Glossary of Chapter 5 AP PSYCH

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The process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment.
The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events.
Bottom-Up Processing
Analysis that begins with the sense receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information.
Top-Down Processing
Information processing guided by higher-level mental processes as when we construct peceptions drawing on ou experience and expectations.
The study of relatioships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them.
Absolute Threshold
The minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time.
Signal Detection Theory
A theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus amid background stimulation.
Below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness
Weber's Law
The principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage.
Sensory Adaptation
Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation.
Conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies into neural impulses.
Determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as color names blue, green, and so forth.
The distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next.
The amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, determined by the wave's amplitude.
The adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters
A ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening
The transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina.
The process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina.
The light sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information.
The sharpness of vision
A condition in which nearby objects are seen more clearly than distant objects because distant objects focus in front of the retina
A condition in which faraway objects are seen more clearly than near objects because the image of near objects is focused behind the retina.
Retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision when cones don't respond.
Receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.

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