Glossary of Chapter 5 AP PSYCH
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- The process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment.
- The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events.
- Bottom-Up Processing
- Analysis that begins with the sense receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information.
- Top-Down Processing
- Information processing guided by higher-level mental processes as when we construct peceptions drawing on ou experience and expectations.
- The study of relatioships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them.
- Absolute Threshold
- The minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time.
- Signal Detection Theory
- A theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus amid background stimulation.
- Below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness
- Weber's Law
- The principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage.
- Sensory Adaptation
- Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation.
- Conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies into neural impulses.
- Determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as color names blue, green, and so forth.
- The distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next.
- The amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, determined by the wave's amplitude.
- The adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters
- A ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening
- The transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina.
- The process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina.
- The light sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information.
- The sharpness of vision
- A condition in which nearby objects are seen more clearly than distant objects because distant objects focus in front of the retina
- A condition in which faraway objects are seen more clearly than near objects because the image of near objects is focused behind the retina.
- Retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision when cones don't respond.
- Receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.
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