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Glossary of Chapter 5 AP PSYCH

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Created by diamondzgirl99

Sensation
The process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment.
Perception
The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events.
Bottom-Up Processing
Analysis that begins with the sense receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information.
Top-Down Processing
Information processing guided by higher-level mental processes as when we construct peceptions drawing on ou experience and expectations.
Psychophysics
The study of relatioships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them.
Absolute Threshold
The minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time.
Signal Detection Theory
A theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus amid background stimulation.
Subliminal
Below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness
Weber's Law
The principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage.
Sensory Adaptation
Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation.
Transduction
Conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies into neural impulses.
Hue
Determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as color names blue, green, and so forth.
Wavelength
The distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next.
Intensity
The amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, determined by the wave's amplitude.
Pupil
The adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters
Iris
A ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening
Lens
The transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina.
Accommodation
The process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina.
Retina
The light sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information.
Acuity
The sharpness of vision
Nearsightedness
A condition in which nearby objects are seen more clearly than distant objects because distant objects focus in front of the retina
Farsightedness
A condition in which faraway objects are seen more clearly than near objects because the image of near objects is focused behind the retina.
Rods
Retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision when cones don't respond.
Cones
Receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.

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