the forehead.
Gastrocmemius
Muscle that is attached to the lower rear surface of the heel and pulls the foot down.
Glands
Specialized organs that remove certain constituents from the blood to convert them into new substances.
Greater Auricular Nerve
Located at the side of the nect, affects the face, ears, neck, and parotid gland.
Greater Occipital Nerve
Located at the back of the head, affects the scalp as far up as the top of the head.
Heart
Muscular cone shaped organ thta keeps the blood moving within the circulotory system.
Hemoglobin
Iron containing protien in red blood cells that binds to oxygen.
Histology
Science of the minute structures of organis tissues; microscopic anatomy.
Hormones
Secretions produced by one of the endocrine glands and carried by the bloodstream or body fluidd to another parto of the body to stimulate a specific activity.
Humerus
Uppermost and larges bone in the arm, extending from the elbow to the shoulder.
Hyoid Bone
U shaped bone at the base of the tongue that supports the tongue and its muscles.
Inferior Labial Artery
Suppiles blood to the lower lip.
Infraorbital Artery
Supplies blood to the mucles of the eyes.
Infraorbital Nerve
Affects the skin of the lower eyelid, side of the nose, upper lip, and mouth.
Infratochlear Nerve
Nerve that affects the membrane and skin of the nose.
Inhalation
Breathing of air.
Insertion
Part of the muscle at the more moveable attachment to the skeleton.
Integumentary System
The skin and its accessory organs, such as the oil and sweat glands, sensory receptors, hair, and nails.
Internal Carotid Artery
Supplies blood the the brain, eye, and eyelids, forehead, nose, and internal ear.
Internal Juglar Vein
Vein located at the side of the neck to collect blood form the brain and parts of the face and neck.
Joint
Connection between two or more bones of the skeleton.
Lacrimal Bones
Small, thin bones located at the front inner wall of the orbits (eye sockets)
Latissimus Dorsi
Broad, flat superficail muscle covering the back of the neck and upper and middle region of the back, controlling the sholder blade and the swinging movements of the arm.
Levator Angulis Oris
Also known as caninus, a muscle that raises the angle of the mouth and draws it inward.
Levator Labii Superiorus
Also known as quadratus labii superiorus, a muscles surrounding the upper lip; elevates the upper lip and dilates the nostrils as in expressing distaste.
Liquid Tissue
Body tissue that carries food, waste products and hormones, (blood and lymph)
Lungs
Spongy tissues composed of microscopic cells in which inhaled air is exchanged for carbon dioxide.
Lymph
Clear yellowish fluids that circulate in the lymph spaces (lymphatic) of the body; carries waste and impurities away form the cell.
Lymph Nodes
Special structures found inside the lymphatic vessels that filter lymph.
Lymph Vascular System
Body system that acts as an aid to the blodo system and consists of the lymph spaces, lymph vessles, and lymph glands.
Mandible
Lower jawbone; largest and strongest bone of the face.
Mandibular Nerve
Affects the muscle of the chin and lower lip.
Masseter
Muscles that coordinate with the temporalis muscles in opering and closing the mouth, and are sometimes referred to as chewing muscles.
Macillae (Singular: Maxilla)
Bones of the upper Jaw.
Maxillary Nerve
Branch of the fifth cranial nerve that supplies the upper part of the face.
Median Nerve
Nerve that supplies the arm and hand.
Mental Nerve
Affects the skin of the lower lip and chin.
Mentalis
Muscles that elevates the lower lip and raises and wrinkles tha skin of the chin.
Metabolism
Chemical process taking place in living organisms whreby the cells are nourished and carry out thier activities.
Metacarpus
Bones of the palm of the hand; parts of the hand containing five bones between the carpus and phalanges.
Metatarsal
One of three subdivision of the foot comprised of five bones, which are long and slender, like the metacarpal bones of the hand, help make up the foot, All three subdivisions comprise 26 bones.
Middle Temporal Artery
Supplies blood to the temples.
Mitosis
Nerves that carry impulses from the brain to the muscles.
Motor Nerves
Nerves that carry impulses from the brain to the muscles.
Muscular Systems
Body systems that covers, shapes, and supports the skeleton tissue, contracts and moves various parts of the body.
Muscular Tissue
Tissue that contracts and moves part of the body.
Myology
Science of the nature, structure, function, and Diseases of the muscles.
Nasal Bones
Bones that form the bridge of the nose.
Nasal Nerve
Affects the point and lower side of the nose.
Nerves
Whitish cords made up of bundles of nerve fibers held togethr by connective tissue, through which impulses are transmitted.
Nerve Tissue
Tissue that controls and coordinates all body functions.
Nervous System
Body systems compsoed of the brain, spinal cord, and nerve, controls and coordinates all other systems and makes them work harmoniously and efficiently.
Neuron
Nerve cells; basic unit of the nervous system, consiting of cell body, nucleus dendrites, and axon.
Neurology
Science of the structure, function, and pathology of the nervous system.
Nonstrialted Muscles
Also clled involuntary or smooth muscle that functions automatically without conscious will.
Nucleus
Dense, active protoplasm found in the center of the cell, plays an important part in cell reproduction and metalbolism.
Occipital Artery
Supplies blood to the skin and muslces of the scalp and back of the head up to the crown.
Occipital Bone
Hindmost bone of the skull, below the parietal bones; forms the back of the skull above the nape.
Occipitalis
Back of the epicranius, muscle that draws the scalp backwards.
Ophthalmic Nerve
Branch of the fifth cranial nerve that supplies the skin of the forehead, upper eyelids, and interior portion of the scalp, orbit, eyeball and nasal passage.
Orbicularis Aculi Muscle
Ring of the eye socket, enables you to close your eyes.
Orbicularis Oris Muscle
Flat band around the upper and lower lip that compresses, contracts, pukers, and wrinkles the lips.
Organs
Structures comjpsed of specialized tissues and performing specific functions.
Origin
Part of the muscle that does not move ; iti is attached to the skeleton and is usually part of a skeletal muscle.
OS
Bone
Osteology
Study of anatomy, structure, and function of the bones.
Palatine Bones
Form the floor and outer wall of the nose, roof of the mouth, and floor of the orbits.
Parietal Artery
Supplies blood to the side and crown of the head.
Parietal Bones
Form the sides and top of the cranium.
Patella
Also called the accessory bone, forms the knee cap joint.
Pectoralis Major. Pectoralis Minor
Muscles of the chest that assist the swinging movements of the arm.
Pericardium
double layerd membranous sac enclosing the heart.
Peripheral Nervous System
System of nerves and ganglia that connects the peripheral parts of the body to the central nervous system. it has both sensory and motor nerves.
Peroneus Brevis
Muscles that orginates on thelower surface of the fibula. It bends the foot down and out.
Peoneus Longus
Muscles that covers the outer side of the calf and inverts the foot and turns it outward.
Phalanges
Bones of the fingers or toes (singular: Phalanx)
Plasma
Fluid part of the blood and lymph that carries food and secreations to the cells
Platelests
Blood cells that aid in the forming of clots
Platysma Muscles
Broad Muscle extending from the chest and shoulder muscles to the side of the chin; responsible for lowering the lower jaw and lip.
Platelets
Blood cells that aid in the forming of clots
Platysma Muscle
Broad Muscle extending from the chest and shoulder muscles to the side of the chin; respondible for lowering the lower jaw and lip.
Popliteal Artery
Divides into two separeat arteries known as the anterior tibial and the posterior tibial. The anterior tibial goes to the foot and becomes the dorsalis pedis which supplies the foot with blood.
Posterior Aurcular Nerve
Affects the musles behind the ear at the base of the skull.
Posteriror Tibial Artery
See "popliteal Artery"
Precerus
Covers the bridge of the nose, lowers the eyebrow, and cuses wrinkles across the bridge of the nose.
Pronators
Muslces that turn the hand inward so that the palm faces downward.
Protoplasm
Clolorless Jelly like substance found inside cells in which food elemets such as protien, fats, carbohydrates, mireral salts and water are present.
Pulmonary Circulation
BLood Circulation from the heart to lungs to be purified.
Radial Artery
Artery that supples blood the the thumb side of the arm and the back of the hand.
Radial Nerve
Supplies the thumb side of the arm and back of the hand.
Radius
Smaller bone in the forearm on the same side as the thumb.
Red Blood Cells
Blood cells that carry oxygen from the lungs lto the body cells.
Reflex
Automactic nerve reactoin to a stimulus that involves the movement of specific muscles as a response to impuolse carried alon a motor neuron to a muscle causing a spontaneous reaction.
Reproductive System
Body system responsible for processes by which plants and animals produce off spring.
Repiration
Act of breathing; the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the lings and wihin each cell.
Respitory System
Body system consisting of the lung and ir passages, anbles breathing, supplying the body with oxygen and elimiating carbon dioxide wastes.
Ribs
Twelve pairs of bones forming the wall of the thorax
Risorius
Muscles of the mouth that draws the corner of the mouth out and back as in grinning.
Sapheneous Nerve
Supplies impulses to the skin of the inner of the leg and foot.
Scapula
One of a pair of shoulder blades; a large, flat, triangular bone of the shoulder.
Sensory Nerve
Nerves that carry impulses or message from the sense organs to the brain, where sensations of touch cold heat sight hearing taste smell pain and pressure are experienced.
Serratus Anterior
Muscles of the chest that assists in breathing and in raising the arm.
Skeletal System
Physical foundation of the body, comprised of 206 bones that vary in size and shape and are connected by movable and immovable joints.
Smaller Occipital Nerve
Located at the base of the skull, affectes the scalp and muscles behind the ear.
Soleus
Muscles that orginates at the upper portion of the fibula and bends the foot down.
Soleus Muscles
Muscles that orginates at the upper portion of the fubula and bends the foot down
Sphenoid Bone
Joins all of the bones of the cranium together.
Spinal Cord
The Portion of the central nervous system that orginatesin the brain, extends down ot the lower extremity of the trunk and is protected by the spinal colum.
Sternocleidomastoideus
Muscle of the nect that lowers and rotates the head.
Sternum
Breastbone, flat bone that forms the ventral (Front Support of the ribs.
Straited Muscles
Also called boluntary or skeleta muscles tha is consciously controlled.
Submental artery
Supplies blood to the chin and lower lip.
Superficial Peronial Nerve
A nerve that wxtedns down the leg, just under the skin supplying impuolses to the muscles and the skin of the leg, as well as to the skin and toes on the top of the foot.
SuperFicial Temporal Artery
Artery that suplies blood to the muscles of the front side and top of the head.
Superior labial Artery
Supplies blood to the upper lip and region of the nose.
Supinator
Muscles of the forearm that rotate the radius outward and the palm upwards.
Supraoribital Nerve
Affects the skin of the forehead, scalp eyebrow, and upped eyelid.
Supratrochlear Nerve
Affects the skin between the eyes and upper side of the nose.
Sural Nerve
Supplies impulses to the skin on the outer side and back of the foot and leg.
Systemic Circulation
Ciruclation of blood form the heart throughout the body and back again to the heart, also called the general circulation.
Talus
one of the three bones that comprise the ankle joint, the other two bones are the tibia and fibula.
Tarsal
One of the three subdivisions of hte foot comprised of seven bones(talus, navicular, three cuneiform bones, and the cuboid) all three subdividoins comprise 26 bones.
Temporal Bone
Form the sides of the head in the ear region.
Temporal nerve
Affects the muscle of the tmeple, side of hte forehead, eyebrow, eyelid, and upper part of the cheek.
Temporalis
Temporal muscle; one of hte muscle involved in mastication (chewing)
Thorax
The chest; elastic; bony cage that serves as a protective fremworkfor the heart, lungs, and other internal organs.
Tibia
The larger of the two bones that form the leg below the knee. The tibia may be visualized as a "bump" on the big toe side of the ankle.
Tibial Nerve
A division of the scaitic neve that pases behind theknee, it subdivides and supplies impulses to the knee, the muscle o fthe calf the skin of the leg and the sole heel and underside of the toes.
Tibialis Anterior
Muscles that cover the font of the shin It bends the foot upward and inwards.
Tissue
Collectoin of similar cells that perform a prticular function
Transverse Facial Artery
Supplies blood the the skin and masseter.
Trapezius
Muscle that covers the back of the nect and uppper and middle region of the back, rotates and controls swining movements of the arm.
Triangularis
Muscle extending alonside the chin that pulls down the corner of the mouth.
Tricep
Large muscle that covers the entire back of hte upper arm and extends the forearm
Turbinal Bones
Thin Layers of Spongy Bones on either of the outer walls of he nasal depression.
Ulna
Inner and larger bone of hte forearm. attached to the wrist and locatedon the side of hte little finger.
Ulnar Artery
Artery that supplies blood to the muscle of hte littel finger side of the arm and palm of the hand.
Valves
Structures that temporarily clase a passage, or permit blood to flow in one direction only...
Veins
Thin Walled blood vesseles that are lesse elastic than arteries; veins contian cup like valves to prevent backflow and carry impre blood back to the various capilaties back to the heart and lungs.
Ventricle
The lower thick walled chambers of the heart.
Vamer Bone
Flat thin bone that forms part of the nasal septum.
White Blood Cells
Blood cells that perfom the function of destroying disease causeing micro organisms.
Zygonatic/Malar bones
Form the promenence of the cheeks, cheekbones.
Zygomatic Nerve
Affects the muscle of the upper part of the cheek.
Zygomaticuz
Muscle extending from the zygomatic bone to the angle of the mouth, elevate the lip as in laughing.
FINITO!!!!! :)
;P

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